Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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298 [297]

K. Henry.3. Trouble about the Popes cruell exactions.

publike, and of the whole Church in generall. Declaryng moreouer the cause of this feare to ryse hereof, for that in other realmes such communication hath bene with Bishops and prelates, for the procuryng of such prebendships, where as neither the prince nor the subiects were made any thing priuy therto.

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MarginaliaInferiors euer more bolde to speake in difficulte causes of truth, thē the rich.In conclusion, when the matter came to debating with the Legate, the obiections of the inferiour parties, agaynst the cruell exaction, were these in briefe effect, as is in Parisiens. noted.

MarginaliaThe obiections of the clergie of Fraunce, agaynst the popes exaction.First they alleged their great dammages and expenses which they were lyke to susteine therby by reason of þe continuall procurators of the Pope, which in euery diocesse must liue not of their owne, but must be susteyned vpon the charges of the Cathedrall Churches and other Churches also: And many tymes they beyng but procurators wilbe found as Legates.

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Item, by that meanes, they sayd great perturbations might ensue to the Couentes and Chapters of Cathedrall churches in their elections: for so much as the Popes agents and factors, beyng in euery cathedrall Church & chapter house, percase the Pope would commaund hym in hys person to be present at their elections, and so might trouble the same: in delaying and deferryng till it might fall to the court of Rome to geue. And so should be placed mo of the Popes clientele in the churches of Fraunce, then of þe proper inhabitance of the land.

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Item, by this meanes they affirmed, that all they in the court of Rome should be richer and should receiue more for their proportion, then the kyng of the realme: by reason of which aboundance of riches, it was lyke to come to passe, that as the worme of rich men is pride: so by the meanes of this their riches, the court of Rome would delay and dryue of great sutes, and scarse would take any paynes wt small causes: the experiment wherof is euident, for that now also they vse to delay their matters when they come with their giftes, and beyng in assuraunce to receaue. And thus should iustice stand aside, and poore suters die at the gates of the court of Rome, thus flowyng and triumphyng in full abūdaunce of all treasure and riches.

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Item, for so much as it is mete and conuenient to haue frendes in the Courte of Rome, for the better speadyng of their causes: therfore they thought to kepe thē nedy, wherby their giftes may be the sweeter and their causes sooner dispatched.

Item, when as it is impossible the fountaine of greedy desire to be stopped, it was to be feared, that eyther they would do that by other, which they were wont to do by thē selues: or els they should be enforced to geue greater rewards then before. For small giftes in the sight of great rich men are not loked vpon.

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Item, where he alledged the remouing away of þe slaūder which goeth on the court of Rome: By this means rather the contrary were to be feared: wherin they alledged þe sentence of the verse, that great riches stop not the taking of much, but a mynde contented with a little.


Quod virtus reddit, non copia sufficientem.
Et non paupertas sed mentis hiatus egentem.

Farther they alleged that great riches would make the Romanes mad: and so might kyndle among them sides and partes taking, so that by great possessions sedition might follow, to the ruine and destruction of the city: wherof some experiment they had alredy.

Item, they added that although they woulde condescende and oblige themselues to that contribution, yet their successours would not so be bound, nor yet, ratifie the bonde of theyrs.

Lastly thus they conclude the matter, desiring hym that the zeale of the vniuersal church and of the church of Rome would moue hym. For if this oppressiō of the church should be vniuersall: MarginaliaGod graunt say we.it were to be doubted, least an vniuersall departyng might folow from the church of Rome (which god forbid say they) should happen.

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The legate hearyng these wordes, beyng therwith somthing moued, as semed, thus excused himselfe: that he being in the court, neuer agreed to this exaction. And that the letters hereof came not to him before he was in Frāce, wherat he sayd he was greatly sory. Adding this with all, that the wordes of hys precept included this secrete meaning in them, thus to be vnderstande and taken: so farre forth as the Empire and other realmes would agree vnto the same. MarginaliaThe cardinall repulsed, and defeyted of his purpose in Fraunce.And as for hym, he woulde stirre no more in the matter, before it were proued, what other countreys woulde say and do therein.

