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427 [403]

K. Edward. 3. The story of Armachanus. Cōtention about Friers priuilegies.

and riches, that you should serue God, but you haue poured it out and consumed it vpon pride, all kynde of wickednes, ryot, and wantonnes 

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Foxe has dropped the ending of the story, as given by Flacius, in which Rupescissa warned the cardinals that nobles and princes would strip the Church of its possessions. Foxe may well have felt uncomfortable with this in view of the way in which prominent Elizabethans had enjoyed benefits from Church property themselves.

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¶ Armachanus.

MarginaliaThe life and story of Armachacus archb. and primate of Ireland. IN the Cataloge of these learned and zelous defenders of Christ agaynst Antichrist aboue rehearsed 

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Ralph Fitz-Ralph

Ralph Fitzralph was a conservative theologian, but his bitter enmity towards the mendicant orders made him an invaluable witness (from Foxe's point of view) to the alleged corruption of the medieval church. (Foxe makes this point emphatically in his notes following Fitzralph's 'Defensio curatorum'). The mendicant opposition to Fitzralph made him an even more valuable witness because it was possible to cast him in the role of a martyr (note the inaccurate claim that Fitzralph died in exile) although Foxe is careful not to call him one or to claim that Fitzralph's theology anticipated Protestants in any way. Foxe drew the biographical information on Fitzralph from Bale's Catalogus; the same work was the source for most of the details on the individual popes discussed. Foxe also drew a little material from Matthias Flacius' Catalogus testium veritatis. Foxe also exploited two medieval texts: Fitzralph's Defensio curatorum and Guillaume Saint-Amour's De periculis novissorum temporum.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

, whom the Lord about thys tyme began to rayse vp for reformatiō of hys Church, beyng then farre out of frame, I cā;not forget nor omitte some thyng to write of the reuerend prelate, and famous clerke Richard Armachanus 
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Armachanus is the Latin form of Fizralph's see, the archdiocese of Armagh.

, primate & archbyshop of Ireland: A man for his life and learning so memorable, as the condition of those dayes then serued, that the same dayes then as they had but few good, so had none almost his better. Hys name was Richard Fizraf, made primate & archbyshop as is sayd, of Ireland 
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The following account of Fitzralph's life - including the citations of Thomas Netter and other writers - is taken entirely from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 443-5.

. First brought vp in the vniuersitie of Oxford, in the studye of all liberall knowledge, wherin he did exceedingly profite vnder Iohn Bakenthorpe hys tutor and instructor. In this tyme the begging Friers beganne greatly to multiply and spreade, vnto whome this Bakenthorpe, was euer a greate enemie. Whose steppes the scholer also folowing, beganne to do the lyke 
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Bale was a great admirer of John Baconthorpe and here he exaggerates Baconthorpe's influence on Fitzralph. Actually there was not much connection between the two men and when Fitzralph was a student at Oxford, Baconthorpe was in Paris.

