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K. Richard. 3. The battaile at Bosworth. K. Richard slaine.

whom all good men then hated, as he no otherwise deserued. MarginaliaKing Richard taketh the field of Bosworth. The kyng hauyng perfect knowledge the Earle to be encamped at Tomworth, embatled himselfe in a place neare to a village called Bosworth, not farre from Leicester, appoynting there to encounter with his aduersaries. Here the matter lay in great doubt and suspense concerning the Lord Stanley MarginaliaThis Lord Stāley was he which was hurt at the Tower when the Lord Hastinges was arrested. vide. pag. 702. (which was þe Earles father in law & had maryed his mother) to what part he would encline. For although his hart went (no doubt) with the Earle, and had secret cōference with him the night before, yet because of his sonne and heyre George Lord Straūge, beyng then in the handes of kyng Richard, least the kyng should attempt any preiudiciall thing agaynst him, durst not be sene openly to go that way, where in hart he fauoured, & therfore closely kept him selfe betwene both, till the pushe came that his helpe might serue at a pynch.

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The number of the Earles part exceded not to the one halfe of the side of kyng Richard. MarginaliaBosworth fielde. When the tyme, and the place was appoynted, where these two battailes should encoūter and ioyne together, sore stripes and great blowes were geuen on both sides, and many slayne. If number and multitude might gouerne the successe of battaile, kyng Richard had double to the Earle. But God is he, not man, that geueth victorye, by what meanes it seemeth to his diuine prouidence best. MarginaliaThe history of sir Thomas More, worde for worde taken out of Polydo. Virg. In what order and by what occasion this field was wonne and lost, the certaine intelligence we haue not certeinely expressed, but onely by the history of Polydore Vergile, whō sir Thomas More doth folow worde for worde. 

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This would seem to indicate that Foxe was using the Latin edition of Thomas More's works, which was printed at Louvain in 1565, as this edition supplemented More's history of Richard III - which ended, incomplete, in 1483 - with Polydore Vergil's account.

In the whiche history it doth appeare, that as these two armyes were couplyng together, kyng Richard vnderstandyng by his espyals where the Earle of Richmond was, and how he was but slenderly accompanied, and seyng him to approch more neare vnto him, he rather caried with courage, thē ruled with reasō, set spurres to the horse and raūgyng out of the compasse of his ranckes, pressed toward the Earle, settyng vpon him so sharply, MarginaliaW. Brandon. þt first he killed sir William Brādon, the Earles standart bearer, MarginaliaCharles Brandō. father to þe Lord Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke, thē after ouerthrew sir Iohn Cheny, thinkyng, likewise to oppresse the Earle. But as the Lord by his secret prouidence disposeth the euent of all thynges, as the Earle with his men about him beyng ouermatched, began to dispayre of victory, sodenly and oportunely came Syr William Stanley with iij. thousād well appointed able men, MarginaliaThe death of K. Richard. whereby king Richardes men were driuen backe, and he himselfe cruelly fightyng in the thicke of his enemyes, was there slayne, and brought to his confusion and death, which he worthely deserued.

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In the meane tyme the Earle of Oxford, who had the guidyng of the forward, discomfited the forefront of Kyng Richards hoast, and put them to flight, MarginaliaDuke of Northfolke slayne. in which chase many were slayne, of noble men especially aboue other, Iohn duke of Northfolke, Lord Ferrers, sir Richard Radcliffe, and Robert Brakenbury Lieutenaunt of the Tower. &c. MarginaliaL. Tho. Haward Earle of Surrey aduaunced by K. Henry. 7. Lord Thomas Haward Earle of Surrey, there submitted himselfe, and although he was not receaued at first to grace, but long remayned in the Tower, yet at length for his fidelitie, was deliuered and aduaunced to his recouered honour and dignitie agayne.

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MarginaliaK. Richardes sonne punished for the wickednes of his father. This kyng Richard had but one sonne, who shortly after the cruell murder of kyng Edwardes sonnes, was taken with sickenes and dyed. The wife of the sayd king Richard (whether by poyson or by sicknes) dyed also a litle before the field of Bosworth: MarginaliaK. Richard purposed to marry Elizabeth his brothers daughter. After whose deceasse, the story of Polydore and of sir Tho. More affirmeth, that he intended himselfe to mary the Lady Elizabeth his own brothers daughter, and so to preuent the Earle of Richmond.