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And thus much concernyng the second part of the blynd commission of this legate, touching hys exaction of prebēships in euery cathedral and conuentual church: Wherin as ye heare, he was repulsed. Ex Mat. Parisi. pag 63.

MarginaliaEx Math. Parisiens. Pag. 638.Now to returne to the first part of his commissiō again, which was concerning Reimundus the godly erle of Tholouse, thus the story procedeth. 

Commentary  *  Close
Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade was a response to the Cathar 'heresy' flourishing principally in the Languedoc region of France and in Italy. This was the first crusade against a Christian region and resulted in the successful extermination of the Cathars. The situation was more complex than Foxe details here, with political and religious priorities making the Crusade a complex event. For an outline of these complexities, especially its connection to England see Nicholas Vincent, 'England and the Albigensian Crusade', in Björn Weiler and Ifor W. Rowlands (ed.), England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III 1216-1272 (Aldershot, 2002), pp. 67-85.

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Foxe's concentration on the Siege of Toulouse taken from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 51-7 and ending with a description of the history of the persecution taken from Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 57, 105-119 presents the Cathars and Count Raymond VI of Toulouse as holding 'true' doctrines and being unfairly treated by the machinations of the papacy. There were, in fact, a variety of differences in the dualistic and Gnostic doctrines of the Cathars to the beliefs of the Protestant reformers, however Foxe uses the lack of detailed documentation available to him to his advantage, by having previously stated that 'what these Albingenses were, it can not be wel gathered by the old popishe histories' (1570, f. 341). Instead Foxe concentrates on how the Papacy through greed, trickery and hatred forced the French to persecute the Cathars as they had done on a variety of other occasions. Thus Foxe uses the Albigensian Crusade as a characterisation assassination of the papacy and its legates.

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In-between this account Foxe has added accounts of events going on in England at the same time largely taken from his favoured sources the Chronica Majora, Flores Historiarum and Nicholas Trivet. This includes the arrival of the Minorities to England from Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 60-1, Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, pp. 187-8 and Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), p. 211, Stephen Langton's holding of a meeting at Oxford from Nicholas Trivet, p. 210, an introduction to Hubert de Burgh from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 71-3, 291, with whom Foxe would deal in detail after the Albigensian crusade, general conflicts between the Bishops of London and Westminster and bad storms across the country also from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 74-75 and the Flores Historiarum, vol. 2, pp. 172-5. As an introduction to the Albigensian persecution Foxe also described Louis IX (ruled 1226-1270) becoming king of France from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, p. 77, Flores Historiarum, vol. 2, pp. 177-8 and Nicholas Trivet, p. 212.

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From other sources Foxe mentioned the building of Salisbury Minster from Arundel MS 5 (which Foxe names Scala Mundi) and the reaffirmation of Magna Charta from The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 162-173. Guisborough was probably the most detailed account of Magna Charta available to Foxe, however he did not solely rely on it for his account. He took from Robert Fabian, The New Chronicles of England and France, ed. Henry Ellis (London, 1811), p. 326 a corrective on the dating of the affirmation.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaThe pope rayseth war agaynst the Earle & the people of Tholouse.That while the legate was in hand with this matter of the popes money, in the meane season certaine preachyng friers were directed by the said Romanus the Popes Legate, into all Fraunce: to incite & stirre vp the Frenchmen to take the crosse vpon them, and to war agaynst the Erle of Tholouse, and the people thereof whome they accounted then for heretikes. At the preachyng wherof, a great number of prelates and lay men signed themselues with the crosse, to fight agaynst the Tholosians: beyng therto induced, as the story saith, more for feare of the French kyng, or fauor of the legate, then for any true zeale of iustice. For so it followeth in the wordes of Paris. MarginaliaTestimony of the autor for the clearing of Reimundus & of the AlbingēsesVidebatur enim multis abusio, vt hominem fidelem Christianum inferstarent: præcipue cum constaret cunctis eum in concilio nuper Bituriensi, multis precibus persuasisse legato, vt veniret ad singulas terræ suæ ciuitates, inquirens a singulis articulos fidei: & si quempiam contra fidem inuenire. &c. i. For to many, sayth he, it semeth an abuse, to moue war agaynst a faythfull christen man: especially seyng in þe councell of Bitures (before all men) he intreated the Legate with great instaunce, that he would come into euery Citie wythin his dominions. And there to require of euery person the articles of hys fayth. Where if he founde any man to holde any thyng contrary to the Catholicke fayth, he promised a full satisfaction to be had thereof accordyng to the censure of the Church, to the vttermost. &c.