. Such was the capacitie and dexteritie of thys Fizraf, that he being commended to kyng Edward the 3. was promoted by hym, MarginaliaThe commēdation of Armachanus. first to be Archdeacon of Lichfield, then to be the commissary of the vniuersitie of Oxford. At length to be Archbyshop of Armach in Ireland. He being Archbyshop, vpon a tyme had cause to come vp to London: At what tyme here in the sayd citie of London was cōtention betwene the Friers and the clergie about preachyng, and hearing confessions. &c. Wherupon, this Armachanus beyng requested to preach, made 7. or 8. sermons. MarginaliaArmachanus cited by the Friers, to appear before the pope. Wherein he propounded ix. conclusions agaynst the Friers, for the which he was cited vp by the Friers before this pope Innocent the 6. to appeare. And so he did, who before the face of the Pope valiantly defended, both in preachyng and writyng, the same conclusions, and therin stood constantly vnto the death, as the wordes of Iohn Wickliffe in his Trialogo do wel testify in this wise: Ab Anglorum Episcopis cōductus Armachanus, nouem in Auinione conclusiones coram Innocentio 6. & suorum Cardinalium cœtu, contra fratrum mendicitatem, audacter publicauit, verbóque ac scriptis ad mortem vsque defendit. Tlhe like also testifieth of him Waldenus in fascilo zizanniorum. Also Volateranus reporteth the same. Gulielmus Botonerus testifiyng of hym in like maner, sayth: that Armachanus first reproued the beggyng Friers for hearing the confessiōs of professed nonnes, without licence of their superiours, and also of maried women without knowledge of their husbands. MarginaliaThe troubles and persecutions of Armachanus. What dangers and troubles he sustayned by his persecutours, and how miraculously the Lord deliuered hym from their handes: In so much, that they metyng hym in the open streates and in cleare day light, yet had no power to see hym, nor to apprehend hym. In what perill of theues and searchers he was in, and yet the Lord deliuered hym, yea and caused his money beyng take from him, to be restored agayne to hym by portions, in tyme of hys necessity and famyne. Also from what dangers of the kings officers, which cōmyng with þe kyngs letters layd all the hauens for hym: yet how the lord Iesus deliuered hym, shewing him by what wayes how to escape them. Moreouer, what appeals were laid agaynst hym, to the number of xvi. & yet how þe lord gaue hym to triumph ouer all hys enemies. MarginaliaArmachanus preserued manifold wayes by the Lord. How the Lord also taught him & brought hym out of the profound vanities of Aristotles subtiltie, to the study of þe scriptures of God. All this with much more, he hymself expresseth in a certaine prayer or cōfession made to Christ Iesus our Lord, in which he describeth almost the whole history of hys own life. Which prayer I haue to shew in old written hand, and hereafter (Christ willing) intend as tyme serueth to publish the same 
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This prayer is not mentioned by Bale. It was appended to Fitzralph's Summa de questionibus Armenorum. Judging from Foxe's description he obtained a copy of the poem rather than a copy of the treatise.

. The beginnyng of the prayer in Latine is this. MarginaliaThe prayer of Armachanus.

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Tibi Laus, tibi gloria, tibi gratiarum actio, Iesu pijssime, Iesu potentissime, Iesu dulcissime: qui dixisti, Ego sum via, veritas & vita. Via sine deuio: veritas sine nubilo: & vita sine termino. Quod tute viam mihi ostendisti. Tu te veritatem me docuisti. Et tute vitam mihi promisisti: Via eras mihi in exilio. Veritas eras in consilio. Et vita eris mihi in præmio. With the rest that followeth in the foresayd prayer.

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Thus what were the troubles of this good man, and how he was cyted vp by þe fryars to the pope, you haue partly heard: Nowe what were his reasons and argumentes wherewith he defended his cause in the popes presence, followeth to be declared. For the tractation whereof firste I must put the reader in remēbrance of the controuersie men tioned before in the storye of Guliel de sancto Amore. Pag. 321. Also in the storye of the vniuersitie of Paris contending agaynst the fryars. pag. 396. For so long did this cōtrouersie continue in the Church, from the yeare. 1240. whē the Oxford men began first to stand against the fryers to the time of this Armachanus, that is, to the yeare 1360. and after his time yet more encreased. So it pleased the secrete prouydence of God (for what cause he best knoweth) to suffer his Churche to bee entangled and exercised sometimes wyth matters and controuersies of no great importance. Eyther to keepe the vanytye of mens wits thus occupyed from idlenes, or els to prepare their mindes by these smaller matters, to the consideration and searching out of other thinges more graue and weighty. Like as now in these our queenes dayes, we see what tragedyes be raysed vp in England about formes & fashions of ministers wearinges, what troubles grow, what placing and displacyng there is about the same: Euen so at this time happened the lyke styrre about the liberties and priuilegies of the fryers, which not a litle troubled and occupyed all the Churches & Diuines almost through Christendome. The which controuersie, to the entent it may be better vnderstā;ded (al the circumstances thereof beyng explayned) we will first begin from the origynall and foundation of the matter, to declare by order and course of yeares, vpon what occasion this varyance first rising, in contynuance of time increased & multiplyed in gatheryng more matter, and brast out at length to this tumultuous contention among learned men.

