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746 [722]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

MarginaliaPreparation of warre betwene Zelymus and the Christians. agaynst the Christians in Hungary. But the Hungarians beyng sone repressed by Iuno Bassa the Turkes captaine, great preparation began to be made by the Turkes agaynst the confines of Seruia bordering vpon Hungary: The terrour whereof stirred vp Maximilian the Emperour and Ladislaus kyng of Hungary, and Sigismundus kyng of Polonie, to consulte together, and conioyne their power for defense of Christendome. MarginaliaThe turke called away from the Christians. But through new incumberances incident, the Turke leauyng Europe, made hast agayne into Asia, to renue agayne his warres agaynst the Persiãs who had made a vowe not to geue ouer that warre before Ismael was ouerthrowne.

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But before he entred that warre, first he sent his messengers to the Sultane of Egypte, requiring him not to entermedle in that warre: MarginaliaA turkishe vowe. for this Sultane before had promised to assiste the persians agaynst the Turke. The name of the Sultane which MarginaliaCampson the Sultane or ruler of the Egiptians. reigned then in Egypt, was Campson, set vp by the Mamaluci. MarginaliaMamaluci. These Mamaluci were a certein order amongest the Egyptians much like to the Ianizarites about the Turke, beyng þe children of Christen men, and after renying Christ, were the chiefest doers in þe Sultanes court, and beyng growne into a great multitude, did degenerate into a turkish barbaritie or rather became worse then Turkes, This Campson vnto the messengers of the Turke gaue this aunswere agayne, that vnlesse he would leaue of his warre agaynst Ismael, and restore the sonne of Aladulus, otherwise he would not lay downe his armour.

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Zelymus beyng incensed not a litle with this insolente aunswere of the Sultane, leauing all other warres aside, with great celeritie aduaunced his power agaynst the Sultane, MarginaliaCaierbeius false to his master. Which Sultan partly through the falsehode of his captaine Caierbeius, partly by the suddeinnes of the Turkes comming, not farre from the Citie of Damascus encountred with the Turke MarginaliaCampson slaine. and there ouerthrowne from his horse beyng a fatte and grosse body, and fallyng vnder his horse, and his horse also falling vpon him, was quashed in peeces and so dyed: which was the yeare of Lord. 1516.

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Mamalucie of whom more then a thousand in this battalle were slayne, flyeng from thence to Memphis, MarginaliaTomoumbeius made Sultane of Egipt. set vp Tomoumbeius in stede of Campson: whose captaine Gazelles was ouercome at the Citie of Gaza, and he afterward him selfe driuen out of Memphis, where a great part of the Mamaluci were destroyed. Then Tomoumbeius flyeng ouer the floud Nilus, renued his armye agayne: but in the ende was discomfited and chased into a marishe, where he was founde standyng in the water vp to the chynne, and so beyng brought to Zelymus, was put to the racke and great tormentes, to make him confesse where Campsons treasures were. MarginaliaTomoumbeius executed. But when he would not declare, he was caried about the towne with a halter about his necke and hanged vp vpõ a high gibbet for a spectacle to al Egypt: which was the yeare of our Lord. 1517. And thus were the two Sultanes in Egypt destroyed with the Mamaluci, which there had borne the rule in Egypt the space of. 243. yeares, MarginaliaA worthy destruction of the Mameluci forsaking their fayth and religion. The progenie of the which Mamaluci remainyng of the warres, the Turke commaunded in the prison gates of Alexandria to be cut in peeces. MarginaliaNote agayne the prouidēce of god. Zelymus from thence, triūphyng departed to Constantinople, entendyng to spende the rest of hys tyme in persecutyng the christians: MarginaliaThe death of Zelymus. But in that meane space he was stricken with a cankerd sore rotting inward & dyed after he had raigned. 7. yeres lyke a beast, in the yere of our Lord. 1520.

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The raigne of this Turke was but short in number of yeares: but in number of his murthers and cruell bloudshed it might seme excedyng long: which lyued more lyke a beast then a man, for he neuer spared any of his frendes or kinred. MarginaliaThe beastly crueltie of Zelymus agaynst his kindred. His father first he poysoned, his brethren and all his cosins he quelled, leauyng none of all hys kynrede alyue. Moreouer his chiefe and principall captaines for small occasions he put to death, as Mustapha, Calogere, Chendeme, Bostang his sonne in law, and Iunobassa.

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MarginaliaThe crueltie of Zelymus against his sonne Solyman. It is sayd moreouer that he entended the poysoning of his owne sonne Solyman, sending vnto him a shirt infected with poyson, because he semed some thyng freely to speake agaynst the cruel demeanure of his father: But by þe means of hys mother, the gyfte beyng suspected, was geuen to an other which was hys Chamberlayne, who puttyng on the shirte, was strucken with the poyson therof, and therwithall dyed.

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MarginaliaA note of Gods prouidence for the reformation of religion. As touchyng this Turke Zelymus, by the way here may be noted how the secret prouidence of the Lord kept him occupied with his Turkish warres at home, while that the reformation of Christian religion here in Europe the same tyme begū by Martine Luther, might the more quietly take some rootyng without disturbance or interruption. For so it appeareth by the computation of tyme, that in the dayes of this Zelymus, Martine Luther first began to write against the Popes indulgences, which was in the yere of our Lord. 1516.

