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778 [754]

K. Henr. 7. Persecution in Couentry. Picus Mirandula.

pardon all sinnes without confession and satitisfaction.

MarginaliaThomas Butler. THomas Butler of þe same Citie, was likewise opēly accused to be a very hereticke, because he did hold that there were but two wayes that is to say, to heauen, and to hell.

Item, that no faythfull man should 

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Butler was charged with saying that nobody undergoes any punishmentfor sin after death (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon Mcsheffrey andNorman Tanner, Camden series, 23 [2003], p. 70). Foxe has altered this to a statement that no faithful man should be punished for sin after death.

abyde any payne after the death of Christ, for any sinne, because Christ dyed for our sinnes.

MarginaliaAgaynst purgatory. Item, that there was no Purgatory, for euery mā immediatly after death passeth either to heauen or hell.

MarginaliaAgainste merites. Item, that whosoeuer departeth in the fayth of Christ and the Church, how soeuer he hath lyued, shalbe saued.

Item, that prayers & pilgrImages are nothyng worth, and auayle not to purchase heauen.

MarginaliaIohn Falkes. IOhn Falkes was accused to be a very hereticke, because he dyd affirme that MarginaliaAgainste Images it was a foolish thyng to offer to the Image of our Lady, saying, her head shalbe hoare or I offer to her, what is it but a blocke? If it could speake to me, I would geue it an halpeny worth of ale.

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Item, that when the Priest carieth to the sicke the body of Christ, why caryeth he not also the bloud of Christ?

Item, that he dyd eate cowe milke vpon the first Sonday of Lent.

Item, that as concernyng the Sacrament of penance & absolution, no Priest hath power to assoyle any man from his sinnes, when as he can not make one heare of his head.

Item, that the Image of our Lady was but a stone or a blocke. MarginaliaIt is heresie to say a stone is a stone, & a blocke is a blocke.

MarginaliaRichard Hilmin RIchard Hilmin was accused that he was a very hereticke, because he dyd say & mainteine that it was better to depart with money to the poore, then to geue tythes to Priestes or to offer to the Images of our Lady, and that it were better to offer to Images made by God, then to the Images of God paynted.

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MarginaliaScripture in Englishe. Item, that he had the Lordes Prayer and the Salutation of the Angel and the Creede in English, and an other booke did he see and had, which conteined the Epistles and Gospels in English, and accordyng to them would he lyue, and thereby beleued he to be saued.

Item, that no Priest speaketh better in the pulpit then that booke.

Item, that the Sacrament of the altare is but bread, & that the Priestes make it to blynd the people.

Item that a Priest whiles he is at Masse, is a Priest, and after one Masse done, till the begynnyng of an other Masse, he is no more then a lay mā, and hath no more power then a mere lay man.

¶ After they were enforced to recant, they Were assoyled and put to penaunce.

MarginaliaMargery Goyt. IN the yeare of our Lord. 1488. the iij. of Aprill, Magery Goyt, wife of Iames Goyt of Asburne, was brought before the foresayd Iohn Byshop of Couentry and Lychfield: MarginaliaAgaynst the Sacrament of the Altar. who was there accused 

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Margery Goyte was prosecuted two years after the previous eight Coventry Lollards and there is no evidence that she had any connection with them. She was also from Ashburne, Derbyshire, which is some distance from the city ofCoventry. The account of Goyte, however, is also from the register of Bishop Hales of Coventry. (Lichfield record Office, Register Hales, fos. 168v-169v; printed in Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series, 23 [2003], pp. 87-94).

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that she sayd, that þt which þe Priestes lift ouer their heades at Masse, was not the true and very body of Christ: For if it were so, the Priestes could not breake it so lightly into foure partes, and swalow it as they do: for the Lordes body hath flesh & bones, so hath not that which the Priestes receiue.

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Item, that Priestes buying xl. cakes for a halfpeny, and shewyng thē to the people and saying, that of euery of them they make the body of Christ, do nothyng but deceiue the people and enriche themselues.

Item, seyng God in the beginnyng did create and make man, how can it be that man should be able to make God? 

