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702 [678]

K. Henry. 6. Articles of Duke Humfrey agaynst the Cardinall.

the truth of the other, which was agaynst the kyng. Furthermore, if by this church is ment the Cardinall of Wint. as lyke it is: then it may be coniecturall, that all this matter rose of that Cardinall, who was then a mortall enemy to the house of Gloucester. &c.

Marginalia8. Coniecture. Eightly: And that all this was done and wrought by the sayd Cardinall of Wint. the witch concernyng Eye maketh the matter the more suspicious, seyng that towne of Eye as Fabiā witnesseth, was nere beside Winchester, and sea of that bishop.

Marginalia9. Coniecture. Moreouer, for so much as Polydore Virgill, among other story authors, beyng a man as may be supposed, rather fauouryng the Cardinals parte then the Dukes, made no mention at all touchyng this treason, his silence thereof may minister matter not onely to muse, but also to coniecture, that he had found somethyng which made hym to mistrust the mater. Otherwise it is vnlyke that he woulde haue so mewed vp the matter, and passed it ouer wythout some mention.

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Marginalia10. Coniecture. Finally and briefly: The frequent practises and examples of other tymes, may make this also more doubtful, considering how many subtile pretences, after lyke sorte haue bene sought, & wrongfull accusations brought agaynst many innocent persons. For (not to repeate the like forgeries against the Lord Cobham and sir Roger Acton. &c.) why may not this accusation of the Duches and Onley, be as false as that in the tyme of king Edward the 5. which was layd to the charge of the Queene, and Shores wyfe, by the Protectors, for inchaunting & bewitching of his wythered arme? Which to be false, all the world doth know, and but a quarell made, only to oppresse the life of the L. Hastings and the L. Standley. &c. And thus mayst thou see, gentle reader, according to the wise mans saying: Nihil nouum esse sub sole: Nihilq; dictum, quod non dictum prius. &c.

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Although these with many mo coniectures, may be alledged in some part of Defence of this Duches, and of her Chaplaines and Priestes: yet because it may be not vnpossible agayne, the matter layde agaynst them, to be true, I leaue it therfore at large as I finde it: saying as I sayd before, that if it be true which the stories say in this matter, thinke I besech thee gentle Reader, that I haue sayd nothyng hereof. Onely, because the matter may be disputable, and not vnpossible to be false, I haue but moued thereof a question, and brought my coniectures, leauyng the determination and iudgement hereof, to thy indifferent and free arbitrement. And if M. Cope, be so highly offended with me, because in my first edition of Actes and Monumentes I durst name the Lady Eleanor Cobham, and Roger Only: let him take this for a short aunswer, because my leisure serueth not to make lōg braules with hym: MarginaliaA biref answere to M. Copes cauillations, concerning Duke Humfreyes wife. þt if I had thought no imperfections to haue passed in my former edition before, I would neuer haue taken in hande the recognition thereof now the second time, wherby to sponge away such motes, as I thought would seeme great stombling blockes in suche mens walkes, which walke with no charitie to edifie: but with malice to carpe and reprehende, neyther admonishyng what they see amisse in others, neyther tarying whyle other men reforme themselues, and finally finding quarels where no great cause is iustly geuen. And here an ende wyth M. Cope for this tyme.

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MarginaliaThe contention betwene the Cardinall of Wint. and Duke Humfrey, Lord protectour. For somuch as in the processe before, mention was touched concernyng the grudge betwene the Cardinall, called the rich Cardinall of Winchester, and the good duke Humfrey duke of Glocester, the kinges vncle, and protector of the realme: order of story now requireth to open some parte of that matter more at large. 