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Solymannus the 12. after Ottomannus. 
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Sulieman I

While Foxe's account of the reign of Süleyman I emphasizes the same themes as his history of the reigns of previous sultans, there are two significant differences. The first is in the detail which Foxe gives to the reign (it is roughly equalto that given to all eleven of Süleyman's predecessors combined). There are a number of reasons for this extended coverage. Süleyman had a long reign (46 years) and a great deal happened within it. Although the conquests of Selim were arguably more notable, they took place in the Islamic world. Süleyman's major triumphs, the capture of Rhodes and the conquest of Hungary, were, on the other hand, directed against Europeans. Consequently, European writers devoted a good deal of attention to Süleyman's reign. Because of this attention and because Süleyman was a contemporary, Foxe was able to draw on more numerous and detailed sources for his reign. As a result, Foxe no longer relied on the necessarily brief accounts in the world chronicle of Johann Carion. Instead, apart from the occasional use of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis, Foxe relied on the histories collected in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556). Although Foxe pays far more attention to the military and politics in his history of theOttomans than he does elsewhere in his work, it is important to look for the ways inwhich he was able to use such 'secular' topics in relation to other incidents, to paint the Ottomans as a diabolical enemy, if not the actual Antichrist.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaSolymãnus the 12. after Ottomãnus. SOlymannus the onely sonne of Zelymus succeeded 

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The material on the failed conspiracy against Süleyman and on his capture of Belgrade is taken from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis(Basel, 1559), p. 968.

after his fathers death, who in the first beginnyng seemed to some to be simple and shepish, and not meete for the turkishe gouernment. Wherfore certayne of his nobles cõsulting how to depose hym, entended to set vp an other Emperour. In which conspiracy, especially are named Caierbeius and Gazelles. This Caierbeius was he that betrayed before Cãpson the Sultane of Egipt to Zelymus, as is aforesayde: MarginaliaRead in the pag. 735. who now also beyng in consultation with Gazelles and other about this matter, detected them also vnto Solyman. Wherfore the sayd Gazelles and hys fellowes beyng thus detected, were put to death by Solymã, declaring therby that he was not so shepish as he was thought of them to be, and as also by his actes afterward did more appeare.

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MarginaliaBelgradum againe besieged of the turke. Solymannus after this execution done vpon the cõspiratours, taking his voiage into Europe, first besieged Belgradum: which beyng a city in Hungary, was the strongest forte of all the Romaine Empire, and the chiefe defence at that tyme, of all Christendome, which also beyng assaulted before tyme by Amurathes the 2. was valiauntly defended by Ioannes Huniades as is aboue specified. MarginaliaRead before pag. 718. But here now lacked such a one as Huniades was: For the kyngdome of Hungary at that tyme, was vnder the gouernment of Ludouicus a yong king, vnexpert and of a simple witte. Whom other Princes, and speciallye the couetous Church men 

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The passage on Lajos II being dominated by his nobles and prelates is from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 968, but Foxe adds strictures on the greed of the clergy.

did so pill and poll, that they left him nothyng but onely the bare name and title of his kyngdome: Wherby he being vnfurnished both of men and mony, was vnable to match with such an enemy.

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MarginaliaDiscorde amongest Christian princes what mischiefe it bringeth. An other vauntage 

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The passages blaming the fall of Belgrade on the wars among Christians and on the Papacy are Foxe's additions to the text.

also the Turkes had in besieging of Belgrade: For the Christian princes at that tyme were in ciuill dissension and variaunce amongst themselues: and the Pope with his Churchmen also were so busie in suppressing of Luther, and of the Gospell then newly springyng, that they mynded nothyng els, except it were to maintayne þe walth of their own bellies. Which pope if he had set his care (as his duety was) so much in stirring vp princes agaynst the common enemy, as he was bent to deface the Gospell, & to persecute the true professors therof: soone might he haue brought to passe, not onely that Belgrade might haue bene defended agaynst the Turke, but also that to be recouered againe which was lost before: and moreouer might haue stopped the great daungers and perils which now are like to fal vpone the religion and church of Christ: which the Lord of his great mercy auert and turne away.

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MarginaliaThe pope so busie against Luther, that he neglecteth the ruine of Christēdom. Certes what so euer the Pope then did, this had bene hys duety, setting all other things apart, to haue had an earnest compassiõ of so many miserable and lost captiues, which were fallen from their fayth and religiõ, vnto the misery and slauery of the Turke, and thraldome of the deuill, & to haue sought all means possible to haue reduced them, as lost shepe into the folde agayne: Which then might soone haue ben done if prelates and princes ioyning together in christian concord, had loued so well the publike glory of Christ and soules of Christians, as they tendered their owne priuate, worldly, and friuolous quarels. MarginaliaTrue compassion lacking in the pope. And admit that the Pope had cõceyued neuer so much malice agaynst Luther, hys quarell also beyng good: yet the publike Church standyng in such danger, as it then did by the inuasion of the turke, reason would nature led, religion taught, tyme required that a good Prelate forgetting lighter matters, should rather haue layd hys shoulder to the excludyng of so great a daunger, as thē was imminent both to hymselfe, and the vniuersall Church of Christ: But now his quarell beyng vniust, and the cause of Luther beyng most iust and godly, what is to be sayde or thought of suche a Prelate, who forebearnyng the Turke, whome in a tyme so daungerous he ought chieflye to haue resisted, persecuted the truth, whiche he should speciallye haue mainteyned? But Christ for his mercy stand for hys Churche, and stirre vp zelous Princes and Prelates, if not to recouer that is lost, yet at least to reteyne that little which is left.

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MarginaliaThe citie of Belgrade wonne of the Turke. Solyman therfore 

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Foxe's use of Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel,1559), pp. 968-9 resumes here and continues through the fall of Belgrade, the fall ofRhodes and the battle of Mohács.

takyng hys occasion, and vsing the commoditie of tyme, while our princes were thus at variance betwixt themselues, without any resistance or interruption, brought his army vnto Belgrade, in the yere of our Lord. 1521. Which City beyng but slenderly defenced, the Turke through his vndermyners, guns and other engines of warre, without great difficulty, and with little losse of his souldiours, soone subdued and ouercame.

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