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Foxe omits two articles charged against Goyte. The first charged thatshe denied the virginity of the Virgin Mary and claimed that Christ was conceived ofJoseph. The second omitted article charged that she maintained that a child conceivedof Christian parents did not require the sacrament of baptism (Lollards of Caventry,1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifthseries, 23 [2003], p. 91).

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¶ This woman also, was constrained to recant, and so was she assoyled and dyd penaunce.

Thus much I thought here good to inserte, touchyng these foresayd men of Couentry, especially for this purpose, because our cauillyng aduersaries be wont to obiect against vs the newnes of Christes old and auncient Religion. 

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Foxe is using the example of the Coventry Lollards to demonstrate that'true' Christianity existed before Luther and that the Protestants did not invent their doctrines. This apologetic requirement explains why Foxe purged his accounts of theCoventry Lollards of articles attributed to them that he regarded as unorthodox . This lengthy disgression, tying the prosperity of monarchs andtheir reigns to their resistance to 'papistry', is actually an attempt to goad Elizabeth and her councillors into further reforming the English Church.

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To the intent therefore they may see this doctrine not to be so new as they report, I wish they would consider both the tyme and Articles here obiected agaynst these foresayd persons, as is aboue premised.

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MarginaliaPicus Mirandula Earle. I should also in the same reigne of kyng Hēry vij. haue induced the history of Ioannes Picus Earle of Mirandula, the mention of whose name partly is touched before, pag. 705. 

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Although Foxe does not openly admit it, the following brief biographyof Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the celebrated Italian Neo-Platonist and humanist, is a response to an attack by Nicholas Harpsfield. In the first edition of the A&M, Foxe had claimed that Pico della Mirandola, Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus had preparedthe way for Luther (1563, p. 402). Harpsfield responded indignantly, insisting thatPico was completely orthodox. Drawing heavily on Thomas More's translation ofGianfrancisco Pico della Mirandola's biography of his uncle, Harpsfield pointed out that the elder Pico della Mirandola flagellated himself in honour of Christ's passion and that he wished to become a friar. He dismissed passages where Pico della Mirandola denied transubstantiation as academic exercises written when the phlosopher was still an impetuous youth (Nicholas Harpsfield, Dialogi sex [1566], pp. 910-14). Foxe replies by drawing on elements in the younger Pico's biography that support his own case. The elder Pico was, in fact, a brilliant, but not sympatheticthinker, and both Harpsfield and Foxe could find aspects of his thought and writings to appropriate.

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This Picus Earle of Mirandula beyng but a young man, was so excellently wytted, & so singularly learned in all sciences, and in all tongues, both Latine, Grecke, Hebrew, Chaldey and Araby, that cōmyng to Rome booted and spurred, he set vp 90. conclusions, to dispute in the same with any in all Christendome, whosoeuer would come agaynst him. Of which conclusions diuers were touchyng the matter of the Sacramēt. &c. And when none was foūd in all Rome, nor in Europe, that opēly would dispute with him, priuely and in corners certeine of the Popes Clergy, Prelates, Lawyers, and Friers, by the Pope appoynted, cōsulted together to inquire vpon his cōclusions, wherupō they did articulate agaynst him for suspicion of heresie. And thus the vnlearned Clergy of Rome priuely circumuēted and intangled this learned Earle in their snares of heresie, agaynst whom they neuer durst openly dispute. He dyed beyng of the age of 32. of such a witte and towardnes, as is hard to say whether euer Italy bredde vp a better. In his sickenes Charles viij. the French kyng, moued with the fame of his learnyng, came to visite him. The furniture of his bookes cost him. 7000. florenes. A litle before his death his mynde was to geue all away, and to take a coule, to go about and preache, but the Lord would not permit him. His story requireth a longer tractatiō: which if place do serue, we will not peraduenture forget. With ij. Popes, that is, with Pope Innocent, and Alexander vj. he had much vexation. 
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This is somewhat distorted. It is true that Innocent VIII ordered Pico della Mirandola's arrest for heresy, but Alexander VI absolved him.

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¶ The names of the Archbyshops of Canterbury in this sixt booke conteyned.

