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894 [870]

K. Henry. 8. A Table of the French Martyrs.
¶ An other Table of them which suffered in Fraunce for the lyke witnesse of the Gospell.
The French Martyrs. 
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French martyrs

This tabulation of French martyrs was introduced by Foxe into the 1570 edition of the A&M. It must have required a considerable investment of energy and research to prepare, and it was a substantial contribution to the work. Through it, and the accompanying tables of Spanish and German (Dutch) martyrs, Foxe clearly laid claim to situate the events in England within a European perspective - a claim that has frequently been ignored by later commentators. The table remained unchanged thereafter for the 1576 and 1583 editions - although a further edition of his key source, Jean Crespin, had appeared in 1582. By then, however, Crespin was dead, and the work was being updated by others, and the changes were principally to the post-1559 material which did not substantially alter what Foxe had derived from Crespin for this table. How did Foxe construct the table? In a prefatory essay to this edition, we outline the complex relationship between Foxe and the early editions of Crespin, and the extent of their mutual borrowings. It is clear, however, that Foxe could not read French. His knowledge of the French editions of Crespin - those of 1564 and 1570 - had, therefore, to be at second-hand. We must imagine that there was someone, perhaps in John Day's print-shop, whose familiarity with the French language enabled them to transcribe, or perhaps read, the text to Foxe. What is still more impressive is that, from a detailed comparison of the material in the table, it is clear that he used, at least for some of the entries, the 1570 edition of Crespin. This had appeared in the early months of that year, just in time for Foxe to include the entries that were unique to it (e.g. Thomas Moutarde, who had not appeared in earlier versions of Crespin) in this table. In addition, Foxe indicates the other sources which he utilised in its compilation. He seems generally to have used them as confirming the veracity of Crespin, his origo princes. Heinrich Pantaleon's Martyrum historia [...] pars secunda (Basel, 1563) was an important source in this respect. Foxe's Rerum in Ecclesia Gestarum […] pars prima (Basel, 1559) had been envisaged as a complementary and companion volume to Pantaleon's (as the particular titles indicate). By 1570, however, Foxe harboured an ambition to broaden his geographical and chronological scope. He ended the 1570 edition (Bk 12, p. 2296) holding out the prospect of a further volume in store, one which would both take the story forward from the accession of Elizabeth I, and also place it more evidently in an international context: 'Touchyng whose florishyng state [that of Queen Elizabeth I], her Princely reigne, and peaceable gouernement, with other things diuers and sondry incident to the same, and especially touchyng the great styres and alterations which haue happened in other foreine nations, and also partly among our selues here at home, for so much as the tractation hereof requireth an other Volume by it selfe, I shall therfore differre the reader to the next booke or Section insuyng: wherein (if the Lord so please to susteine me with leaue and lyfe) I may haue to discourse of all and singular such matters done and achiued in these our latter dayes and memory, more at large'. That no doubt explains why the table of the French martyrs ends with an otherwise inexplicable 'list' of miscellaneous martyrs that he has not included elsewhere in the table. They were those whom Crespin had included in his martyrology in 1564/1570, but whose deaths had falled after 17 November 1558. This was to be his marker for the putative, future volume. His other sources included Pierre de La Place, Commentaires de l'état de la religion et de la république sous les rois Henri & François seconds & Charles neuvième (1565) which he was able to access in 1570 in a Latin translation of the first part (Rerum in Gallia ob religionem gestarum libri tres, regibus Henrico secundo, ad illius quidam regni Finem, Francisco secundo, et Carolo nono) which had been published at Amsterdam. In one instance, discussed in the biographical list under 'Civaux', Foxe also referenced a manuscript source - 'ex scripto testimonio Senatus Genev[ensis]' for the martyrdom of one François Civaux. How Foxe had come by this reference, and why Crespin had not mentioned him in his martyrology, are discussed further in that biographical list.

