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645 [621]

K. Henry.5. The Bohemians, Pope Martin.

MarginaliaIudas seeketh for his reward.Powes might be thanked and rewarded, accordyng to the Proclamation made, for his great trauaile taken in the apprehēsion of Syr Iohn Oldcastle knight, hereticke. Thus stand the wordes of the recorde. Where two thynges are to be noted: First, how Syr Iohn here in the recorde is called not traytour, but hereticke onely. Secondly, marke how this brother of Iudas here craueth his reward for betraying the innocent bloud. Wherein it is not to be doubted, but that his lyght fee, and quid multis mihi dare in this worlde, will haue an heauy reward hereafter in the world to come, vnlesse he repented. &c.

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MarginaliaAn. 5. Henr. 5. act. 17.Furthermore, in the sayd Parliament, Act. 17. it was enacted that the church and all estates should enioy all their liberties, which were not repealed, or repealeable by the cōmō law: meanyng belike, the excludyng of the iurisdiction of the Popes foreine power, which hath alwayes by the common law bene excluded out of this Realme.

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MarginaliaAn. 5. Henr. 5. act. 18.In the same Parliamēt also a greuous complaint was made (by the Byshops no doubt) agaynst insurrections. In the end they suspected that they were the Lollardes, heretickes, & traytours, with a request that commissions might at all tymes be graunted to inquire of them. Whereunto aunswere was made, that the statutes therfore made, should bee executed. &c. Thus the Clergy Tanq̃ leones rugientes, ceased not to roare after Christiā bloud: MarginaliaAll the blame layde to the Lollardes.And whosoeuer was els in fault, still the clergy cried: crucifie Christ, & deliuer vs Barrabas: For then all horrible factes and mischieues, if any were done, were imputed to the poore Lollardes.

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And now from our English matters, to returne agayne to the story of the Bohemians, from whence we haue a litle digressed, when as the newes of the barbarous crueltie exercised at Constance agaynst Iohn Hus, and Hierome of Prage, were noysed in Boheme, the nobles and gentlemen of Morauia and of Boheme, such as fauoured the cause of Iohn Hus, gatheryng themselues together in the zeale of Christ: 

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Hussite Wars

Those who continue to insist that one of the purposes of the Acts and Monuments was to present England as the elect nation, might do well to examine Foxe's glorification of the Hussites. With the possible exception of Thomas Cromwell, there is no magistrate or secular leader whom Foxe admired as much as the Hussite military commander, Jan Ziska. Foxe's account of the Hussites allowed him to stress two themes important to him: that the False Church, led by the Papacy, was unrelenting in its determination to eradicate the True Church and that God could be counted on to protect his people. With the exception of Zisca's epitaph, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis [Strassburg, 1562], p. 499, all of Foxe's account of Zisca and of the Hussite wars in the 1563 edition is taken from Aeneas Sylvius Picclomini's Historia Bohemica (Basel, 1489), sigs. c8v-e2v. In the 1570 version, Foxe reprinted most of this material, although he deleted material which had been included in the first edition but was now considered too embarrassing: among them a description of the Adamites (radical sectarians who renunciation of worldly goods allegedly extended to nudity) and Picclomini's descriptions of massacres perpetrated by the Hussites. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two documents. One was a bull of Martin V ordering prosecution of the followers of Wiclif and Hus. Foxe stated that he received a copy of this bull from Richard Hakluyt the elder, the cousin of the Richard Hakluyt who compiled The Principal Navigations. The other document was a manifesto sent by the Hussites to European rulers in an effort to garner support. Foxe states simply that this document came 'ex vetustissimo codice manuscripto'. The account of the Hussite wars in the 1570 edition was reprinted without change in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

first sent their letter vnto the Councell, expostulatyng with them, for the iniurie done to those godly men, as is before expressed pag. 614. for the which letter they were all cited vp to the Coūcell. Vnto this letter Sigismund the Emperour maketh aunswere agayne in the name of the whole Councell: first, excusing himselfe of Husses death, whiche he sayd was agaynst his safeconduict and agaynst his will: In somuch that he rose in anger from the Councell, and departed out of Constance, as is before remembred. Secondly, he requireth them to be quiete, and to conforme thēselues peaceably vnto the order of the catholicke church of Rome, &c.

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Also the Coūcell hearyng or fearyng some stirre to rise among the Bohemiās, did make lawes and Articles wherby to bridle them, to the number of xxiiij.

MarginaliaArticles decreed in the Councell of Constance agaynst the Bohemians.FIrst, that the kyng of Bohemia shall be sworne to geue obedience, and to defende the liberties of the Churche of Rome.

That all Maisters, Doctours and Priestes, shall be sworne to abiure the doctrine of Wickliffe, and Hus, in that Councell condemned.

That all they whiche beyng cited would not appeare, should also be sworne to abiure: and they which would not appeare, contemnyng the censure of the keyes, should haue processe agaynst them, and be punished.

That all such lay mē as had defēded the causes of Iohn Wickliffe and Iohn Hus, should sweare to defend them no more, and to approue the doynges of that Councell, and the condemnation of Iohn Hus.

That all such seculare men as had spoyled the Clergy, should be sworne to restitution.

That Priestes being expelled frō their benefices, should be restored agayne.

That all prophaners of Churches should be punished after the Canonicall sanctions.

