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522 [498]

K. Henry. 4. The deposing and death of K. Rich. 2. Examination of W. Sawtre.

W. Bagot, Henry Grene, and Iohn Ruschel, with diuers other consultyng wyth them what was best in that case to be done. Who then gaue their aduise (whether wilfull or vnskilfull, it is not knowen, but very vnfruitfull) that he should leaue London and go to S. Albons, there to wayte for more strength able to encounter with the Duke. But as the people out of diuers quarters resorted thether, many of them protested that they would do nothyng to the harme and preiudice of the Duke of Lācaster, who they said was vniustly expulsed. The rest then of the Counsaile, I. Busshey, W. Bagot, Henry Grene, Wylliam Scroupe treasurer, hearyng and vnderstandyng how the commons were mynded to ioyne wyth the Duke of of Herford, left the Duke of Yorke, and the Lord Chauncelor, and fled to the Castell of Bristow. MarginaliaWhat euill company doth about a kyng. Where is to be vnderstand, that these foure were they to whom the common fame ran, that the K. had let out hys Realme to farme: and were so hated of the people, that it is to be thought, that for the hatred of them more then for the kyng, this commotion was among the people.

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MarginaliaK. Richard returneth from Ireland to Milford hauen. As thys broyle was in Englande, the noyse therof soūdyng to the kynges eares, beyng then in Ireland, for hasty speede of returnyng into England, left in Ireland both hys busines, and most of hys ordinaunce also behynde hym. And so passing the seas, landed at Milford hauen, not daryng as it seemed to come to London.

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On the contrary side, vnto Henry Duke of Hereford, beyng landed as is sayde, in the North, came the Earle of Northumberland, Lord Henry Percy, & Henry his sonne: the Earle of Westmerland, L. Radolfe Neuyle, and other Lordes moe to a great number, so that the multitude rose to 60000. able souldiours. Who firste makyng toward the castle of Bristow, tooke the foresayd Bushey, Grene, Scroupe, and Bagot: of whom, three incontinent were beheaded. Bagot escapyng away fled to Ireland.

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MarginaliaK. Richard forsaken of hys subiectes The kyng in thys meane whyle, lying about Wales, destitute and desolate wythout comforte or counsayle, who neither durst come to London, neyther woulde any man come to hym, and perceauing moreouer, the commons that were vp in such a great power agaynst hym, woulde rather dye, then geue ouer that they had begunne, for feare of thēselues: MarginaliaWhat it is for a Prince to be beloued of hys subiectes. Seyng therfore no other remedy, called to hym L. Thomas Percy Earle of Worcester, and stuard of his houshold, willyng hym wyth other of hys familie, to prouide for themselues in tyme. Who then openly in the hall brake his white rod before them all, commaundyng euery man to shifte for hymselfe. Although Fabian and some other say, that he did thys of hys owne accorde, contrary to his allegeance. The kyng compassed on euery side wyth myseries, shifted from place to place, the Duke s, þe kyng desired to talke with Tho. Arundell Archb. and the Earle of Northumberland: MarginaliaK. Richard agreed to resigne hys crowne. To whom he declared, that he would resigne vp his crowne, in condition that an honorable liuing might be for him prouided, and lyfe promised to viij. persons such as he woulde name. Which beyng graunted and ratified, but not performed, he came to the castle of Flint, where (after talke had wyth the Duke of Lancaster) he was brought the same night by the Duke and hys armye to Chester: MarginaliaThe kyng committed to the Tower. And from thence was conueyed secretly into the Tower, there to be kept till the next Parliament. By the way as he came nere to London, diuers euill disposed mē of the citie being warned thereof, gathered themselues, thynking to haue slayne hym, for the great crueltie he had vsed before toward the citie. But by the policies of the Maior and rulers of the citie, the madnes of the people was stayd. Not long after folowed the Duke, and also began the Parliament. In which Parliament, the Earle of Northūumberland wyth many other Earles and Lordes were sent to the kyng in the tower, to take of hym a full resignatiō accordyng to hys former promyse, and so they did. Thys done, diuers accusations and articles were layd and engrossed agaynst the said kyng, to the number of 33. some say 38. which for the matter not greatly materiall in them contayned, I ouerpasse. And the next yeare after was had to Pomfret Castle, and there famished to death.

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¶ King Henry the fourth.

ANd thus Kyng Rychard by common assent beyng deposed from hys rightfull crowne: The Duke of Lancaster was led by Thomas Arundell the Archbyshop, to the seat royall: who there standyng vp, and crossing hymselfe on the forehead and the brest, spake in wordes as foloweth.

MarginaliaThe wordes of Henry Duke, claymyng the crowne. In the name of God, Amen. I Henry of Lancaster clayme the realme of Englād and the crown, with all the appurtenaunces, as I that am descended by right lyne of the bloud comming from that good Lord K Henry 3. And thorough the right that God of his grace hath sent to me with the helpe of my kinne & of my frendes to recouer the same, which was in point to be vndone for default of good gouernaunce and due iustice. &c.

