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705 [681]

K. Henry. 6. The Popes Legate not admitted, comming without the kinges leaue.

Amōg the other mischieuous aduersaries which sought and wrought the death of Humfrey Duke of Glocester, next to the Cardinall of Winchester (who, as is sayd, dyed the next yeare folowyng) was William de la Pole, Marques of Suffolke, who also liued not long after, nor long escaped. MarginaliaGods punishment vpon the Marques of Suffolke. For although he was hyghly exalted, by the meanes of the Queene (whose mariage he onely procured) vnto the fauour of the kyng, and was made Duke of Suffolke, and magnified of the people, and bare the whole sway in the realme, whose actes and factes his vayne glorious head caused also by the assent of the commōs, to be recorded, and substantially to be registred in the rolles of the Parliament, for a perpetuall renowne to him, and all his posteritye for euer: yet notwithstanding the hand of Gods iudgement still hangyng ouer him, he enioyed not long this his triumphāt victory. MarginaliaThe vaine glory of mās hart forgetting himselfe in honour. For within. iij. yeares after the death and ruine of the Cardinall, MarginaliaThe cōmons vnconstant.the voyces of the whole commons of England were vtterly turned agaynst him, MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke accused by the cōmons. accusing him in the Parliament at the Blacke Friers, for deliuery of the Duchy of Angeow, and Earldome of Maine: also for the death of the noble Prince Humfrey Duke of Glocester. They imputed moreouer to hym the losse of all Normandye, laying vnto hym, that he was a swalower vp and cōsumer of the kyngs treasure, the expeller of all good and vertuous counsailours from the kyng, and aduauncer of vicious persons, apparant aduersaryes to the publicke wealth: so that he was called in euerye mouth a traytour, a murderer, and robber of the kynges treasure.

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The Queene, albeit she tenderly loued the Duke, yet to appease the exclamation of the Commons, was forced to committe hym to the tower, where he, with as much pleasure and libertie as could be, remayned for a moneth, which being expired, he was deliuered and restored agayne into his old place and former fauour with the kyng: where at the people were more grudged then before. It happened by the occasion of a commotion then begynnyng amongest the rude people, by one whom they called Blewbeard, that the Parliament, was for that tyme, adiourned to Leycester, thinkyng to the Queene, by force and rigour of law to represse there the malice and euill will conceiued agaynst the Duke. But at that place few of the nobilitie would appeare. Wherfore it was agayne reiourned vnto London, & kept at Westminster, where was a whole company, & a full appearaūce, with the Kyng and Queene, and with them the Duke of Suffolke, as chief coūsailour. MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke againe accused. The Cōmons not forgettyng their old grudge, renewed agayne their former Articles and accusations agaynst the sayd Duke, agaynst the Byshop of Salisb. & sir Iames Fynies, Lord Say, and other. When the kyng perceaued that no glosing nor dissimulation would serue to appease the continuall clamor of the importunate cōmons, to make some quiet pacification, first he sequestred from him the Lord Say, Treasurer of England, & other the Dukes adherentes from their offices. Then he put in exile the Duke of Suffolke, for the terme of v. yeares, supposing by that space the furious rage of the people would asswage.

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MarginaliaExample of Gods iudgement and of bloud reuenged. But the hand of God would not suffer the giltles bloud of Humfrey Duke of Glocester, to be vnreuenged, nor that flagitious person further to continue. For when he shipped in Suffolke, intendyng to be transported into Fraunce, he was encountered with a shyp of warre belongyng to the tower, MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke beheaded. whereby he was taken, & brought into Douer rode, and there on the side of a shyp boate, one strake of hys head: which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1450.

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And thus haue ye heard the full story and discourse of Duke Humfrey, and of all hys aduersaryes: also of Gods condigne punishment vpon them for their bloudy crueltie. But before I remoue from the sayd story of the foresayd Duke, and of the proude Cardinall his enemy, I will here by the way, annexe a certaine instrument by the kyng and aduise of his Counsayle, made agaynst the sayd Cardinall, takyng vpon hym to enter into this Realme, as Legate frō the Pope, contrary to the old lawes and customes of this Eealme, as by the wordes of the sayd instrument here in Latine may well appeare.