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Humphrey of Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort

Foxe's account of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, was drawn from an impressive range of print and manuscript sources. The most important of these was Edward Hall's chronicle. The background to the feud between Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort, the articles Gloucester objected against Beaufort, the hostility of the earl of Suffolk and Margaret of Anjou to Gloucester, the death of Gloucester, the death of Beaufort and the murder of the earl of Suffolk are all taken from Hall, in some instances, on a word-for-word basis. (Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York [London, 1560], STC 12723a, fos.142v-148r, 151v-152v and156v-158v). Foxe supplemented Hall with the Great Chronicle for Beaufort trying to ambush Gloucester and for the intervention of the archbishop of Canterbury and the the duke of Coimbra to mediate the quarrel (The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], pp. 136-7). Foxe also drew on Polydore Vergil's history for small points of detail: Henry Chichele's death and college foundations, the observation that the title 'duke of Gloucester' was unlucky, and William Wainfleet's foundation of Magdalen college (Polydore Vergil, Anglica historia [Isengrim, 1555], pp. 491-3). And while the burning of St. Paul's steeple could have come from a number of sources, Foxe's wording is quite close to the account of the event in Robert Fabian, Fabyans cronycle (London, 1559), STC 10664, p. 441.

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Foxe took the story of Gloucester's exposing the fraudulent miracle from Thomas More's Dialogue Concerning Heresies (2 parts., vol. 6 The Complete works of St. Thomas More [New Haven, CT, 1981], I, pp. 86-7). Foxe also cites William Tyndale as a source for this story, but Tyndale simply referred to More's account. But Foxe did draw on Tyndale's The Practice of Prelates for the summoning of the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's in 1447. (See William Tyndale, Expositions and Notes…with the Practice of Prelates, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society [Cambridge, 1849], p. 297). The quotations from dedications to Gloucester by Piero del Monte and Lapo are from Bodley MS Auct. F.5.26, pp. pp. 1-2 and 117. And Foxe drew the writ forbidding Cardinal Henry Beaufort from entering England in his capacity as papal legate from Bodley Tanner MS 165, fos. 81r-82v. (Foxe notes that he borrowed the manuscript he used as a source for this writ from William Bowyer and Bowyer owned Tanner MS 165).

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Although modern historians have questioned Gloucester's character and political judgement, he enjoyed a universally good press from his contemporaries. This was partly because Gloucester was an aggressive proponent of a popular, albeit unsuccessful, war with France and partly because he was the foe of those, like Beaufort and Suffolk, who were seen as evil, but influential, councillors to the king. Contemporary praise of Gloucester shaped sixteenth-century perceptions of him; Tyndale and More agreed on little but they agreed on Gloucester's virtues. Writers such as More and Foxe were also influenced in their assessments by Gloucester's undeniable prominence as a patron of humanist writers. This allowed Foxe to present Humphrey as an ideal lay magistrate opposed to evil worldy clerics led by Cardinal Beaufort.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

Wherin this first is to be vnderstand, that long before, great flames of grudge and discorde did burst out betwene these two. MarginaliaAn. 1440 For as the noble harte of the Duke could not abyde the proud doynges of the Cardinall: so much agayne the Cardinall in lyke maner sore enuied and disdayned at the rule of the Duke of Glocester. Notwithstanding by the meanes of the Duke of Bedford, the brasting out betwene them was before appeased and cured: yet not so, but that vnder imperfect amitie priuy hatred, as sparcles vnder the embers, did stil remayne: MarginaliaEx Polychro. So that the Cardinall, ioyning with the Archbishop of Yorke, attempted many thinges of their owne presumption, contrary to the consent, not onely of the kyng (beyng then vnder age) but also of the protectour and gouernour of the realm. Wherwyth the Duke (lyke a true harted prince) beyng not without iust cause offended declared in writyng to the king certaine complaintes conteyned in 21. Articles, wherein the Cardinall and Archbishop had transgressed, both agaynst the king and his lawes. The tenor whereof, more at large is in other stories expressed, the briefe abstract therof follow eth in a short summarie here to be sene.

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¶ Certayne poyntes or articles obiected by the Duke Humfrey, agaynst the Cardinall of Winchester.

MarginaliaWint. presumeth to be Cardinall agaynst the mynde of his king. FIrst complayned to his soueraigne Prince, his right redoubted Lord duke Humfrey, his vncle and protector of the realme, that the bishop of Winchester, in the dayes of his father king Henry the v. tooke vpon hym the state of a cardinall, beyng denied by the king, saying that he had as lefe set his crowne beside hym, as to see him weare a Cardinals hatte, and that in Parliamentes, he not beyng contented with the place of a Bishop among the spirituall persons presumed aboue his order, which the sayd Duke desired to be redressed.

