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725 [701]

K. Edw. 4. Doct. de Wesalia reuoketh. Pope Sixtus. The Rosary of our Lady.

councellors had bene about him, if all they which dyd accuse and moleste hym, had not bene de via realium, as Thomistes, that is, of the secte of thomas: MarginaliaDiscorde betwixt Reals & Nominals. whiche Thomistes were set at that time, agaynst the other sect of þe seculars, which were called Nominales, and therfore, they so spyted thys Doctour because he did not hold with their Thomas, agaynst whom otherwise (had it not bene for that cause( they would neuer haue bene so fierce and malicious in procedyng agaynst him. I take God to witnesse 

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This entire quotation, regarding contemporary disapproval of Ruceruth's trial, is taken directly from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1562), p. 560.

, which knoweth all things, that this processe, which was made agaynst hym for his reuokyng & burnyng of his bookes, did greatly displease maister Engeline of Brunswicke, a greate diuine, and also Maister Iohn Keisersberge, beyng both learned, and famous men, but namely maister Engeline thought, that to much malice and rashnes was shewed in handling of that same man, and did not feare to say, that many of his Articles, & the greater part therof, might be holden well inough, and greatly blamed the mad and phantasticall dissension of the Thomistes, sekyng by all maner of wayes, how to get the triumphe ouer the seculare deuines. &c. MarginaliaEx Orth. Grat. Hæc ille.

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MarginaliaDoct. Iohn de Wesalia reuoketh his opinions. Although this aged 

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This paragraph was added in the 1570 edition in response to Nicholas Harpsfield's claim that Ruceforth was not a tue martyr because he did not die violently. (See Nicholas Harpsfield, Diaogi sex contra summi pontificatus, monasticae vitae, sanctorum Sacrarum imaginum oppugnatores et pseudomartyres [Antwerp, 1566}, p. 822). Foxe wanted to emphasize that Ruceruth was a victim of persecution.

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and feble old man, by weakenes was constrained to geue ouer vnto the Romishe clergy, by outward profession of his mouth: yet notwithstandyng, his opinions and doctrine declared his inward hart, of what iudgement he was, if feare of death present had not otherwise enforced him to say, then he did thinke. Agayne, although hee had reuoked after their mindes, yet we read no such fourme of recantation to be prescribed to him to read openly vnto the people, as the vse is here in England. The story of this man is more fully to bee found, in the bookes of Orth. Gratius. &c.

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As touchyng the reygne of this Fridericke Emperour, seyng we haue comprehended hetherto sufficiently the most principall matters in his tyme incurrent, we will now passe forward (the Lorde guidyng vs) to Maximilian, after I haue first geuen a brief memorandum of iij. valiaunt princes and captaines florishing in the same tyme of this Fridericke, in Germanie: MarginaliaAlbert duke of Saxonie, called Dextera manus Imperij. of the whiche, one was Albert Duke of Saxonie, who for his renowmed and famous actes, was called by publique voyce, Dextera manus Imperii. The right hand of the Empire. MarginaliaAlbert Marques of Brādenburg, called Achilles Germanicus. The other was Albert. Marques of Brandenburge, to whom also the name was attributed, named of Pope Pius to be Achilles Germanicus. The third was Friderick Earle Palatine, surnamed Victoriosus, who manfully defended the fredome and maiestie of the Empire, from the fraudulent oppressions of the popes tyrannie.

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Marginalia1484.
The abhomination of Pope Sixtus.
In the yeare of our Lord. 1484, in this Emperors tyme dyed Pope Sixtus, the. iiij. a litle before touched, a monster rather of nature, then a prelate of the churche 

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The material on Sixtus IV - including the pasquinades - is taken entirely from John Bale's Catalogus, pp. 602-4 and 624-5.

. Of him writteth Platina, that vniustly he vexed al Italy with warr and dissension. Agrippa writyng of him, MarginaliaEx Declaratione Agrippæ ad Louaniensis. sayth that among all the bawdes of these other latter dayes, which were builders of brothelhouses, this Pope Sixtus, 4. surmounted all other: who at Rome erected a stewes of duble abhomination, not onely of wemen but also. &c. whereupon no small gayne redounded to hys coffers: For euery such common harlot in Rome payd to him a Iuly peece 
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I.e., the prostitutes paid a tax every July.

, the summe whereof grewe in the yeare, some while to. 20000. at lēgth to. 40. thousand Duckets. Wherunto accordeth right well the Epitaphe of Iohn Sapidus, whiche in the ende hereof we will annexe.

