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35 [35]

The state of the primitue Churche compared with this latter Church of Rome.

And in the same constitution moreouer, εἰ δὲ καὶ παρὰ κληρικοῦ, ἤ ἄλλον οἰουδήποτε προσέλευσις κατὰ ἐπίσκοπον γένηται, πρῶτον ὁ μητροπολίτης τὸ πρᾶγμα διακρινέτω, καὶ εἰ τίς τοῖς κεκριμένοις ἀντείποι, ἐπὶ τὸν μακαριώτατον ἀρχιεπίσκοπον καὶ πατριάρχην τῆς διοικήσεως ἐκείνης ἀναφερέσθω τὸ πρᾶγμα &c. MarginaliaArchbyshop and Metropolitane not to be both one.If any sute or supplication be brought agaynst a Byshop by a minister, first the Metropolitane to haue the decising of the matter, and if any default shalbe found in the iudgemēt therof, then the hearyng and endyng of the case to be brought before the Archbishop. &c.

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MarginaliaAn Item against the forged Epistles decretall.In this constitution of Iustinian, although the Metropolitane be placed aboue the Byshop, & þe Archbishop aboue the Metropolitane: yet notwithstanding by this is sufficiētly confuted the forged constitution of Clement, Anacletus, Anicetus, Stephanus, and Felix: who in their Epistles decretall, do ioyne together in one forme and order, both Archbishop and Metropolitane, and aboue them both doe place the Patriarch, and aboue the Patriarch, the Apostolical sea, to wit the Byshop of Rome, as may appeare in reading the first Epistle of Clement. In illis autem ciuitatibus. &c. MarginaliaClement Epist. 1.the secōd Epistle of Anacletus, Art. 4. prouinciæ. dist. 99. cap. prouinciæ multo. MarginaliaAnaclet. Epist. 2. art. 4and the Epistle of Anicetus, art. 23. dist. 99. cap. Nulli Archiepiscopi. MarginaliaAniceti Epist. art. 2. Dist. 99 c. Nulli ArchiepiscopiAlso the Epistle of Pope Stephen the first, Art. 5. MarginaliaStepha. Epist. art. 5 (where note by the way, the Gracianus referreth this place of the Epistle to pope Lucius.) Item the Epistle of Pope Felix the second, Art. 12. in which all the foresayd Epistles, this order and difference of degrees is taken, that the first and principall place is geuen to Primates or Patriarches, the second to Metropolitanes or Archbishops, the third to Bishops, and finally aboue all these is extolled the Apostolicall sea of the Bishop of Rome, contrary to all that which before hath bene alledged out of Iustinian, the Councell of Nice and of Antioche, &c. MarginaliaRepugnance betwene the costitutions of Iustinian and the Epistles decretall.Wherby it may appeare that either Iustinian in preferring Archbishops aboue Metropolitanes, did not read these Epistles decretal, if they were vnfayned, or if they were forged, they whiche forged the sayd Epistles in their names, did not well aduise what Iustinian had written in this matter before.

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MarginaliaBishop Metropolitane bishop of the first sea, Primate Patriarch. Archbishop Chief Byshop termes vsed in the primatiue time of the Church.Thus then these titles aboue recited, as Byshop, Metropoliane, Bishop of the first seate, Primate, Patriarche, Archbishop, that is to meane, chiefbyshop, or headbyshop to other Byshops of his prouince, we deny not but were then in the old tyme applyed, and might be applyed, to the byshop of Rome, like as the same also were applyed to other Patriarches in other chief Cities and prouinces.

