Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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404 [403]

K. Edw.3.maried. Truce with Scots. War with Scots. Barwike taken.

MarginaliaThe kings armie & the Scottes are so neare that eche seeth other.hazard to the other, the kyng could not set vpon them.

Thus in the day tyme the Scots keepng the aduaūtage of the hilles, and in the night tymes retiring to the aduantage of such other like, came neare agaynst that riuer where they first passed ouer, where they made a show to offer battaile to the kyng vpon the morow. Wherupon, the k. beyng busied in puttyng his men and battailes in a readines to fight the next mornyng, being almost forweried in pursuyng the Scots from place to place: the Scots in the meane season gat ouer the riuer and escaped the daunger of the k. Which thyng as it could not be done: without great treason of some neare about the kyng: so sir Roger Mortimer was greuously suspected therof, and after was layd vnto his charge. MarginaliaThe Scots through treason escape out of England vnfought withall.But to be short, by this meanes the Scottes escaped the riuer, after whom it should haue preuayled the kyng very litle to haue made pursute as the wyly Scottes knew full well. For the ioy wherof, þe L. Williā Douglas one of þe Scots Generals, with 200. horses gaue a larum in þe kynges campe: and came so neare, that he cut certaine of þe lines of the kyngs tent in sunder with his sword, & retired to his company without great losse of any of his mē. Then on the morow the kyng perceauyng the Scottes to be gone, came to the place where ouer night they lodged, MarginaliaThe prouisiō left in the Scottes campe.where was foūd fiue hundred great Oxen and Kyne ready killed: fiue hundred Caudrens made of beasts skinnes full of flesh, ouer the fire seething: a thousand spits full of flesh ready to be rosted, and more then. 10000. shoes of raw leather (the heare still vpon the same) which the Scottes had left behinde them: and fiue poore English prisoners tyed to trees & their legs broken. All which seyng the kyng, returned with his army (and left anye further pursuyng the Scottes) to Durham: where he dismissed his army, and came agayne to London, sending with sir Iohn of Heynalt ij. hundred men at armes for their better safegard agaynst the English archers (with whom at Yorke as you heard they frayed) till they had takē shipping, and so returned home.

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MarginaliaThe king returneth to Lōdon.The kyng then beyng at London, confirmed the liberties of the Citezens, and ordained that the Maior should sit in all places as chief Iustice within the liberties of þe same. And that what Alderman soeuer had bene Maior before, should be a Iustice of peace within his own ward.

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Then the kyng, the Queene, and counsell sent ouer to the Earle of Heynalt certaine Embassadours, touchyng the solemnisation of the mariage betwene the kyng and the Lady Philip his daughter: who in such sort sped their message, that she was soone after conueyed ouer to England very honorably, and at Douer ariued. MarginaliaThe mariage of K. Edward solempnised.And frō thence came to London (some Chronicles affirme to Yorke) where vpō the day of the conuersion of S. Paul. the yeare aboue specified, the mariage and coronation of the Queene was with much triumph duryng the space of iij. weekes, solemnised.

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MarginaliaA parliament at Northampton.After which coronation and mariage, the kyng let sommon his Parliament to be kept at Northampton: whereat by the meanes of Sir Roger Mortimer and the old Queene, a peace was purchased for the Scottes (who had for that purpose sent their Embassadours) for foure yeares to endure. Also the king (then beyng within age) graunted to release the Scottes of all their homage and fealty which vnto the realme of England by their Charter ensealed they were bound: MarginaliaThe ragmā rule deliuered vp to the Scotsas also their indenture which was called the Ragman Role, wherein was specified the foresayd homage and fealtie to the king and crowne of England, by the sayd kyng of Scottes, nobles and prelates to be made: hauing all their seales annexed to the same. MarginaliaThe blacke crosse of Scotland.Also there was then deliuered vnto them, the blacke crosse of Scotland, which kyng Edward before for a rich Iewel and relique had conquered and brought from Scone Abbey: MarginaliaThe Barōs geue vp their titles in Scotland.with al such rights and titles as any the Barons els, had enioyed in the sayd Realme of Scotland: with many other thynges more, to the great preiudice both of the Realme and discontētation of all the nobles and barons for the most part more then the old Queene, sir Roger Mortimer, and the Bishop of Ely. Who in such sort ruled the rost, þt all the rest of the nobles & barons, cast with thē selues how best they might redresse & remedye the great incōueniences, that vnto þe realme by meanes of them grew and happened. Wherupon, the kyng and Queene and sir Roger Mortimer, MarginaliaA parliament at Salisburycaused an other Parliament to be called at Salisbury, where the sayd sir Roger Mortimer was made Earle of March agaynst all the barons wils, to preuent and dispoynte the foresayd purpose of them, MarginaliaEarle Henry of Lancaster refuseth to come to the parliamentbut the Earle Henry of Lācaster with others, would not be at the same: wherfore it was layd vnto their charges, that they went about to conspire the kynges death.