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Concerning therfore this present matter, first it is to be vnderstand 

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The material on Innocent III and Honorious III which follows is from Bale, Catalogus, p. 235. Bale cites 'Omnes utriusque sexus', but does not quote it verbatim.

, that in the yeare of our Lord. 1215. vnder pope Innocent the 3. was called a generall councel at Laterane, mentioned before. Pag. 251. in the dayes of King Iohn. In the which councell among many other things, was constituted a certayne lawe or Canon, beginning Omnis vtriusq; sexus. &c. MarginaliaCan. omnis vtriusque sexus. Sex. ex. de Pe & re. the tenor of whych canon in English is thus.

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Be it decreed, that euery faythfull Christian, both man and woman commyng to the yeares of discretion, shal confesse hymselfe alone of all his sinnes, to the priest of hys owne proper parish, once in the yeare at least: and that he shall endeuour by his owne selfe to fulfill the penaunce, whensoeuer he receyueth the sacrament of Eucharistie, MarginaliaNote here he calleth not the sacrament of the altar. at least at the tyme of Easter. Vnlesse by the assent of his Minister, vpon some reasonable cause, for the tyme to abstain. Otherwise doing, let hym both lacke the communiō of the Church beyng aliue, and Christian buriall whē he is dead. Wherfore be it decreed, that this holesome constitutiō shalbe published customably in Churches, to the end that no man of ignorance or of blyndnes make to hymselfe a cloke of excuse. And if any shall confesse himselfe to any other priest then of hys owne parish vpon any iust cause, let him aske and obtayne first licence of his owne Priest: Other els, the other priest to haue no power to binde him or to loose hym. &c.

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MarginaliaFrier Dominike in the tyme of Pope Innocent the 3. obtayned not the confirmation of his order. In the tyme of this Innocentius, and of this Laterne councell, was Dominicke, the first authour and founder of the preaching fryers: who laboured to the sayd Pope Innocent, for the confirmation of hys order, but dyd not obteyne, in his lyfe tyme.

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MarginaliaThe order of Frier Dominike first cōfirmed by pope Innocent. 3. The next yeare after this Laterane councel, dyed Pope Innocent. an. 1216. after whom came Honorius. 3. who in the first yeare of his Popedome confirmed the order of the fryar Dominicke, and gaue to him and hys fryers authoritye to preach and to heare confessyons, with dyuers other priuilegies mo. And vnder this pope which gouerned ten yeares, lyued Domynicke fiue yeares after the confirmatiō of his order and dyed an. 1221. MarginaliaThe order of the Franciscanes, cōfirmed shortly after the Dominikes. About which yeare, the order of the Franciscane fryers began also to bread, and to spread in the world, through preachyng and hearing confessions.

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MarginaliaThe bull of pope Gregory in the behalfe of the Dominick friers. After this Honorius, next folowed Pope Gregory þe 9. about the yeare of our Lord 1228, who for the promoting of the foresayd order of Dominikes, gaue out this Bull, in tenour as foloweth 

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Gregory IX's bull is taken from Matthew Paris' chronicle. (See Matthew Paris, Chronica majora, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, 7 vols. [London, 1872-88], vol. IV, pp. 512-17).

.

Gregorius bishop seruaunt of Gods seruauntes, to hys reuerent brethren, Archbishops, Bishops, and to his welbeloued children, Abbos, Priors, and to all Prelates of churches, to whom so euer these presents shall come, gretyng, & Apostolicall blessing. Because Marginalia* Iniquitie hath abounded at Rome. * iniquity hath abounded, and the charity of many hath waxt cold: Behold, the Lord hath raysed vp the order of our welbeloued childrē the preching Friers, who not seking thyngs of their owne, but perteining to Iesus Christ, to the extirping as well of heresies as to the rootyng out also of other pernitious pestilencies: haue dedicate themselues to the preachyng of the Marginalia* Nay to the preaching rather of mens traditions agaynst the word of God. The Friers autorised to heare confessions and to inioyne penance. * worde of God.

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We
Mm.iiij.
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