That such as had bene promoters in þe Coūcell agaynst Iohn Hus, should be permitted safely to returne into Boheme agayne, and to enioy their benefices.

That the reliques and treasure taken out of the Church of Prage, should be restored fully agayne.

That the vniuersitie of Prage shoulde be restored agayne and reformed, and that they which had bene the disturbers therof, should be really punished.

That the principall heretikes and doctors of that secte, should be sent vp to the Apostolique, namely Ioannes Iessenetz, Iacobellus de Misna: Symon de Tysna, Symon de Rochinzano, Christannus de Brachatitz: Ioannes Cardinalis: Zdenko de loben: The prouost of Alhalowes, Zdislaus de SuiertitZ, and Michael de Czisko.

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That all secular men which communicated vnder both kyndes, should abiure that heresie, and sweare to stoppe the same hereafter.

That they which were ordeined Priestes by the suffragane of the Archbishop of Prage, MarginaliaThis suffragane was a good mā and helde wyth Iohn Hus.taken by the L. Zenko, should not be dispensed wyth, but sent vp to the sea Apostolike.

MarginaliaWickleiffes bookes translated by I. Hus & Iacobellus, into the Bohemian speech.That the treatises of Iohn Wickleffe translated into the Bohemian tongue by Iohn Hus, & Iacobellus, should be brought to the Ordinary.

That the treatises of Iohn Hus cōdemned in the coūcell, should also be brought vnto the ordinarie.

That all the tractations of Iacobellus De vtraque specie, de Antichristo (wherin he calleth the Pope Antichrist) Et de remanentia panis post cōsecrationem, should likewise be brought and burned.

That all songes and balates made to the preiudice of the Councell, and of the Catholike persons of bothe states, should be forbid to be song in Cities, townes and villages, vnder great and extreme punishment.

That none should preach the worde wythout the licēce of the Ordinarie, or of the person of that place.

That Ordinaries and Prelates hauing iurisdiction, should not be stopped in their iurisdiction, by the secular power, vnder payne of excommunciation.

That all and singular persons shall bee commaunded to obedience vnder payne of excommunication: and that who soeuer knoweth any person to fauour any Wycleuistes or their doctrine, or that keepeth cōpany with suspect persōs, he shall present the same to his Diocesans or his officials.

That the cōfederacie of the seculars made betwene thē selues, or any of þe spiritualtie, to the preiudice of the foresayd councell, & of the Apostolicke sea and church of Rome, in the fauour of Iohn Hus, Hierome of Prage, and other in the sayd Councell condemned, shalbe dissolued. MarginaliaConcilium malignantium.

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That the rites and ceremonies of Christiā religiō, touching Gods seruice, Images, and worshipping of reliques, shalbe obserued, & transgressors of the same be punished.

That all and singular, either spirituall or secular that shall preach, teach, holde, or maintayne the opinions and Articles of Iohn Wickleffe, Iohn Hus, and Hierome, in thys Councell condemned, and conuict of the same, shall be holden for heretickes, and fallyng in relapse, shall be burned.

That all secular persons being monished and charged by the ordinaries, shalbe bound to geue their ayde and furtheraunce vnto them, touchyng the premisses.

The Bohemians notwithstanding these cruell Articles, contemnyng the vayne deuises of these Prelates and fathers of the Coūcell, ceased not to procede in their leigue and purpose begon, ioyning themselues more strongly together.

MarginaliaDeposing of pope Iohn 23.In this meane tyme it happened, that during this Councell of Constance, after the deposing of Pope Iohn, and spoyling of hys goodes, which came to. 75. thousand poundes of gold: and siluer, as is reported in the story of S. Albans,

MarginaliaEx hist. S. Albani.Pope Martin vpon the day of S. Martin, was elected. Concerning whose election great preparatiō was made before of the Councell, so that beside the Cardinalles. v. other Byshops of euery nation should enter into the conclaue, who there together should be kept with thinne diet, till they had founded a Pope. MarginaliaThe election of pope Martine.At last, when they were together agreed vpō this man, & not tarying for opening of the doore, lyke mad men, for hast, brast open an hole in the walle, crying out, Habemus papam, Martinum, we haue a Martine Pope. MarginaliaThe Emperour kisseth the popes feete.The Emperour hearing thereof, with the lyke hast, came a pace, and fallyng downe kissed the new Popes feete. Then went they all to the Church together, and sang. Te deum.

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MarginaliaPope MartineThe next day following, this Martine was made priest (which before was but a Cardinall Deacon) and the nex day after was consecrate Bishop, and sang hys first masse, whereat was present 140. mitred Byshops. After thys, the next morrow, the new holy pope ordayned a general procession, where a certayne Clerke was appointed to stand with flaxe and fire, who setting the flaxe on fire, thus said: Ecce pater sancte, sic transit gloria mundi, i. behold holy father, thus vadeth the transitory glory of this world. MarginaliaThe coronation of pope Martine.Which done, the same day the holy father was brought vp vnto an high scaffold (sayth the story) I will not say to an high mountaine, where was offred to hym all the glory of the worlde &c. there to be crowned for a triple king. This done, the same day, after dinner, the new crowned pope was with great triumph brough through the middest of the Citie of Constance, where all the Byshops and Abbots followed with their miters. The Popes horse was all trapt wyth

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