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MarginaliaPublicum instrumentum nomine Regis. IN Dei nomine Amen, Per presens publicum instrumentum cunctis appareat euidenter quod an. Dom, 1428. Indictione septima pontificatus Sanct. in Christo pat. & D. nostri D. Martini. &c.

Ego Richardus Candray, procurator & nomine procuratorio Christianissimi principis Domini Henrici, Dei gratia Regis Angliæ & Franciæ, & Domini Hiberniæ, Domini mei supremi, de assensu pariter & aduisamento Illustris & potentis Principis Humfridi Ducis Gloucestriæ, Comitis Penbrochiæ, protectoris & defensoris regni Angliæ, & Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, ac cæterorum dominorum meorum de consi lio suæ Regiæ celsitudinis, ac consilium eiusdem facientium & hac vice representantium, dico, allego, et in his scriptis propono, quod dictus Christianissimus princeps, dominus meus supremus, suiq; inclytissimi progenitores dicti regni Angliæ Reges, fuerunt & sunt, tam speciali priuilegio, quā consuetudine laudabili legitimeq; præscripta, nec non a tēpore & per tempus (cuius contrarij memoria hominum non existat) pacifice & inconcusse obseruata, sufficienter dotati legitimeq; muniti, quod nulius Apostolicæ sedis Legatus venire debeat in regnum suum Angliæ, aut alias suas terras & dominia, nisi ad Regis Angliæ pro tempore existentis vocationem, petitionem, requisitionem, inuitationem, seu rogatum: Fueruntq; et sunt dicti Christianissimus princeps, dominus meus supremus ac sui inclyti progenitores huiusmodi Reges Angliæ, in possessione quasi iuris & facti priuilegii, & consuetudinis prædictorum, absq; interruptione qua cumq; toto & omni tempore supradicto, pacifice & quiete: Romanis pontificibus per totum tempus supradictum, præmissa omnia & singula, scientibus, tolerantibus, & iisdem consentientibus tam tacite quam expresse, ac extra omnem & omnimodam possessionem, quasi iuris & facti, Legatum huiusmodi (vt præfertur) in regnum Angliæ aut alias suas terras & dominia mittendi, nisi ad vocationem, peticionem, requisitionem, & rogatum Regis Angliæ, pro tempore existentis Et quia reuerendis. in Chri. pat. & D. D. Henricus Dei gratia. &c sancti Eusebij præsbyter, Cardinalis sanctæ sedis Romanæ, Legatum se affirmans, more Legati, insigniis Apostolicæ dignitatis vtens, absq; vocatione, petitione, requisitione, inuitatione, aut rogatu Christianissimi domini nostri Regis prædicti, inclytum regnum Angliæ de facto est ingressus: protestor igitur palam, & publico in his scriptis nomine & vice quibus supra, ac omnium ipsius domini nostri Regis subditorum, quod non fuit, aut est intentionis præfati Christianiss. principis, domini mei supremi, ac dictorum dominorum meorum de consilio, in derogationem legum, iurium, consuedinum, libertatum & priuilegiorum dicti D. nostri Regis ac regni, ingressum huiusmodi dicti reuerendiss. patris, vt Legati in Angliam, authoritate ratificare, vel approbare, seu ipsum vt legatum sedis Apostolicæ in Angliam, contra leges, iura, consuedines, libertates & priuilegia prædicta quouismodo admittere seu recognoscere: aut exercitio legationis suæ huiusmodi, aliquibusue per ipsum, vt Legatum sedis Apost. actis, seu agendis, attentatis, seu attentandis, aduersus præmissa, leges, iura, consuetudinis libertates, & priuilegia, in aliquo consentire: sed dissentire: sicq; dissentit dictus dominus noster Rex, atq; dissentiunt dicti Domini mei de consilio, per presentes. &c.

