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514 [490]

K. Richard. 2. Queen Anne. Scripture in Englishe.

MarginaliaCold weather graciously considered. cold wether that now is, least the foresayd penitentes might peraduenture take some bodely hurt standing so long naked (beyng myndefull to moderat partly the sayd our rigour) we giue leaue: That after their entraunce into the Churches aboue sayd, whilest they shalbe in hearyng the foresayd Masses: that they may put on necessary garments to keepe them from cold, so that their heades and feete notwithstandyng, be bare and vncouered. We therefore will and commaunde you together and a part, that you denounce the sayd William, Roger, and Alice, to be absolued and restored agayne to the vnitie of our holy mother the church, and that you call them forth to do their penaunce in maner and forme aforesayd. Giuen at Dorchester, the xvij. day of Nouember in the yeare of our Lord God. 1389. and the ix. yeare of our translation.

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MarginaliaPeter Pateshull against the friers. Vnto the narration of these aboue sayd, we will adioyne the story of one Peter Pateshul an Austen Frier 

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Foxe's account of Peter Pateshull's attack on the friars is taken from College of Arms MS Arundel 7; see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28 (London, 1863-4), II, pp. 157-9.

, who obtainyng by the Popes priuilege (through the meanes of Walter Dis, confessour to the Duke of Lancaster) libertie to chaunge his coate and religion 
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Pateshull had been an Augustinian friar; he purchased an appointment as papal chaplain from Disse; this post released Pateshull from his order.

, and hearyng the doctrine of Iohn Wickleffe & other of the same sort: began at length to preach openly and to detect the vices of his order, in such sorte as all men wondred to heare the horrible reciting therof. This beyng brought to the eares of his order, they to the number of xij. (cōmyng out of their house to the place where he was preachyng) thought to haue withstode hym perforce. Among whom one especially for the zeale of his religion, stode vp openly in his preachyng, and contraried that which he sayd, who then was preachyng in the Church of S. Christopher in London. MarginaliaLondiners against the friers. This when the faithfull Londoners 
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Walsingham identified the rioters as Lollards; Foxe identifies them as Londoners. The former is implying that Pateshull's supporters were heretics, the latter that they were an outraged citizenry.

did see, takyng grief hereat, were moued with great ire agaynst the sayd Frier, thrustyng him with his other brethren out of the Church, whom they not onely had beaten and sore wounded, but also folowed them home to their house, mindyng to haue destroied their māsion with fire also, and so would haue done, had not one of the Shriffes of London, with two of the Friers of the sayd house well knowen and reported amongest the Lōdoners, with gentle wordes mittigated their rage and violence. MarginaliaPeter Pateshul. After this, Peter Pateshull thus disturbed as is aforesayd, was desired by the Londoners (for so much as he could not well preach amongest them) to put in writyng that, which he had sayd before and other thynges more that he knew by the Friers: who thē at their request writing the same, MarginaliaThe Friers accused with horrible crimes. accused the Friers of murther, committed agaynst diuers of their brethren. And to make the matter more apparant and credible, he declared the names of them that were murthered, with the names also of their tormentours. And named moreouer, tyme and place where and when they were murthered, and where they were buried. He affirmed further, that they were Sodomites and traytours both to the kyng and the Realme with many other crimes, which myne author for tediousnes, leaueth of to recite. And for the more confutatiō of the sayd Friers, the Londoners caused this sayd Bill, to be openly set vp at S. Paules Church doore in London, which was there read and copied out of very many. This was done in the yeare of our Lord. 1387. and in the x. yeare of kyng Richard second. Ex Chron. Monachi Albanensis. Cuius est exordium. Anno gratiæ millesimo. &c. MarginaliaEx Chron. D. Albani.

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Thus it may appeare by this and other aboue recited, how the Gospell of Christ preached by Iohn Wickleffe and others, began to spread and fructifie abroad in London, and other places of the Realme: and more would haue done no doubt had not William Courtney, the archbyshop and other Prelates with the kyng, set them so forceably with might and mayne, to gaynstand the course therof. MarginaliaFew or none burned in king Richardes time. Albeit as is sayd before, I find none which yet were put to death therfore, duryng the raigne of this kyng Richard the second. Wherby it is to be thought of this kyng, that although he can not be vtterly excused for molesting the godly and innocent preachers of that tyme, (as by his breues and letters afore mentioned may appeare) yet neither was he so cruell agaynst them, as other that came after him: And that which he did seemed to procede by the instigation of the Pope and other Byshops, rather then either by the consent of his Parliament, or aduise of his counsaile about him, or els by his own nature. For as the decrees of the Parliamēt in all his time, were constant in stopping out the Popes prouisions, and in bridlyng his authoritie as we shall see (Christ willyng) anone: MarginaliaKinges many tymes brought into much feare of the pope. so the nature of the king was not altogether so fiercely set, if that he folowyng the guidyng therof, had not stand so much in feare of the Byshop of Rome and his Prelates, by whose importune letters and callyng on, he was continually vrged, to be contrary to that, which both right required, & will perhaps in him desired. But how soeuer the doynges MarginaliaCommendation of Queene Anne wife to kyng Richard. of this kyng are to be excused, or not, vndoubted it is the Queene Anne his wife most rightly deserueth singular cōmendatiō: who at the same tyme liuyng with the kyng had the Gospels of Christ in English, with iiij. Doctours vpō the same. This Anne was a Bohemian borne, and sister to Wincelaus kyng of Boheme before: Marginalia1394.
The mariage of Queene Anne to K. Richard.
who was maried to kyng Richard about the v. (some say, the vj.) yeare of his reigne, and cōtinued with him the space of xi. yeares. MarginaliaThe occasiō how the doctrine of Wickliffe came to Bohemia. By the occasion wherof it may seeme not vnprobable, that the Bohemians commyng in with her, or resortyng into this Realme after her, perused & receaued here the bookes of Iohn Wickleffe, which afterward they conueyed into Bohemia, wherof partly mention is made before, pag. 446.