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MarginaliaThe warres of Pope Sixtus. Iohn Carion also speakyng of this Byshop, witnesseth hym to be a mā rather borne to warre, then to Religiō: For he warred agaynst Vitellius Tiphernates, against þe Florentines, the Venicians, whom he excōmunicated & did not absolue till he dyed: also against Colū nenses, agaynst Ferdinandus king of Apulia, & Duke of Calabria: also against other nations and Princes moe. MarginaliaEx Ioan. Laziardo. lib. Historiæ Vniuersalis cap. 284. Ex Ioan. Laziardo.

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MarginaliaA large gift of the pope to the begging Friers. Of the sayd Pope it is recorded that he was a speciall patron and tutor to all beggyng Friers, grauntyng them to haue and enioy reuenewes in this world, and in the world to come euerlastyng life. Among the which Friers 

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe printed an account of Alan de Rupe's founding of a rosary and a confraternity in honour of the Virgin Mary and of the vision which inspired it. Foxe drew this account from Bale, but (interestingly) was openly sceptical about it. By 1570, Foxe had checked Bale's source and found that Bale's report was accurate. (See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Offending God: John Foxe and English Protestant Reactions to the Cult of the Virgin Mary' in The Church and Mary, ed. R. N. Swanson, Studies in Church History 39 [Woodbridge, 2004], pp. 232-5).

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there was one named MarginaliaAlanus, author of our Ladyes Psalter. Alanus de rupe, a Blacke Frier, whiche made the Rosary of our Ladyes Psalter (so they terme it) and erected a certeine new fraternitie vpon the same, called Fraternitas Coronariorum, perteinyng to the order of the Dominickes, of the whiche order Iacobus Sprenger, one of the condemners of Ioannes de Wesalia aboue mentioned, was a great aduaūcer, & especially this Pope Sixtus 4. who gaue to the sayd fraternitie large graces and priuilegies.

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Concernyng the institution of this Rosary, there was a booke 

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The book was Jodocus Beissel, Rosacea augustissime christiferae Maria corona (Antwerp, 1495). The passage quoted (accurately) below, is on sig. b5v .

set forth about the yeare of our Lord. 1480. in the begynnyng wherof is declared, that the blessed virgine entred into the celle of this Alanus, and was so familiar with him, that not onely she did espouse him to her husband, but MarginaliaThen had the blessed virgine Mary two husbandes. also kissed him with her heauenly mouth, and also for more familiaritie, opened to hym her pappes, and poured great plenty of her owne milke into his mouth. MarginaliaAn olde knaue to sucke his wiues brest. For the confirmation whereof the sayd Alanus, this holy babe (sayth the story) did sweare deepely, cursing himselfe, if it were not thus, as he had made relation.

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This fabulous figment, when I read in the centuries of Iohn Bale 

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I.e. Bale's Catalogus, which was divided into 'centuries'.

, I began with me selfe to mistrust the credite thereof, and had thought not to trouble the reader with such incredible forgeries. But as þe prouidēce of God worketh in all thynges, so also it appeared in this, that the very same booke came to my hands at the writyng hereof, wherin this selfe same narration is conteined, wherein I founde not onely this to be true, whiche in Iohn Bale is expressed, but also founde in like maner, an other wonder as prodigious as this: where in an other place not farre of, is storied in the same booke 
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Foxe is quoting the story accurately; it is taken from Jodocus Beissel, Rosacea augustissime christiferae Maria corona (Antwerp, 1495), sigs. a4v-a5r.

, how that about the tyme of S. Dominicke, there was a certayne Matrone in Spayne named Lucia, which beyng taken captiue by the Saracenes, hauyng her husband killed, was caried great with chyld, into the Turkish land.

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When the tyme of her labour came, she beyng left desolate alone amōg beastes and hogges, & remēbring this twise holy Rosary, (first instituted sayth the booke by S. Dominicke, and afterward reneued by Alanus) eftsones the holy Virgin was redy and stood by her, and receiued the child at her trauayle, supplying all the partes of a diligent midwyfe: MarginaliaThe detestable impietie and blasphemie of the popishe lying religion. & more ouer causing a priest sodenly to appeare, gaue the child to be Christened, calling it after her owne name, Marianus: & so was she wyfe to Alanus, midwife to Lucia, and Godmother to Marianus. Which story if it be true, then is þe popes Canon, by this example, to be controlled, which permitteth midwiues in tyme of necessitie, to baptise, MarginaliaMendacem memorem esse oportet. seyng the blessed Virgin playing the part her self of a midwife, durst not baptise this child without a priest.