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MarginaliaAn instrument by the the king agaynst the admitting the popes legate. The summe and effect whereof in Englishe is this: that in the yeare of our Lord 1428. as the kyng wyth the duke Humfrey L. Protector, and the rest of the Counsaile, were in the Dukes house in the parish of S. Benets by Paules warfe, one Richard Candray procuratour, in the kynges name and behalfe, did protest and denounce by this publicke instrument, that where as the kyng & all his progenitours, kynges before him of this realme of England, haue bene heretofore possessed tyme out of mynde, with speciall priuilege and custome vsed and obserued in this realme from time to tyme, that no legate from the Apostolicke sea should enter in this land or any of the kynges dominions, without the calling, petition, request, inuitement or desire of þe king: and forsomuch as Henry byshop of Wint. and Cardinall of S. Eusebius, hath presumed so to enter as Legate from the Pope, being neither called, sent for, required, or desired by the king: therefore the sayd Richard Candray in þe kings name doth protest by this instrument, that it standeth not wyth the kynges mynde or intent, by the aduise of his coūsaile, to admit, approue, or ratifie the comming of the sayde Legate in any wise, in derogation of the rightes, customes & lawes of this his realme: or to recognise, or assent to any exercise of this his autoritie Legantine, or to any actes, attemptes, or hereafter by him to be attempted in this respect contrary to the foresayd lawes, rightes, customes, & liberties of this realme, by these presentes. &c.

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And thus much as an Appendix, annexed to the story of Duke Humfrey, and the Cardinall of Wint. extract out of an olde written volume, remayning in the handes of Maister William Bowyer.

¶ The benefite and inuention of Printing. 
Commentary  *  Close
Invention of Printing

Foxe's account of the invention of printing is one of the most famous and often-quoted sections of the Acts and Monuments. However, most citations of it and quotations from it, fail to appreciate a crucial dimension to these passages: Foxe saw the invention of printing as a milestone in the unfolding of the end times. In the 1563 edition (p. 362), Foxe printed a declaration that the invention of printing had been prophesied by the Sibyls. This declaration was never reprinted, but was replaced in a much longer and more detailed account in the 1570 edition. Although no mention was made of the Sibyls in the revised account, Foxe insisted on the providential timing of the invention, which he saw as a divine response to the burnings of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague. Foxe never lost his belief in the apocalyptic significance of printing. In his commentary on Revelation, he maintained that the invention of printing had been prophesied by St. John (See John Foxe, Eicasmi seu meditationes in sacram Apocalypsim [London, 1587}, STC 11237, p. 107). Foxe's narrative of the invention of printing contains a great deal that was his own opinion and his own writing - including the well-known passage that printing-presses were blockhouses against the Castel St Angelo. He also provided the first account of Gutenberg and the invention of printing in English. Foxe drew this material from two sources. The first was a treatise, De typographiae inventione by the Lutheran reformer, Matthaeus Judex. This provided almost all of Foxe's narrative of Gutenberg, Schaeffer and Faust. (See Matthaeus Judex, De typographiae inventione [Copenhagen, 1566], pp. 14 and 29). The citations of Wimpheling and Ziegler came fom Caspar Hedio's continuation of the chronicle attributed to Conrad of Lichtenau, the abbot of Ursperg. Also from Hedio is the material on John Mentell, Ulrich Han and the Latin poems in this account. (See Abbatis Urspergensis Chronicum, ed. Caspar Hedio [Basel, 1569], pp. 403-4).

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Thomas S. Freeman

MarginaliaAn. 1450.
the arte of printing inuented
IN folowing the course and order of yeares, we finde thys foresayd yeare of our Lord 1450. to be famous and memorable, for the diuine and miraculous inuention of printing. Nauclerus and Wympselingus folowing hym, referre the inuention therof to the yeare 1440. In paralipom. Ab-

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