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MarginaliaHigh Priest or high Priesthode.As touching the name likewise of the hygh Priest, or hygh Priesthode, neither do I deny but it hath bene founde in old monumentes and recordes of auncient tymes, but in such wise and sorte, as it hath bene common to Byshops indifferently, and not singularly attributed to any one Byshop or sea. Wherof testimonie we haue out of the. vij. generall Councel, dist. 38. cap. Omnes, MarginaliaDist. 38. cap. omnes Summus sacerdos. Suumum sacerdotium where the Byshops office is called Summum sacerdotium, the high Priesthode, in these wordes: Sabstantia summi sacerdotii nostri sunt eloquia diuinitus tradita. i. vera diuinarum Scripturarum disciplina. &c. That is, the substaunce (say they) of our high Priesthode is the worde or discipline of holy Scriptures geuen vs from aboue. &c.

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MarginaliaEx cōcilio Agathensi 12. q. 3. cap pontificesAnd likewise the Councell of Agatha, maketh relation De pontificibus in summo sacerdotio constitutis, of Bishops set in the high Priesthode, meanyng not of any one, but indefinitely and indifferently of whomsoeuer, 12. q. 3. cap. Pontifices. Also Fabianus Bishop of Rome, an. 240. writyng in generall to his brethren, and to all Byshoppes and Ministers Ecclesiasticall, doth attribute to them the same title of Summum sacerdotium, in these wordes: Deus ergo fratres qui præordinauit vos, & omnes qui summo sacerdotio funguntur, &c. God whiche hath preordained you brethren, and all them which beare the office of high priesthode. 3. q. 1. cap. Deus ergo. Marginalia3. q. 1. cap. Deus ergo. With like phrase of speech Anacletus also in his second Epistle, speakyng of Byshops in generall, calleth them Summos sacerdotes: vnde, inquit, liquet quòd summi sacerdotes. i. Episcopi a Deo sunt iudicandi, &c.. MarginaliaEx Anaclet. Epi. 2. 2. q. 7. cap. AccusatioThe high Priestes, that is, Byshops, sayth he. MarginaliaByshops called the successorr of the Apostles.And moreouer in the same place calleth them Apostles, and successours of the Apostles. &c. So doth Innocentius the first, an. 405. as appeareth, dist. 61. cap. Miserum. MarginaliaDist. 61. c. miserumItem Zosimus Byshop of the sayd Citie of Rome, an. 420. as witnesseth dist. 59. cap. 1. who speaketh de Summo sacerdotio, MarginaliaDi. 59 c. 1that is, of high Priesthode, not onely of the church of Rome, but of all other churches. Vrbanus the first was Byshop of Rome, an. 226. who in his writings alledged by Gratian, referreth the name and place Summi pontificis, of the hygh Byshop, not onelye to the seate of Rome, but vniformely to euery Byshop, as appeareth in the wordes of the dist. 59. cap. Si officia. &c. MarginaliaEx Vrba. 1 Dist. 59 cap. Si officia.

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And thus much as touchyng the name or title of hygh Priest, or supreme Byshop. Which title as I do not deny to haue bene vsed in maner and forme aforesayd: so do I deny that this title and stile of MarginaliaSummus orbis pontifex.Summus orbis pontifex, as it is now vsed in Rome, to haue bene vsed, or vsually receaued, duryng all the primitiue tyme of the church, that is. v. hūdred yeares after Christ, After the maner and sorte, I meane, of that authoritie and glory whiche in these dayes now is vsed and is geuē to the same, vntill the time of Phocas, the wicked Emperour, which was after the yeare of the Lord. 608. The whiche title as it is to glorious for any one Byshop in the Church of Christ to vse: so is it not to be founde in any of the approued & most auncient writers of the Church, namely these, as Cyprianus, Basilius, Fulgentius, Chrysostomus, Hieronymus, Ambrose, Augustinus, Tertullianus, but rather written agaynst of the same, especially of the last. And therfore not without cause it is written and testified of Erasmus, who speakyng of the sayd name, of Summus orbis pontifiex, denyeth playnly the same to be heard of among the old writers, whose wordes be these: Certe nomen hoc nondum illis temporibus erat auditum, quantum ex veterum omnium scriptis licet colligere. &c. lib. Epist. 3. Epist. 1. art. 73. &c. MarginaliaEx Erasm. ep. lib. 3. Epist. 1. art. 73.as whosoeuer readeth the same authors shall finde to be true.