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And further, for that the kyng was as well vnder the gouernemēt of þe earle of Kent his vncle, as the Queene his mother, and the Earle of Marche: and for that, they couldnot do in all thynges as they listed for the sayd Earle the kynges vncle, who loued the kyng and the Realme: Enuie began to rise betwene the earle Mortymer and hym, and by Isabell the Queenes practise, he found the meanes to perswade the kyng: that the Earle of Kent (to enioy the crowne as next heyre vnto the kyng) went about to poyson him. MarginaliaThe Earle of Kent put to death giltles.Wherupō the kyng giuyng light credit, caused his sayd vncle to be apprehended: and without aunswer makyng to his accusation and accusers, to be beheaded at Winchester, the third of October and 3. yeare of his raigne. But the iust iudgement of God not permittyng such odious crimes in him to be vnpunished nor vndetected, so in fine fell forth: MarginaliaThe queene with childe by sir Roger Mortimer.that Isabell the olde Queene the kynges mother, was found and vnderstode to be with child by the sayd Mortimer. Complaint hereof was made to the kyng, as also the killyng of kyng Edward his father, and of the conspiracy of him agaynst the Earle of Kent the kynges vncle before put to death: Wherupon, diuers other articles layd against him, and manifestly read in þe court, MarginaliaSyr Roger Mortimer, Earle of March, atained, condemnd and put to execution.he was araynged & indighted, and by verdict found gilty: hauyng his iudgement as in cases of high treason, and suffred death accordyngly at Lōdō, where upō Londō bridge next vnto Spensers, his head obtained a place. MarginaliaThe queene put in prison and so kept a long time.The Queene his mother also (by good aduise of his counsel) was restrained of her libertie, and within a certaine castell not permitted once to come abroad: Vnto whom the kyng her sonne, once or twise a yeare would resort and visite.

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This yeare, prince Edward was borne at Woodstocke, who in processe of tyme and yeares grew, to be most valiaunt Prince, and was before he dyed, accompted throughout the world the folower of Chiualry.

MarginaliaThe birth of Prince Edwarde.After this, the kyng prepared an other army into Scotlād in the yeare prefixed. But first he sommoned kyng Dauid of Scotland, who had (in the last truce iiij. yeares to cōtinue as you heard, his father then liuyng) maried the Lady Iane, sister to the kyng: termed Iane make peace, to do his homage to the kyng but that he refused. Wherupon, not forgettyng there withall the scoffing rymes, which dayly from that tyme of truce the Scots had in their mouthes: MarginaliaThe expedition of king Edward into ScotlandHe did somuch that with an army well furnished, he entred Scotland by the riuer of Twede, for the Scots then had the possession of the town of Barwicke: the Scottish Gigges and rymes were these. MarginaliaThe Scottish times.Long berdes hartles, Paynted hoodes witles, Gay coates graceles, Makes England thriftles. MarginaliaK. Edward wasteth, and destroyeth the realme of Scotland.To be short, the kyng wasted the land, burnt, destroyed, and tooke townes and castels with small resistaūce or none: and the space of vi. monethes together did in that land what him listed without any battaile offered vnto him. For the kyng of Scots was but a child & not aboue the age of xv. yeares, and wanted good Captaines that should haue defended the realm: in somuch that they were all fayne sauing those that kept in holdes for their defence to take the forest of Godworth, & there to keepe themselues so long as the kyng remained in Scotland: MarginaliaBarwike beseiged and yealded to the kingWho at length when he had sufficiently wasted, spoyled, & brent the same, returned toward Barwicke, about the which he bent his siege, vowyng not to remoue the same, till he had gotten the towne.

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MarginaliaThe king entreth the towne of Barwicke & appointeth the captaine therof.The Scottes that kept the same, after a certaine tiyme and many assaultes made, were contented vpon certaine cōditions to haue deliuered vp the towne: But that the kyng refused, vnles that all conditiōs set a part, they would with bag and bagage departe. Whereupon, they condescended to the kyng, that if by a certaine tyme they were not by the kyng of Scottes rescued, they would render vp the towne and with bag and bagage depart: & so the tyme expired frustrate of all hope and rescue, at the day appointed they dyd. The kyng then entred the towne and taried there the space of xii. dayes: who after he had appointed Sir Edward Baillewe Captaine ouer the towne and leauyng also behind him other knightes, Squiers, and souldiours as well to keepe the same as other holdes the kyng had conquered in Scotland & fronters therof: He returned with his people towards London, permittyng euery man to departe and go what way them liked.

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MarginaliaSir Rob. de Artois a noble man of Fraunce inciteth the k. to procure his title in FraunceThen sir Robert de Artoys, a noble man of Fraunce, and which descended of the blood royall, beyng in England with the kyng: ceased not often tymes to aduertise the kyng and put him in memory of his good and right title to the inheritaunce of the crowne of Fraunce. 

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Edward III and Philip VI

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

This sir Robert, for a certaine displeasure that Philip the French kyng tooke agaynst him for a certaine plea which by him was moued before the kyng: was fayne for the safegard of his lyfe to flee the Realme of Fraunce, and so came to the kynges Court. Kyng Edward was not vnwillyng at all to heare therof, but tooke delight often tymes to reason & debate that matter with him concernyng his right, title, and inheritaunce to

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