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851 [827]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and actes of Doct. Martyn Luther.

glorye. So be it. Ex histor. Phil. Melancth. ex Sledano, ex Paralip. Abb. Vrspurg. & ex Casp. Peucero.

MarginaliaLuther in hys iourney wryteth to the Emperonr and nobles of Germanie. MArtin Luther thus beyng 

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Foxe's account of all the events below, down to and including Henry VIII's attack on Luther, is drawn from Sleidan's Commentaries. (See Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, translated John Daus [London, 1560], STC 19848, fos. 31v-34v.

dimissed of the Emperour, accordyng to the promise of his safeconduict made (as you haue heard) departed from Wormes towarde his coōtrey the. xxvi. of April, accompanied with the Emperours Heraulde and the rest of his companye, hauyng onely. xxi. dayes to hym graunted for his returne, and no more. 
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Luther had twenty-one days to reurn home. During that time he was protected by the Imperial safe conduct; after that period he was at the mercy of the local authorities.

In the whiche meane space of his returne, he writeth to the Emperour, and to other nobles of the empire, repeating briefely to them the whole action and order of thynges there done, desiryng of them, their lawfull good wyll and fauour, whiche as he hath alwayes stande neede of, so now he most earnestly craueth, especially in this, that his cause, whiche is not his, but the cause of the whole church vniuersal, may be hearde with indifferencie and equitie, and maye be decised by the rule and authoritie of holy Scripture: signifying moreouer, that when so euer they shall please to send for hym, he shalbe readye at their commaundemente, at anye tyme or place, vppon their promise of safetie, to appeare. &c.

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MarginaliaThe doctors of Paris condemne the bookes of Luther Duryng the tyme of these doinges, the Doctours and Schoolemen of Paris, were not behind with their partes, but to shewe their cunnyng condemned the bookes of Luther, extracting out of the same, especially out of his booke De Captiuitate Babylonica, certaine Articles as touching the Sacramentes, the lawes and decrees of the Churche, equalitie of woorkes, vowes, contrition, absolution, satisfaction, Purgatorie, free wyll, priuileges of holye Churche, Councels, punishment of heretiques, Philosophie, Schole diuinitie, with other more. MarginaliaPhillip Melancton aunswereth the Parisiās. Vnto whom Philip Melancton maketh answeare, and also Luther hym self, albeit pleasantly and iestingly.

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MarginaliaLuther outlawed by the Emperour. It was not long after this, but Charles the new Emperour, to purchase fauor with the Pope (because he was not yet confirmed in his empire) prouideth and directeth out a solemne wryt of outlawry against Luther, & all them that take his part, commaunding the said Luther, where he might be gotten, to be apprehended, and his bookes burned. By whiche decree proclaymed against Luther, the Emperour procured no smal thanke with the Pope: in so much that the Pope ceasing to take part with the French kyng, ioyned hym selfe wholy to the Emperour. MarginaliaM. Luther kept a side for a while. In the meane tyme Duke Fridericke, to geue some place for the tyme to the emperours Proclamation, conueyed Luther a litle out of sight secretly, by þe helpe of certaine Noble men, whom he wel knewe to be faythfull and trusty vnto hym in that behalfe. There Luther beyng closse and out of company, wrote diuers Epistles, and certaine bookes also vnto his freendes MarginaliaLuthers booke De Abroganda Missa ad Augustinenses. among whiche he dedicated one to his companye of Augustine Fryers, entitled, De abroganda Missa. Whiche Fryers the same tyme, beyng encouraged by hym, began first to lay downe their priuate Masses. Duke Fridericke fearyng least that would breede some great styrre or tumult, caused the censure and iudgements of the whole Vniuersitie of Wittenberge, to be asked in the matter, committyng the doing thereof to foure Iustus Ionas, Phil. Melancthon, Nic. Amsdorffius, Ioh. Dulcius.