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MarginaliaL. Stanley husband to K. Henries mother forsoke K. Richard. Moreouer as touching the Lord Stanley, thus reporteth the story, that kyng Richard beyng in Bosworth field, sent for the said Lord Stanley by a purseuaunt, to auaunce forward with his company, and come to his presence: otherwise he sware by Christes Passion, that he would strike of his sonnes head before dyner. The Lord Stāley sent word agayne, that if he did, he had more sonnes alyue. Wherupon the kyng immediatly commaunded the Lord Strange to be beheaded: which was the very tyme when both the armyes were within sight, & were ready to ioyne together. MarginaliaThe L. Strange meruelously preserued. Wherfore the kynges counsaillours ponderyng the tyme and the case, persuaded the kyng, that it was time now to fight, and not to do execution, aduising hym to delay the matter till the battaile were ended. And so (as God would) kyng Richard breakyng his othe, or rather keepyng his othe, for he himselfe was slayne before dyner, the Lord Straunge was cōmitted to be kept prisoner within the kinges tente: who thē after the victory gotten, was sought out and brought to his ioyfull father. And thus haue ye the tragicall lyfe and end of this wretched kyng Richard.

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Henry the Earle of Richemond, after harty thankes geuen to almighty God for his glorious victory obteined, proceded to the Towne of Leicester, where was brought to him by the Lorde Straunge, the crowne, and put on the Earles head. MarginaliaThe shamefull tossing of K. Richardes dead corpes.
1485.
In the meane tyme the dead corps of kyng Richard was shamefully caryed to the town of Leicester, beyng naked and despoyled to the skinne, & so beyng trussed behynd a purseuaunt of armes, was caryed like a hog or a dogge, hauyng his head & armes hanging on the one side of the horse, and the legges on the other side, all sprincled with myre and bloud. And thus ended the vsurped reigne of king Richard, who reigned two yeares, and two monethes. Ex Polydo. & Thom. Moro.

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¶ Kyng Henry vij.

MarginaliaK. Henry 7. WHen kyng Henry, by the prouidence of God had obteined this triumphant victory, and Diademe of the Realme, first sēdyng for Edward Platagenet earle of Warwyke, sonne to George Duke of Clarence, and committyng him to safe custody within the tower, from Leicester remoued to London, MarginaliaK. Hēry marieth with Elizabeth. and not long after, according to his othe and promise made before, espoused to him the yoūg Lady Elizabeth, heyre of the house of Yorke: MarginaliaThe two houses of Yorke & Lancaster ioyned together. whereby both the houses of Yorke and Lancaster were conioyned together, to the no litle reioysing of all English hartes, and no lesse quyet vnto the Realme, which was an. 1485. This kyng reigned. xxiij. yeares and. viij. monethes, and beyng a Prince of great policie, iustice, and temperaunce, kept his Realme in good tolerable rule and order. And here interruptyng a litle the course of our English matters, we will now (the Lord willyng) enter the story aboue promised, of Maximilian the Emperour, and matters of the Empire, especially such as pertaineth to the Church. 

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Maximilian I and Julius II

Foxe's starting point for a great deal of the material in this section layin the work of John Bale. Joan Boughton and Philip Norris were both discussed in Bale's notes in Bodley Library MS e Musaeo 86, fo 63v; Foxe repeated these accounts in his Commentari, fos. 174v-175r and 176r-v. Foxe also printed a brief account of Savanorala in the Commentari, which was also drawn from Bale (see Commentari, fo 177r-v). However, while Foxe may have drawn on Bale for his accounts of these people in the Commentari, for the A&M, he was able to draw on other sources. Theaccount of Savanorola in the 1563 edition, was taken on Matthis Flacius's Catalogus testium veritatis, as was the account of Wesel Gansfort which also appeared in the 1563 edition. These accounts were reprinted without alteration in all subsequent unabridged editions of the A&M. Foxe also reprinted two letters of Maximilian I, also from Flacius's Catalogus, in his first editions. In the 1570 edition, edition Foxe added all of the other material in this section. The material on Maximian I was drawn from Casper Peucer's continuation of Carion's chronicle. Foxe took his account of thr persecution of Lollards around the year 1500 from the manuscript of what is now known as the Great Chronicle of London. And the accounts of Alexander VI and Julius II were drawn almost entirely from John Bale's Catalogus. Although there is no unifying theme for this section and it covers events inEngland, Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, it does make a number of pointsimportant to Foxe. It recounts the existence of proto-Protestants before Luther,including Lollards as well as Wesel Gansfort and Savanorola. (As a corollary ofthis, Foxe also associates Protestantism with both the invention of printing andhumanism). Foxe was also able to demonstrate the financial corruption of the Papacy, through the letters of Maximilian (complaining of ecclesiastical abuses) and its moral corruption, through the careers of Alexander VI and Julius II.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