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MarginaliaVniuersalis pōtifex.
Caput vniuersalis Ecclesiæ.
Christi in terris vicarius
Princeps sacerdotum. &c.
Papa.
The like is to be affirmed also of other presumptuous titles of like ambition, as the head of the vniuersall Church, the Vicare of Christ in earth, Prince of Priests, with such like, whiche all be new found termes, straunge to the eares of the old primitiue writers and Councels, and not receiued openly and commonly before the tyme of Boniface the third, and Phocas aforesayd.

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Now remaineth the name of the pope, which of his nature, and by his first origine, beyng a worde of the Syracusane speeche called παππὰς, and signifiyng as much as Pater, Father, was then vsed and frequented of them in the old tyme, not so as proper onely to the Byshop of Rome, but common and indifferent to all other Byshops or personages, whosoeuer were of worthy excellence, as is partly before declared. But now contrarily, the generallitie of this name is so restrayned and abused, that not onely it is appropriate to the Byshop of Rome, but also distincteth and disceuereth the authoritie and preeminence of that Byshop alone from all other Byshops, for whiche cause it is now worthely come into contempt & execration. No lesse is to be reiected also the name of vniuersalis, or œcumenicus pontifex, Summus orbis Episcopus, Caput vniuersalis Ecclesiæ, Christi in terris vicarius, Princeps sacerdotum. &c. All whiche termes and vocables, tendyng to the derogation of other Byshops and Patriarches, as they were neuer receaued nor allowed in Rome (if we beleue Gregory) duryng the tyme of the primitiue church, so now are worthely of vs refused.

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MarginaliaHow they began first at Constantinople, to take the name of vniuersall Byshop.Although it can not be denyed, but certaine were in the primitiue time, which began priuately to pretēd that proud and wicked title of vniuersall Byshop, as Menna, and especially Ioannes Patriarche of Constantinople, who callyng a Councell at Constantinople, went about to stablish and ratifie and to dignifie his throne by the cōsent of the Coūcell, and the Emperour of Constantinople, and so obtained the same, as appeareth in the. v. generall Councell of Constantinople the 2: MarginaliaEx quinta Synodo vniuersali Actione prima. cap. post consulatum.where both Menna is named Oicumenicus Patriarcharum and also Ioannes in the sayd Councell is titled Oicumenicus Patriarcha: ex Concil. general. 5. cap. Domino. MarginaliaIbid. cap. dom. nostro.Concernyng the which title, although it was thē vsed in Constantinople through the sufferaunce of the Emperours, beyng then willyng to haue their Imperiall Citie aduaunced: yet notwithstandyng this foresayd title, all this while was not in the Citie of Rome. And in Constantinople it stode not then in force: Iure aliquo diuino, but onely by mans law. And thirdly, it was then but onely, verbalis titulus: hauyng no true domination vpon all other churches, or any reall subiection belongyng to the same. For asmuch as neither the Byshop of Rome, nor any of the West Churches were subiect, or did acknowledge seruice vnto them: but rather did repugne the same: namely Pelagius the 2. & Gregorius the. 1. both Byshops at that tyme of Rome, which Pelagius writyng to all Byshops, sayth playnly in these wordes: MarginaliaEx Pelagi. 20 Dist. 99. cap. Nullus.that no Patriarche should take the name of vniuersalitie at any tyme, because that if any one be called vniuersall, the name of Patriarch is derogated from all other. But let this be farre, sayth he, from all faythfull men, to will to take that thing to him, wherby the honour of his brethren is diminished. Wherfore the sayd Pelagius chargeth all such Byshops, that none of them in their letters will name any Patriarche to be vniuersall, least he take frō him selfe the honor due to him, while they geue that which

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