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MarginaliaThe Masse layde down first at Wittenberge. The myndes of the whole vniuersitie being searched, it was shewed to the Duke, that he shoulde doo well and godly, by the whole aduice of the learned there, to commaunde the vse of Masse to be abrogate through his dominion: And though it coulde not be done without tumult, yet that was no let, why the course of true doctrine shoulde be stayed, for the multitude, whiche commonly ouercommeth the better parte. MarginaliaThe iudgement of the Vniuersitie of Wittenberge against the Masse. Neyther ought suche disturbaunce to be imputed to the doctrine taught, but to the aduersaries, whiche willyngly and wickedly kicke againste the truth: whereof Christe also geueth vs forwarnyng before. For feare of such tumultes therefore, we ought not to surcease from that whiche we knowe is to be done, but constantly must go foreward in defense of Gods truth, how so euer the worlde dooth esteeme vs, or rage againste it. Thus shewed they their iudgement to Duke Fridericke.

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Marginalia1521. MarginaliaK. Henry writeth agaynst M. Luther. It happened moreouer about the same yeare and tyme, that king Henry also pretēdyng an occasion to impugne the booke De Captiuitate Babylonica, wrote agaynst Luther. In which booke:

1 He reproueth Luthers opinion about the Popes pardons.

2 He defendeth the supremacie of the Bishop of Rome.

3 He laboreth to refel al his doctrine of the Sacramentes of the Churche.

This booke, albeit it carryed the kynges name in the title, yet it was an other that ministred the motion, an other that framed the stile. 

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The assertion that someone other than Henry VIII wrote the book is Foxe's addition and it is a reference to the rumours that Thomas More was the work's real author.

But who seuer had the labour of this booke, the king had the thanke, and also the re warde. MarginaliaK. Henry made defender of the fayth by the Pope. For consequently vpon the same, the Bishop of Rome gaue to the saide king Henrye for the style agaynste Luther, the stile and title of Defender of the Christē fayth, and to his successours for euer.

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Shortly after this, within 

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Adrian VI

In the 1563 edition, Foxe printed a selection of the 100 articles presented by the German princes at Nuremberg in 1522, listing their grievances against the papacy. These articles were culled from the full list of grievances printed in Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 177v-187r. Ortwin Gratius (or van Graes) was a German humanist and he edited the Fasciculum, a collection of documents relating to later medieval church history. Gratius ardently sought reform of clerical abuses and he believed that this could not be done by a corrupt papacy but only through general Councils. His collection was intended to provide historical examples of conciliar authority and clerical corruption and was thus very useful to Foxe, despite Gratius's detestation of Protestantism.

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In fact, the section of the Acts and Monuments devoted to the pontificate of Adrian VI, is based almost entirely on documents reprinted from the Fasciculus, with background detail excerpted from John Bale's Catalogus, Caspar Hedio's continuation of the chronicle attributed to Burchard of Ursburg and Johannes Sleidan's Commentaries. The purpose of this section is unmistakeable: to demonstrate the economic and moral abuses of the Catholic church.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

the compasse of the same yeare, Pope Leo, after he had warred against the Frenche men, 
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The account of Leo X's death, and some of the information about Adrian VI is drawn from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maiorum Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 637-8. Bale misdates the pestilence and the loss of Rhodes, however, to the pontificate of Leo X. Foxe corrects this, and gets his additional information on Adrian, with the aid of Capar Hedio, Paraleipomena rerum memorabilum ( Basel, 1569), p. 460.

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and had gotten from them, through the Emperours ayde, the Cities of Parma, Placentia, and Millen. &c. he sitting at supper, & reioysing at three great giftes that God had bestowed vpon him. 1. That he being banished out of his countrey, was restored to Florence agayne with glory. 2. That he had deserued to be called Apostolique. 3. That he had driuen the Frenchmen out of Italie: MarginaliaThe death of pope Leo in the midst of his triumphe. after he had spoken these wordes, he was stroocken with a sodeine feuer, and dyed shortly after, beyng of the age of. 47. yeares: albeit some suspect that he dyed of poyson. MarginaliaPope Adrian the 6. Successor to whom was Pope Adrian the vi. scholmaister somtime to Charles the Emperour: who lyued not much aboue one yeare and a halfe in his Papacie. Duryng whose smal tyme, these three especial thyngs were incident: MarginaliaA great pestilence in Rome. A great pestilence in Rome, wherein aboue an hundreth thousande people were consumed. The losse of Rhodes by the Turke. And thyidly the capitall warre, which the sayd Pope Adrian, with the emperour, and the Venetians, and the kyng of Englande, dyd hold agaynst Fraunces the Frenche kyng.