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Foxe's notion of the geographical boundaries of the kingdom of France was clearly somewhat defective. He includes some French-speaking martyrs from the Walloon provinces of Flanders (e.g. Thomas Calbergue; Nicolas Paul; Thomas Moutarde; Etienne de la Forge) and, at one point, acknowledged that this had been an error (1583, p. 912). More reasonably (since France had occupied most of Savoy in the years preceding the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)) he also includes some martyrs from the Haute-Savoie (Jean Pointet, Geoffroi Varagle). In one instance, he includes a martyr originating from the principality of Béarn (François Danville). Foxe's standard of accuracy is generally high, even though his transliteration of the place-names, personal-names and institutional affiliations occasionally gave him problems and there are some signs of occasional misunderstandings. These are noted in the individual biographical entries for those mentioned in the table, as relevant.

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Foxe's techniques for summarising the often lengthy and substantiated narratives of the French martyrs in Crespin are interesting. In comparison with Crespin (especially in the 1570 edition, which is the one which most single-mindedly focuses on the French reformation) he shows markedly less interest in what had become seen (through Genevan eyes) as its 'nicodemite' elements. Guillaume Briçonnet, Lefèvre d'Etaples, Marguerite de Navarre, Gérard Roussel hardly appear. Given its rationale, this is hardly surprising. More remarkable is that the role of the leading French magisterial reformers - Guillaume Farel and, more particularly, Jean Calvin - hardly signifies at all. In selecting his material from Crespin, Foxe removed all references to the letters exchanged between Calvin and the French martyrs. Instead, he focused most on the details of their interrogations and their execution narratives. Crespin's sources were undeniably patchy - at one point, Foxe passes an acidic comment on the lack of precision in the record-keeping - but, in some instances, he had managed to acquire first-person narratives of their interrogations, and in others he seems to have had access to transcripts of the process-verbaux, the court records. Foxe summarised this material selectively, often intelligently, albeit carefully eliding elements which might require elaborate glossing, or which departed from the collective and overall picture of the triumphant, suffering martyrdom that he sought to create through this table.

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Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Persecutors. Martyrs. The Causes.
MarginaliaIames Pauane, martyr. Doctour
Martiall
of Paris.
Iames Pa-
uane schole
maister.
At Paris.
An. 1524.
THis Iames first
being taken by the
byshop of Melden, or
Meaux, was cōpel-
led to recant by D.
Martiall. Afterward
returnyng agayne to
his cōfession, he was
burnt Paris. 1525.
Ex Ioan. Crisp.

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Marginalia Dionysius de Rieux martyr.
This Denys hauing a wodden crosse put into hys handes by the Friers, wyth hys teeth cast it into the riuer, which made the Fryers madde.
Dionisius
de Rieux.
At Melda,
or Meaux.
An. 1528.
This Denys was
one of them whiche
were first burnt at
Melda. For saying,
that the Masse is a
playne denyall of the
death and Passion of
Christ. He was al-
wayes wont to haue
in hys mouth the
wordes of Christ: He
that denyeth me be-
fore men, him will I
denye before my fa-
ther
, and to muse vpō
the same earnestly. He
was burnt with a
slow fire, and dyd a-
byde much torment.
Ex Crisp. & alijs.

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MarginaliaIoannes Cadurcus, Martyr. Ioannes de
Cadurco,
Bacheler of
the Ciuill
law. An.
1533.
This Iohn, first for
making a Sermon
or exhortation to hys
countreymen of Li-
mosin in Fraunce v-
pon Alhallowe day: &
after, sitting at a feast
where it was propoū
ded, that euery one
should bryng foorth
some sentēce, for that
he brought forth this: Christ reigne in our
hartes
, and did prose-
cute the same by the
Scriptures in much
lēgth of wordes, was
therupon accused, ta-
kē, and disgraded and
after burned. At his
degradatiō one of the
blacke Friers of Pa-
ris preached, takyng
for hys theme the
words of S. Paul. 1. Timo. 4. The spirite
speaketh, that in the
latter dayes men shall
depart frō fayth, ge-
uyng hede to lying
spirites, and doctrine
of errour. &c.
And in handlyng that place,

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either he could not or would not proceede further in the text. Cadurcus cryed out to hym to procede, and read further. The Frier stode dumme, and could not speake a word.

