Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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345 [344]

K. Henry.3. Guliel. de Sanct. Amore, agaynst the Pope.


Nec diadema triplex, nec sedes sanguine parta,
Nullus honos solij, purpura nulla tui.
Triginta argenteis Christum vendebat Iudas,
Tu Christi vendis corpora plura tui.
Corpora tu vendis Christi paruo ære, polumq;,
Cælestes genios, sidera, Iura, deos.

MarginaliaCertayne preachers in Sueuia.As ye haue heard of the iniquitie & ragyng pride of the popish Church agaynst their lawfull Emperour: now shall ye heare (Christ willyng) how God begynneth to resiste & withstand the corruption of that whorish Church, by styrring vp certaine faythfull teachers in sondry countreys: 

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Opponents of the papacy

This section follows on from the detailed account of the pope's war with Frederick II, by using what is know called the antifraternal tradition to show that there were a variety of learned men writing against the papacy at this time. The antifraternal tradition concerns literary writings that were hostile to fraternal orders from the 1250s to the end of the Middle Ages. Chaucer is perhaps the most well known of these writers today although William of St. Amour is widely acclaimed as inaugurating the tradition. For more information on this form of writing and its connections to the Lollards see Penn R. Szittya, The Anti-fraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature (Princeton, 1986). It is significant that Foxe does not use Chaucer as a main source at any point in his account, and this suggests that Foxe was more interested in lesser-known but similar authors, which could act as a further confirmation of Chaucer as a proto-Protestant, widely accounted in other Elizabethan writings.

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For this particular account Foxe uses various examples from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basil, 1556) such as the preachers of Svenia (pp. 856-7), a Spaniard named Arnold (pp. 799-801), and John Semeca in Germany (p. 801). These authors act as a context for the thirty-nine arguments (signs) of William of St. Amour, which Foxe presents in their entirety to show to the reader that his condemnation and the burning of his books were for beliefs that were in agreement with the reformed church in England. Although the background to William of St. Amour was derived either from Flacius, Catalogus Testium Veritatis pp. 801-5 or Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 598-600 the articles themselves probably came from a manuscript in the collection of Archbishop Matthew Parker. The Arnaldus Bonaevallensis et Aliorum Scripta (CCCC MS 103.8) as described in M.R. James, A descriptive catalogue of the manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (2 vols., Cambridge, 1912) contained William's articles. Its relationship to the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, a collection of Lollard writings collected by John Bale and used by Foxe, suggests a connection also to Bale. Significantly Bale also published information on William of St. Amour in his Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 308-9 from which Foxe might also have derived some of his information. The section ends with further examples of books and scholars who stood against the Pope in the thirteenth century taken from Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 803-4, 806, 872-3 and a brief description of the prophecies of the Dominican friar, Robert Gallus who had similar visions as Hildegard against the spiritual authority of Rome (Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 840-3). Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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As in the countrey of Sueuia, about the tyme of this Emperour. an. 1240. or neare vpon the same, where were many preachers, mentioned in the Chronicle of Vrspergensis, and also in Crantzius Lib. 8. cap. 16. & 18. MarginaliaEx chrō. Aba Vrspurg.
Crantz. lib. 8. Cap. 16.
which preached freely agaynst the Pope. These preachers (as Crantzius sayth) ringyng the Belles, and callyng the Barons in Hallis of Sueuia: there preached that the Pope was an hereticke, & that his Bishops and Prelates were simoniacke and heretikes. And that the inferiour Priestes and Prelates had no autoritie to bynde and loose, but were all seducers. Itē that no Pope, Byshop, or Priest, could restrayne men from their dewty of seruyng and worshipping of God. And therfore such Cities or co$treys, as were then vnder the popes curse, might notwithstandyng lawfully resort to the receauyng of Sacramētes, as well as before. Itē that friers Dominicke, and Frāciscane, did subuert the Church with their preachyng. MarginaliaResistaunce against the Pope no new thyng in Christes church.And as the indulgence of the Pope, & hys popelyngs was of no regard: so that remission, which they dyd preach vnto them, they preached it not from the Pope, but as from the Lord. And thus much I thought here to recite, whereby it may appeare, how the resistyng of the Popes vsurped power & corrupt doctrine, is no new thyng in these dayes in the Church of Christ. &c.