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MarginaliaThe vnreasonable tyrany of the pope agaynst the Tholossians.Yet all this notwithstandyng, the proude Legate conteining this so honest and reasonable purgatiō of the earle Reimundus, ceased not by all maner meanes to prosecute the Popes fury against him and hys subiectes, stirring vp the kyng and the French men vnder payne of excommunication, to warre agaynst them. Ludouike the Frēch king thus beyng enforced by the Legate, answered agayne, that he for hys owne safety would not atchiue that expeditiō or aduenture agaynst the Earle, vnles it were first obteyned of the Pope, to write to the king of England: commaundyng hym, that during þe tyme of that expedition, he should inuade and molest no peece of hys landes and possessions: which he the same present tyme did hold, whether by right or by wrong, or howsoeuer they were holdē, while the time of the sayd warre against the heretikes (as they were thē termed) did indure: but rather should ayde and assist hym wyth counsaile and money, in that entreprise. All which beyng done and accomplished, the French kyng and the Legate, (crossing themselues to the field) apointed a day pereinptory, for the French army to meete together at Lyons, MarginaliaExcōmunicatiō abused.vnder payne of the Popes excommunication, & wyth horse and harnes to set vpon the Tholossians, agaynst the Ascension day next ensuyng.

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MarginaliaLewes the French kyng & Romunus the Popes Legate, marching against Albingenses.When the Ascension day was come, which was the day peremptory appointed: The French kyng hauing prepared at Lyons all thyngs necessary for hys armye, marcheth forward with a great and myghty host: after whom also commeth the Legate, wyth hys Byshops and Prelates. The number of fightyng men in hys armie besides the vitlars and wagoners were. 50000. men. MarginaliaReimundus Erle of Tholouse excommunicated.The Legate by the way openly excommunicated the Earle of Tholouse, & all that tooke hys part, and furthermore interdicted hys whole land. Thus the kyng came marching forward, tyll he came into the prouince of Tholouse, and the first Citie which they came vnto there of the Earles, was Auinion. Which city they thought first to haue besiged, & so in order after, as they went to haue destroyed & wasted all þe whole prouince belonging to the Earle. And first þe kyng demaūded of them to haue hys passage through their citie, fainyng hymselfe in peaceable wise for the expedition of his iourney, but to passe through the same. The citizens cōsulting with themselues what was to be done, at length gaue aunswere that they mistrusted their comming and supposed that in decept they required the entraunce of their citie and for no necessitie of their iourney. MarginaliaThe citie of Auinion besieged.

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The kyng hereat beyng much offended, sware an othe that he would not depart thence till he had taken the citie: & immediatly in those places where he thought most meete he began to geue sharpe assaultes, wyth all maner of saultable engins: The citizens agayne wythin, manfully defended themselues, casting stone for stone, and shootyng shot for shot, and slew and wounded many of the French men. Thus, when they had long besieged the citie and coulde not winne the same: at length vittayles in the Frenche campe

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beganne
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