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It foloweth more in the story, that by the helpe of the sayd blessed virgine, this Lucia our Ladies gossip, after her Purification, was restored with her chylde safe to her coūtrey agayne. MarginaliaEx Latino Codice impresso, cui titulus: Rosacea Mariæ Corona. This booke beyng in Latin and printed, beareth this title: Rosacea Augustissimæ Christiferæ Mariæ Corona: and in the fronte it sheweth the name of Iodocus Bisseleius a noble man of Aquine. And this by the occasion of pope Sixtus. Which Sixtus, what a mainteiner of blind superstition he was, by this it appeareth: how filthy in hys lyfe, how cruelly geuen, and all set vpon warre, and what an hater of peace he was, partly by that aforespoken, partly by the ende followyng it may be sene. MarginaliaThe death of Pope Sixtus. 4. For so we read in certain writers, that after this Pope had vnderstanding that Hercules Estensis, Duke of Ferraria, had ioined peace with the Venetians agaynst his will, he was so greued therewyth, that for rācour of mynde, within v. dayes after, he died: whereunto his Epitaph folowyng geueth sufficient record. MarginaliaHere endeth Platina. About whose tyme also dyed Platina a man not vnlearned, but yet a shamefull flatterer and bearer with the wicked lyues of the Popes.

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The Epitaphe of Pope Sixtus is this.


Non potuit sæuum vis vlla extinguere Sixtum:
Audito tandem nomine pacis obit.
 

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An epitaph on Pope Sixtus
Foxe text Latin

Non potuit sævum ... pacis obit.

Translation

J. Barrie Hall

No force was able to obliterate savage Sixtus. He died finally on hearing the word 'peace'.

An other Epitaphe of the same pope.


Sixte iaces tandem, nostri discordia secli,
Sæuisti in superos, nunc Acheronta moue.
Sixte iaces tandem, deflent tua busta cinædi,
Scortaq; lenones, alea, vina, venus.
 

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Another on the same Pope
Foxe text Latin

Sixte jaces tandem ... alea, vina, venus.

Translation

J. Barrie Hall

At last you, Sixtus, the discord of our age, are brought low. You raged against the gods above: now set Acheron in motion. At last you are brought low, Sixtus, and your death is bewailed by catamites, harlots, pimps, the dice, the drink, and lust.

An other.


Gaude prisce Nero, vincit te crimine Sixtus,
Hic scelus omne simul clauditur, & vitium.
 

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Another
Foxe text Latin

Gaude prisce Nero ... et vitium.

Translation

J. Barrie Hall

Rejoice, ancient Nero, Sixtus surpasses you in wickedness. Enclosed here together are every crime and every vice.

But leauing here pope Sixtus with hys verses, and vices, let vs now procede, as we before promised, to enter the story of Maximilian, kepyng notwithstandyng the order of our kynges here in England: MarginaliaThe death of K. Edward 4.
An. 1483.
For a litle before the reigne of Maximilian, king Edward the fourth ceased hys life. an. 1483. after he had reigned. 22. yeares. 

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Edward V and Richard III

Apart from the description of Richard III's coronation, which is drawn from Hall's chronicle, Foxe's narrative of the brief reigns of Edward V and Richard III is based entirely on Thomas More's History of King Richard III and Polydore Vergil's Anglica historia. (Although Foxe regarded both historians as Catholics and untrustworthy sources on religious history; on secular affairs he preferred their humanist histories to chronicle accounts). For Richard's seizure of the throne, which is covered by both authors, Foxe preferred More's fuller and more dramatic account. For Richard III's reign after Buckingham's rebellion - which Foxe barely mentions - Foxe had to rely on Vergil.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaBurdet. In the tyme of which Kyng Edward, this also is not to be forgotten, that one Burdet, a Merchaunt dwellyng in Chepeside 
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More alludes to the incident (see The History of the Reign of King Richard III, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, The Complete Works of St. Thomas More 2 [New Haven, CT, 1963], p. 70). But Foxe has details found in no other source; probably he drew on the memories of individual informants.

, at the signe of the crowne, which is the signe nowe of the flower de luse, merely speakyng to his sonne, said that he would make him inheritour of þe crown, meanyng in dede his own house. MarginaliaTyranny in misconstring a mās wordes. For þe which wordes, whē K. Edward caused to be miscōstred,

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and
PP.iij.
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