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MarginaliaArnoldus de noua uilla cōdemned of heresie.And not long after these aforesayd, rose vp Arnoldus De noua villa, a Spanyard, and a man famously learned, and a great writer. an. 1250. whom the Pope with his spiritualtie, condemned among heretikes, for holdyng and writyng agaynst the corrupt errours of the popish Church. His teachyng was, that Sathā had seduced all the world from the truth of Christ Iesus. Item that the fayth (which then Christen men were commonly taught) was such a fayth as the deuils had: meanyng belike (as we now affirme) that the papistes do teach onely the historicall fayth, which is the fayth Historiæ nō fiduciæ. Itē, that Christen people (meaning belyke for the most part) are led by the Pope vnto hell. MarginaliaVide librum, de testibus veritatis.Item, that all cloysterers are voyde of charity, and damned: And that they all do falsefie the doctrine of Christ. Item, that the Diuines do euill in mixtyng Philosophy with Diuinitie. Item, that Masses are not to be celebrated. And that they ought not to sacrifice for the dead. Certaine other opinions there be, whiche the slaunderous sectes of Monkes and friers do attribute vnto hym: but (as they are wont in all other to do) rather vpon enuious takyng, then of any iust cause geuen.

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MarginaliaIoānes Semeca, the glose writer to the popes decres excōmunicated.And as this Arnoldus was condemned, so also the same tyme Ioannes Semeca, the glose writer of the Popes decrees, and Prouost of Halberstate was excōmunicated, and depriued of his Prouostshyp: for resistyng Pope Clement the fourth, gatheryng certaine exactions in Germany. And therfore he appealed from the Pope to a generall Councell, and had many great fauorers on his side, till at last both the Pope and he dyed.

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MarginaliaGulielmus de S. Amore.Consquently in this order & number, foloweth the worthy and valiant champion of Christ and aduersary of Antichrist Gulielmus de S. Amore, a master of Paris, & a chief ruler thē of that vniuersitie. This Gulielmus in his tyme had no small a do writyng agaynst the friers, and their hipocrisie. But especially agaynst the beggyng friers, both condemnyng their whole order, and also accusing them as those that did disturbe & trouble all the Churches of Christ by their preachyng in Churches agaynst the will of the ordinaries and pastors, by their hearyng of confessions, and executyng the charges of Curates and pastours in their Churches. All the testimonyes of Scripture that make agaynst Antichrist, he applyeth them agaynst the Clergy of Prelates, and the Popes spiritualtie. The same Gulielmus is thought to be the author of the booke, which is attributed to the schole of Paris, and intituled: De periculis Ecclesiæ. Where he proueth by xxxix. argumentes, that friers be false Apostles.

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MarginaliaThe place of the Gospell expounded. Goe, & sell all & come folow me.Moreouer, he doth well expounde this saying of Christ (if thou wilt be perfect, go and sell away all thou hast, and come follow me) declaryng there pouertie to be inioyned vs of Christ, non actualem, sed habitualem: not in such sorte as standeth in outward action, when no neede requireth, but in inward affect of hart, when neede shall require: As though the meanyng and precept of our Lord were not that we should cast away actually all that we haue but that whē the confession of the name of God & the glory of Christ shall so require: that then we be ready to leaue & relinquish what thynges soeuer, for þe sake of hym &c. As when he requireth, in vs after lyke phrase þe hatred of father & mother, & of our owne liues: he biddeth vs not to dishonour father or mother, much lesse to hate them: but that then, when case shall require, we set all thynges behynde the loue of Christ. Many other worthy workes he compiled, wherein albeit he vttered nothyng but was was truth, MarginaliaGuliel de S. Amore condemned of the pope for an hereticke.yet notwithstandyng he was by Antichrist & his rable, condemned for an hereticke, exiled, & his bookes brent: Whose hereticall argumentes as they called them, that thou mayest better iudge therof, here vnder I thought good to place.