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MarginaliaK. Henry 4. inthroned & crowned. ☞ After which wordes, the Archb. asking the assent of the people, beyng ioyfull of their new kyng: tooke þe duke by the hand, & placed hym in the kyngly throne, which was an. 1399. and shortly after by the foresayd Archb. he was crowned also for kyng of England. Ex chron. D. Alban

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Marginalia1400.
W. Sautre Martyr.
The next yeare after, followed a Parliament holden at Westminster, in which Parliament, one William Sautre 

Commentary  *  Close
William Sawtrey 

In the Commentarii, Foxe printed a note on William Sawtre, the first Lollard martyr; the note had been written by John Bale in the margin of the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (cf. Commentarii, fo. 115v with Bodley Library MS e Musaeo 86, fo. 62r-v). Foxe's account of Sawtre in the Commentarii also included seven articles for which Sawtre was condemned; this was also taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum ((Bodley MS e Musaeo 86, fos. 96v-97r). This account was reprinted exactly in the Rerum (p. 79). In the 1563 edition, Foxe reprinted this material but added a royal decree against Sawtre, which was probably taken from London diocesan records. In the 1570 edition the 1563 account was reprinted, but the earlier process against Sawtre and his recantation as well as Sawtre's examinations by Archbishop Arundel and the sentence against Sawtre were all added. Foxe took all of these documents from Archbishop Arundel's register (Lambeth Palace Library Arundel Register, vol. II, fos. 178r-181r). This account was reprinted without change in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

, a good man and a faythfull Priest, inflamed wyth zeale of true religion, required he might be heard for the commoditie of the whole realme. MarginaliaW. Sautre brought before the byshops in the conuocation But the matter beyng smelt before by the Byshops, they obtayned that the matter should be referred to the conuocation: where the sayd William Sautre beyng brought before the Byshops and Notaries thereunto appoynted, the conuocation was differred to the Saterday next ensuyng.

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When Saterday was come, that is to say, the xij. day of February, Thomas Arundell Archbyshop of Canterbury, in the presence of hys counsayle prouinciall beyng assembled in the sayd Chapiter house, agaynst one Syr William Sautre, otherwise called Chatris, Chaplayne, personally then and there appearing by the commaundement of þe foresayd Archb. of Canterbury, obiected: that the sayde Syr William before the Byshop of Norwiche, had once renounced and abiured diuers and sundry conclusions heretical and erroneous: and that after such abiuration made, he publiquely and priuely, held, taught, and preached, the same cōclusions or els such lyke, disagreyng to the catholique faith, and to the great peril and pernitious example of others. And after thys, he caused such lyke conclusions holden and preached as is sayd, by the sayd Syr William wythout renunciation, then and there to be read vnto the sayd Archbishop, by Maister Robert Haull, Chauncelour vnto the sayd byshop in a certayne scrole written, in tenour of wordes as foloweth.

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Syr William Chatris otherwyse called Sautre, parishe Prieste of the Church S. Scithe the virgine in London, publiquely and priuely doth hold these conclusions vnder written.

MarginaliaThe articles of W. Sawtre.In primis, he sayth, that he wyll not worship the crosse on which Christ suffered, but onely Christ that suffered vpon the crosse.

2. Item, that he would sooner worship a temporall kyng, then the foresayd wodden crosse.

3. Item, that he would rather worship the bodyes of Saintes, then the very crosse of Christ, on which he hong, if it were before hym.

4. Item, that he would rather worship a man truely contrite, then the crosse of Christ.

5. Item, that he is bound rather to worship a man that is predestinate, then an aungell of God.

6. Item, that if any man would visite the monuments of Peter and Paule, or go on pilgrimage to the Toumb of S. Thomas, or els any whether els, for the obtayning of a temporall benefite: he is not bounde to keepe hys vowe, but that he may distribute the expenses of hys vowe vpon the almes of the poore.

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7. Item, that euery Priest and Deacon is more bound to preach the word of God, then to say the canonical houres.

8. Item, that after the pronouncing of the Sacramentall wordes of the body of Christ, the bread remayneth of the same nature that it was before, neither doth it cease to be bread.

To which conclusions or articles beyng thus read, the Archb. of Canterbury required the sayde Syr William to aunswere. And then the sayd William asked a copye of such articles and conclusions, and a competent space to aunswer vnto the same. Wherupon, the sayd Archbishop cōmaunded a copye of such articles or conclusions to be deliuered then & there vnto the sayd Syr William, assignyng the Theusday then next ensuyng to hym to deliberate and make aunswere in. When Thursday the sayd day of apparance was come, Maister Nicholas Rishton, auditour of the causes and busines belonging to the sayd Archbishop (then beyng in the Parliament house at Westminster otherwise let) cōtinued the sayd conuocation wyth all matters rising, dependyng and appartinent therunto, by commaundement of the said Byshop, vntill the next morow at eight of the clocke.

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