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MarginaliaAdrian a Germane Pope and not vnlearned. This pope Adrian was a Germane borne, brought vp at Louane, and as in learning he exceded the common sorte of Popes: so in moderation of life and maners he seemed not all together so intemperate as some other Popes haue bene: and yet lyke a right Pope, nothyng degeneratyng from hys Sea, MarginaliaPope Adrian a great enemie to Luther. he was a mortall enemy agaynst Martin Luther and his partakers. In his tyme, shortly after the Councell of Wormes was broken vp, MarginaliaA dyet of the Princes kept at Norenberge. an other meetyng or assemble was appointed by the Emperour at Norēberge, of the princes, nobles and states of Germany. an. 1522.

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Vnto this assemble the sayd Adrian sent his letters in maner of a brief, with an instruction also vnto his Legate Cheregatus, to informe hym how to procede, and what causes to alledge agaynst Luther, before the Princes there assembled. His letter with the instruction sent, because they are so hypocritically shadowed ouer with a fayre shew 

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Foxe's description of Adrian VI's letter to the German is the martyrologist's own editorial comment. The layout of the page in the original editions is particularly significant at this point since the caustic marginal notes are actually embedded in the text.

and colour of paynted zeale and Religion, and beareth ressemblaunce of great truth and care of the Church, able to deceaue the outward eares of them, whiche are not inwardly in true Religion instructed: MarginaliaPaynted pretences ought to be examined. I thought therfore to geue to the Reader a sight therof, to the entent that by the experiēce of them he may learne hereafter in cases lyke, to be prudent and circūspect in not beleuyng ouer rashly the smothe talke, or pretensed persuasions of men especially in Church matters, vnlesse they cary with them the simplicitie of playne truth goyng not vpon termes, but grounded vpon the word and reueled will of God, with particular demonstrations, prouyng that by the Scripture, which they pretend to perswade. First þe letter of this Pope conceaued & directed agaynst Luther, procedeth in this effect.

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¶ Adrian Pope vi. to the renoumed princes of Germanye, and to the pieres of the Romane Empire, greetyng, and Apostolique benediction.

MarginaliaThe example of pope Adrians letter sent to the princes of Germanye. rIght honorable brethren, 

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This is an accurate and complete translation of Adrian VI's letter as it appears in Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculum rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 171r-172r. But Foxe undermines the letter - of which Gratius approves - through his sardonic marginal notes, which are not from the Fasciculum.

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and deare children, greeting and Apostolique benediction. After that we were first promoted (through Gods diuine prouidence) to the office of the see Apostolique, he whiche hath so aduaunced vs, is our witnesse, how we both day and nyght reuoluing in our myndes, dyd cogitate nothing more, then how to satisfie the partes of a good Pastour, in attendyng the health and cure of the flocke, MarginaliaIf these pastors care any thing for the sheepe it is onely for the wolle. both vniuersally and singularly committed vnto vs: so that there is no one particular sepe through the whole vniuersal flocke, so infected, so sicke, or so farre gone astraye, whō our desire is not to recouer, to seeke out, and to reduce into the Lords fold againe. And chiefly, from the first beginnyng of our pastoral function, our care hath alwayes bene, as well by our messengers, as our dayly letters, howe to reclayme the myndes of Christen princes from thē intestine warres and dissensions among them selues, to peace and concord, or at least, if they would nedes fight, that they woulde conuert their strength and armour against the common enemies of our fayth. And to declare this not onely in woord, but rather in deede, God dooth knowe with what charges and expences we haue burdened our selues, to extende our subsidie and reliefe, to the souldiers of Rhodes, for defense of them selues and of the Christian fayth, agaynste the Turkishe tyrannie, by whom they were besieged.

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And nowe to bend our care from these forreyne mat-

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