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MarginaliaThe death of Quene Anne The sayd vertuous Queene Anne, after she had lyued with kyng Richard about xj. yeares, in the xvij. yeare of his reigne chaunged this mortall lyfe, and was buryed at Westminster. At whose funerall, Thomas Arundell then Archbyshop of Yorke, & Lord Chauncelour, made the Sermon. 

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As Foxe declares, he obtained this sermon from a manuscript in Durham cathedral library, which he obtained from Matthew Parker.

In which Sermon (as remaineth in the Library of Worceter recorded) MarginaliaEx fragmento Libri euiusdā VVigornensis bibliothecæ.
Ex accommodato D. Math. Archb. Cant.
he entreatyng of the commendation of her, sayd these wordes: that it was more ioy of her, then of any woman that euer he knew. For notwithstandyng that she was an Alien borne, she had in English all the iiij. Gospels, with the Doctours vpō them: affirming moreouer and testifying, that she had sent þe same vnto him to examine. And he sayd they were good and true. And further with many wordes of prayse did greatly commende her, in that shee beyng so great a Lady, & also an Alien, would study so lowly so vertuous bookes. And he blamed in that Sermō sharpely the negligēce of the Prelates, and other men. In so much that some sayd, he would on the morow, leaue vp the office of Chauncelour, and forsake the world, & geue him to fulfill his pastorall office, for that he had sene and read in those bookes. And then it had bene the best Sermon that euer they heard. Hæc ex libro Wigor. In the which Sermon of Thomas Arundell, three pointes are to be considered, first the laudable vse of those old tymes receaued to haue the Scripture and Doctours in our vulgare English toung. Secondly, the vertuous exercise and also example of this godly Lady, who had these bookes not for a shew hangyng at her gyrdle: but also seemeth by this Sermon to be a studious occupyer of the same. The thyrd thyng to be noted is, what fruite the sayd Thomas Archbyshop declared also himselfe to receaue at the hearyng and readyng of the same bookes of hers in the English toung. MarginaliaTho. Arundell, Arch. breaketh his owne promise. Notwithstandyng, the same Thomas Arundell, after this Sermon and promise made, became the most cruell enemy that might be agaynst English bookes, and the authors therof as foloweth after in his story to be sene.

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MarginaliaTho. Arundell & the B. of London, go to Irelād to the kyng to complain of the fauourers of gods worde. For shortly after the death of Queene Anne, þe same yere (the kyng beyng then in Ireland) this Thomas Arundell Archbyshop of Yorke, & Byshop of London, Robert Braybrocke (whether sent by the Archbyshop of Canterbury, & the Clergy, or whether goyng of their owne accorde) crossed the Seas to Ireland, to desire the king in all spedy wise to returne and helpe the fayth & Church of Christ, agaynst such as holding of Wickleffes teaching, went about (as they sayd) to subuert all their procedynges, and to destroy the canonicall sanctions of their holy mother Church. At whose complaint the kyng hearing the one part speake, and not aduising the other, was in such sort incensed: that incontinent leauyng all his affaires incomplet, he sped his returne toward England. MarginaliaEx histor. D. Albani. Where he kept his Christmas at Dublyne, in the which meane tyme, Marginalia1395. in the begynning of the next yeare folowyng, which was an. 1395. a Parliament was called at Westminster, by the commaundement of the kyng. MarginaliaCōclusions offered vp in the parliament house. In which Parliament, certaine Articles or Conclusions were put vp by them of þe Gospell side, to the nūber of 12. 

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Book of Conclusions

The 'book of Conclusions' or The Twelve Conclusions, as they are more generally known, were posted to the doors of Westminster Hall and also St. Paul's in London during the session of Parliament in the first months of 1395. Foxe's source for the background to these events was the brief account in College of Arms MS Arundel 7 (a version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora - see Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, P. 216). Foxe drew on the Latin version of this text in the Fasciculi Zizanniorum (see Bodley MS e Musaeo 86, fos. 87r-89r), which was reprinted exactly in the Commentarii (fos. 108-115v) and the Rerum (pp. 76-9). The points contained in The Twelve Conclusions - attacks on clerical wealth, compulsory clerical celibacy, the 'feigned miracle' of transubstantiation, prayers for the dead, pilgrimages and auricular confession - caused Foxe no discomfort and, as a result, his versions of the text follow this close quite closely, apart from minor deletions to the last conclusion. The conclusions were translated in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, Foxe collated this version with a version of one of the copies of Roger Dymmock's Liber contra duodecim errores et hereses Lollardorum. The 1570 version of the twelve articles was reprinted, without change, in 1576 and 1583.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

Which conclusions moreouer were fastened vp vpon the Church doore of S. Paul in Lōdon, and also at Westminster: The copy of which Conclusions with the wordes and contents therof, here vnder ensueth.
¶ The booke of Conclusions, or Reformations, exhibited to the Parliament holden at London, and set vp at Paules doore and other places, in the xviij. yeare of the raigne of kyng Richard the second, and in the yeare of our Lord 1395.
MarginaliaCōclusions exhibited in the parliament. THe first conclusion, when as the Church of Englād begā first to dote in temporalities after her stepmother the great Church of Rome, and the Churches were authorised by appropriations: fayth, hope, and charitie, began in diuers places to vanish and flye away from our Church, for so much as pride with her most lamentable and dolerous Genealogie of mortall and deadly sinnes, did chalenge that

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