Then Cadurcus takyng the text, dyd prosecute the same, as foloweth: Teachyng false doctrine in hypocrisie, hauyng theyr conscience marked with a whote yron, forbyddyng to mary, and to eate meates created of God, to be eaten with thankes geuyng. &c. Ex Ioan. Crispi.

MarginaliaV. Martyrs burned. Barthel-
mew My-
len, a lame
creple.
These fiue here
specified, for certaine
Billes caste abroad &
set vp, soundyng a-

Persecutors. Martyrs. The Causes.
Promoters
of Paris.
Iohn Bur-
ges, Mar-
chaunt.
The recea-
uer of
Nantes.
Henry
Poille of
Couberon.
Catella a
Scholemi-
stres.
Steuen de
la Forge,
Marchaunt. An. 1533.
gaynst the abhomina-
tion of the Masse, &
other superstitious
absurdities of þe pope,
were condemned and
burned in the Citie of
Paris. Hēry of Cou
beron had his toung
bored thorough, and
with an yron wyer,
tyed fast to one of his
checkes: Who lyke-
wise with the other,
was burned, as is a-
foresaid. Ex Ioan.
Crisp.

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MarginaliaAlexander Canus, Martyr. Alexander
Canus
priest, other
wise called
Laurentius
Crucens.
At Paris.
An. 1533.
For the sincere do-
ctrine and confession
of Christes true reli-
gion, he was burned
in Paris, hauyng but
a small fire, and abidd
much torment. Ex
Hen. Pantal.

Marginalia Iohn Poynter Martyr.
In Fraunce the maner was that the Martyrs commyng by any Image as they went to burnyng, and would not worshyp the same, had their toūges cut out.
The Graye
Friers in
Paris.
Doctour
Clerke, a
Sorbonite.
Iohn Poin-
tet, a Sur-
geon.
At Paris.
An. 1533.
This Surgeon be-
yng detected & accu-
sed by the Friers, and
such as he had cured
before of the French
pockes, was first cō-
dēned to be strangled,
& then burned: but af-
terward, because hee
would not do homage
to a certaine Idole at
the commaundement
of a Frier that came to confesse him,
his sentence was turned to haue his
toung cut of, and so to bee burned. Ex
Crisp.
MarginaliaPeter Gaudet Martyr. A certain e
nyght of
Rhodes,
vncle to
this Peter.
Peter Gau-
det, knight
sometymes
of Rhodes.
An. 1533.
This Peter being at
Geneua wt his wife,
was trayned out frō thence by his vncle, &
put in prison for de-
fence of the Gospell, & after long tormentes
there susteyned, was
burned. vid. Crisp.

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MarginaliaQuoquillard, Martyr. Quoquil-
lard.
An. 1534.
At Bezanson, in the
countie of Burgun-
dy, this Quoquillard
was burned for the
cōfession and testimony of Christes Gos
pell. Ex Ioan. Crisp.

MarginaliaNicholas a Scriuener. Ioan. de Poix, Steuen Burlet, Martyrs. Nicolas a
Scriuener.
Iohn. de
Poix.
Steuen
Burlet.
An. 1534.
These three were ex-
ecuted and burned for
the like cause of the
Gospell, in the Citie
of Arras: namely, Ni-
cholas a Scriuener,
Iohn de Poix. Ste-
phen Burlet. Ex Ioā.
Crisp.

MarginaliaMary Becaudella, martyr. A Gray
Frier in the
Citie of Rochel.
Mary Be-
caudella.
At Foun-
taines.
This Mary beyng
vertuously instructed
of her maister where
she lyued, & beyng af-
terward at a Sermō, where a Frier prea-
ched, after þe Sermō,
found fault with hys

doctrine
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