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Agaynst false Prophetes with signes to know them by in these his wordes do follow. For because these seducers sayth he, name themselues to be Apostles, and that they are sent of God to preach, to absolue & dispence with the soules of men, by meanes of their ministery. Read the saying of the Apostle in his second Epistle to the Corinthians, the. xj. chap. For such Apostles are subtile and crafty workemen, disguising themselues to be lyke the Apostles of Christ: Therfore, we meane to shew some certaine infallible tokēs, and probable, by the which false Apostles may be discerned from the true preachers and Apostles of Christ.

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MarginaliaThe first signe and token to know a false Frier and prophet by.The first signe or marke is: that such as be true preachers do not enter into simple womens houses laden with sinne and take them as it were captiue, as many of the false preachers do: as in the second Epistle of S. Paule to Timothy the 3. chapter is manifest, saying: Of these sortes are they, which enter into womens houses. &c. Therfore, those preachers which come into womens houses, to the intent they may take them captiue, be not true preachers, but false Apostles.

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MarginaliaTrue preachers do not deceue men with painted flattering wordes.The second signe and token is, that those that be true preachers do not deceiue simple men with painted and flatteryng wordes, wherby they prefer their owne trash and traditions, as all false Prophetes do, as in the last Chapter to the Romanes appeareth saying: By their pleasaunt and sugred talke, and by their blessyng and crossing they deceiue and beguile the hartes of innocent men and women. Glo. With gay glorious wordes they extol and set forth their traditions, whereby they deceiue simple men. Very greatly do they deceaue the soules of simple men, which cause them to enter into their sect, which they terme Religion. And they which before led a naughty lyfe, by reason of their ignoraūce or simplicitie: after their entrance, become subtile false deceiuyng hypocrites, entryng together with the rest poore into mens houses: yea and oftentymes become worse then the other. Wherupō Math. 22. wo be vnto you Scribes & Pharises, hypocrites which go about. &c: Therfore they which do this, are no true messengers, but false Apostles.

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MarginaliaSigne. 3 is that true Apostles take in good part when they be reproued.The thyrd signe is, that the true Apostles if they be reproued, suffer the same paciently. 2. Cor. 12. saying: the tokens of my Apostleshyp are accomplished among you, in all patience and sufferaunce. He writeth, that pacience which pertaineth to the maners of the preachers. Therfore they which suffer not correction or punishment, be no true Apostles, but rather shew themselues to be no Christians at all. 1 Cor. 12. No man can say that Iesus is the Lord, but by the holy ghost. Glossa. It is meete that Christiās should be humbled, to the intent that they may suffer themselues to be reproued, and not to be holden vp with yea and nay. And also such men do shew themselues to be carnall, and not spirituall at all, although they fayne themselues to be spirituall. Gala. 3. Therefore am I become an enemy vnto you? Notwithstandyng the Glossa. sayth, no carnall man will be reproued although he erre. Wherfore, those preachers which suffer not correction, seeme not to be true Apostles, but false Prophetes.

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MarginaliaThe. 4. Signe is that true preachers commēd not them selues.The fourth signe is, that true Apostles commend not themselues, 2. Cor. 4. For we dare not ioyne our selues, nor yet compare our selues vnto others which commende and boast many of their actes, whē God alloweth none of them at all. Also true prechers although they be in deede prayse worthy for their good desertes: In the consciences of men are they prayse worthy, and not to the outward shew alone. 2. Cor. 3. We commend our selues sayth the Apostle to the consciences of all men: Then they do not commende them selues in comparison of other. Wherfore the glose sayth vpō the same place: those that deserue no commendation but in comparison of other, do chalenge to themselues other mens desartes and prayse: wherefore in the second Epistle of S.

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