62 Iohn Stratford. viij.
63 Iohn Kempe. iij.
64 Thomas Burchier. xxxiij.
65 Iohn Morton. xiiij.
66 Thomas Langhton. MarginaliaThis Thomas Langhtō was the elected Archb. but dyed before he was confirmed.
67 Henry Dene. ij.
Guliel. Warham. xxviij.

¶ Here endeth the sixt booke, and the first Tome.
¶ A brief note of Ecclesiasticall lawes ordeined by auncient kynges in this Realme.

MarginaliaEcclesiasticall lawes ordeyned by auncient kynges of thys Realme. FOr somuch 

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Ecclesiastical laws

The pre-Conquest laws excerpted in this in this section are translated from William Lambarde's Archaionomia. Lambarde's versions of these laws are based on translations made by Laurence Nowell, the antiquary. Nowell used an early twelfth-century translation of these lawcodes into Latin, the Quadripartitus. Nowell translated the Quadripartitus back into Anglo-Saxon, as he understood it. Lambarde gathered Nowell's manuscript translation together and printed them as the Archiaonomia. (See Patrick Wormald, The Making of English Law: King Alfredto the Twelfth Century [Oxford, 1999], pp. 6-7 and 260-2. For a more detailed analysis see Patrick Wormald, 'The Lambarde Problem: Eighty Years On' in Alfredthe Great: Studies in Honour of Janet Bately, ed. Jane Roberts, Janet Nelson and Malcolm Godden (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 237-75. Foxe cited these laws in anattempt to demonstrate that 'English' kings had held jurisdiction over the EnglishChurch before both were weakened and corrupted by the Papacy.Thus, while the Anglo-Saxon laws deal with multifarious criminal and economic matters, Foxe only prints those laws pertaining to the Church. Although Foxeabridges some of these laws, his translations of them are accurate.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

as it is, and hath bene a persuasion long gendered in the heades of many, that the Byshops of Rome be the vniuersall heades of the whole militant Church of Christ in earth: and haue alwayes so continued from the begynnyng of the primitiue time. And that no Prince, Kyng, nor Emperour in his owne Realme hath any interest to intermedle with matters and lawes Ecclesiastical, but onely the sayd Byshops of Rome: to refell and remoue that opinion out of the heades of all Englishmen, as a thyng most false, and contrary both to hystoryes of tyme, and examples of aūcient kyngs & gouernours of this Realme, I thought to fill vp a litle ende of paper here left, with some such brief rehearsall of lawes diuised and appointed by kyngs and rulers of this land, for the orderyng of the Church, and causes Ecclesiasticall: to the intent that all the world may see, the gouernement of Christes Churche here in earth vnder Christ, hath not depended onely of the Pope from auncient tyme, but hath bene rather directed by such kyngs and princes, as God here had placed vnder him to gouerne the people of this Realme of Englād, as foloweth here in this pre sent table to be noted.

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¶ A brief recapitulation, of auncient Ecclesiastical lawes by sondry kyngs of this Realme ordeined, for gouerment of the Church, before the Conquest
¶ Ecclesiasticall lawes of kyng Inas, or Ina. 
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This is an accurate, if condensed, translation of William Lambarde,Archianomia sive de priscis anglorum legibus libri (London, 1568), STC 15142,fos. 1r-2r.

MarginaliaEcclesiasticall lawes of Kkyng Ina. 1. FIrst kyng Inas who reigned in this land the yeare of our Lord. DCCxij. cōmaunded, that Ministers should frame their conuersation of lyfe accordyng to the forme in lawes prescribed.

2. That Infantes should be Baptised within. 30. dayes.

3. Item, that no man lay or spirituall, free or bonde, should labour vpon the Sonday.

4. Item, he established immunitie of churches, and Sanctuarie. Also he tooke order for the true payment of church duetyes, and of the first fruites of all that was sowen to be payd at the day of S. Martin.

À Ecclesiasticall lawes of kyng Alured, or Alfred. 
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These laws are from William Lambarde, Archianomia sive de priscis anglorum legibus libri (London, 1568), STC 15142, fos. 19r, 29r-31r and 41r.

Kyng
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