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¶ Maximilian Emperour.

Marginalia1486.
Maximilianus Emperour.
IN the yeare of our Lord. 1486. Fridericus waxyng aged, 

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The following account of Emperor Maximilian I is drawn fromCaspar Peucer's continuation of Carion's chronicle. (See Chronicon Carionis [Wittenburg, 1580], pp. 688-90). Foxe concentrates on the praise of Maximilian'svirtues and gives little of the political and military history in Peucer's account, particularly ignoring Peucer's fairly detailed account of Maximilan's Italian wars.

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and partly also mistrustyng the heartes of the Germaines, who had complayned before of their greuāces, and could not be heard, and therfore misdoutyng that his house after his decease, should haue the lesse fauour among them, for that cause in his life tyme did associate his sonne Maximlliā to be ioyned Emperour with him: with whom he reigned the space of vij. yeares till the death of the sayd Fridericke his father, who departed. an. 1494. after he had reigned ouer the Empire. 53. yeares, lacking onely but iij. yeares of the reigne of Augustus Cæsar, vnder whō was the byrth of our Lord and Sauiour Christ. MarginaliaThe reigne & death of Fridericus Emperour.
1494.

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This Maximilian, as he was a valiaunt Emperour, prudent and singularly learned: so was his reigne intāgled in many vnquyet and difficile warres: first in the lower coūtreys of Flaunders and Brabant, where the sayd Maximilianus was takē captiue, but shortly after, reschued and deliuered agayne by his father an. 1487. MarginaliaMaximilian marieth the Duches of Burgoyne. It was signified before how this Maximilian by the aduise of the Burgundians, had to wife Mary MarginaliaThis Mary was neece to K. Edward. 4 the onely daughter of Charles Duke of Burgundy afore mentioned, by whom he had two children, Philippe and Margarete. an. 1477. Which Mary not long after, about the yeare of our Lord. 1481, 

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Actually Mary of Burgundy died in 1482.

by a fall from her horse, fell into an agew, & departed. Other warres many mo, þe same Maximiliā also achiued, both in Fraūce, in Italy, in Hungary and diuers besides.

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MarginaliaThe learning of Maximiliā cōmēded. So happy was the educatiō of this Emperour in good letters: so expert he was in tounges and sciences, but especially such was his dexteritie and promptnes in the Latine stile, MarginaliaMaximilian writer of his owne stories. that he imitatyng the exāple of Iulius Cæsar, did write and comprehend in Latine hystories, his owne actes and feates done, and that in such sort, that when he had geuen a certaine tast of his hystory, to one Pyrcamerus a learned man, askyng his iudgement how his warlyke stile of Latin did like him, the sayd Pyrcamerus dyd affirme and report of him to Iohn Carion (the witnes & writer of this story) MarginaliaEx Ioan. Carione. that he neuer did see nor read in any Germane story, a thyng more exactely (and that in such hast) done as this was of Maximilian. Moreouer, as he was learned himselfe, MarginaliaMaximilian first ordainer of the vniuersitie of Wittenberg. so was he a singular patrone and aduauncer of learned studentes, as may well appeare by the erectyng and settyng vp the Vniuersitie of Wittenberge. By this Emperour many in those dayes were excited to the embrasing as well of other liberall Artes, as also namely to the searchyng out of old antiquities of histories, whereby diuers were then by hym first occasioned in Germany, to set their myndes and to exercise their diligence, in collectyng and explicatyng matters perteyning to the knowledge of history, as well of aun-

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