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MarginaliaWint. incurreth the law of premuniri 2. Item, where as he beyng made Cardinall, was voyded of hys bishopricke of Winchester, he procured from Rome the Popes Bull, vnknowyng to the kyng, whereby he toke agayne his Bishopricke, contrary to the common lawe of this Realme, incurryng thereby the case of prouision, and forfeityng all hys goodes to the Kyng, by the lawe of premuniri facias.

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MarginaliaWint. intrudeth himself to be the kynges gouernour. 3. Item, he complayned, that the sayd Cardinall, with the Archbishop of Yorke, intruded themselues to haue the gouernaunce of the kyng, and the doyng vnder the kyng, of temporall matters, excludyng the kynges vncle, and other temporall Lordes of the kings kynd, from hauyng knowledge of any great matter.

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4. Item, wheras the kyng had borowed of the Cardinall iiij. thousand poundes, vpon certaine Iewels, and afterward had his mony redy at the day to quite his MarginaliaThe Cardinall defraudeth the king of hys iewels. Iewels: the Cardinall caused the treasurer to conuert that money, to the payment of an other army, to kepe the Iewels still to hys owne vse and gayne.

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MarginaliaThe Cardinall deliuereth the k of Scottes, vpon hys owne authoritie. 5. Item, hee beyng then Byshop of Winchester, and Chauncelour of England, deliuered the kyng of Scottes, vpon his own authoritie, contrary to the Acte of Parlamēt, weddyng his nece afterward to the sayd kyng. Also where the sayd kyng of Scottes should haue payd to the kyng 40. thousād poundes, the cardinall procured. x. thousād markes therof to be remitted, and yet the rest very slenderly payed.

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MarginaliaThe Cardinall playeth the marchāt. 6. Item the sayd Cardinall, for lending notable sōmes to the kyng, had the profit of the porte of Hampton: Where he, setting his seruaunts to be the Customers, wolle and other marchaundise was, vnder that cloke, exported, not somuch to his singular vaūtage, beyng the chefie marchaunt, as to the greate preiudice of the kyng, and detriment to his subiectes.

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7. Item, the Cardinall, in lending great sommes to the kyng, yet so differred and delayed the loane therof, that cōming out of season, the same dyd the kyng little pleasure, but rather hynderaunce.

MarginaliaThe Cardinall a defrauder of the k. 8. Item, where Iewels & plate were preised at. xi. thousand poundes in weight, of the sayd Cardinall forfeited to the kyng: the Cardinall for loane of a litle peece, gat hym a restorement therof, to the kynges great damage, who better might haue spared the commons, if the somme had remayned to hym cleare.

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9. Item, where the kynges father had geuen Elizabeth Bewchampe. CCC. markes of lyuelode, with this condition if she wedded with in a yeare, the Cardinall, notwithstandyng shee was maryed two or three yeares after, yet gaue her the same, to the kinges great hurt, and diminishyng of his inheritaunce.

MarginaliaThe Cardinall taketh vpon hym lyke a king. 10. Item, the Cardinall hauyng no authoritie nor interest to the crowne, presumed notwithstandyng to call before him, like a kyng, to the kynges high derogation.

11. Item, that the Cardinall sued a pardon from Rome, to be freed from all dismes, due to the kyng by the church of Winchester, geuing therby example to the clergy, to withdraw their dismes likewise, and to lay all the charge onely vpon the temporaltie, and poore commons.

12. 13, Item, by the procuryng of the sayd Cardinal and Archbyshop of Yorke, great goods of the kynges were lost and dispended vpō nedeles Ambassades, first to Arras, then to Calyce.

14. Item, it was laid to the charge of the sayde Cardinall and Archbyshop, that by their meanes, going to Calyce, the ij. enemyes of the king, the Duke of Orleance, and Duke of Burgoyne, were reduced together in accorde & alliaunce, who beyng at warre before betwene them selues, and nowe confederate together, ioyned both together agaynst þe kyngs townes and countreis ouer the sea, to the great daunger of Normandie, and destruction of the kynges people.

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15. Item, by the Archbyshop of Yorke, & the Cardinall,

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