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Ado

(d. 875) [M. Wesche, Lexikon des Mittelalters]

Archbishop of Vienne (859/60 - 875) Chronicler, martyrologist

He is mentioned by Foxe as a source: 1570, pp. 19, 80, 85, 91, 113, 131; 1576, pp. 15, 55, 58, 63, 81, 95; 1583, pp. 15, 55, 58, 63, 80, 94.

 
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Athanasius of Alexandria

(c. 298 - 373) [Catholic Encyclopeda; Gams]

Patriarch of Alexandria (326 - 73); doctor of the church; opponent of Arianism

Athanasius praised Origen and used his testimonies against the Arians. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60.

Athanasius wrote that he knew monks and bishops who were married. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1152; 1583, p. 1181.

 
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Bartolomeo Platina

(1421 - 1481) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Humanist author; prefect of the Vatican library. In 1468 he was imprisoned on suspicion of heresy and conspiring against the pope's life. He wrote Lives of the Popes under Sixtus IV.

Sabellico and Platina recorded that Constantine IV decreed that bishops of Rome were to be chosen by the clergy and people, not by the emperor. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

He is mentioned by Foxe as a source: 1563, p. 11, 1570, p. 75, 77, 95, 104, 119; 1576, p. 38, 51, 52, 67, 80, 85; 1583, pp. 38, 51, 52, 57, 67, 80, 85.

 
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Dorotheus

(d. early C4) [Catholic Encyclopedia, sub Gorgonius]

Christian; he and his family lived at Diocletian's court; martyred at Nicomedia

Dorotheus, like a number of other Christians, was held in high esteem at the court of Diocletian. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.

Dorotheus and Gorgonius were said to have urged a fellow Christian undergoing torture to remain constant. 1570, p. 112; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

When he and Gorgonius objected to the treatment of their colleague Peter and said they themselves were Christians, they were strangled. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 79; 1583, p. 78.

 
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Gereon of Köln

(d. early C4) Reputedly Roman soldier; martyr

Gereon was beheaded at Cologne. 1570, pp. 113, 128; 1576, pp. 81, 93; 1583, pp. 80, 92.

 
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Herculius Maximianus

(d. 310) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]

Soldier; Roman emperor (286 - 305); elevated by Diocletian to rule in the West; made to abdicate with Diocletian

Attempted to depose his son Maxentius in 308; proclaimed himself emperor in 310; imprisoned by his son-in-law Constantine and pardoned. Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; Maximian died soon after, either by suicide or on the orders of Constantine.

Maximian was made emperor in the west because uprisings and unrest made it impossible for Diocletian to rule the entire empire alone. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Maximian was a persecutor of Christians. He decimated the troops of Maurice twice when they refused to sacrifice to his gods and finally commanded they all be killed. 1570, pp. 113-14; 1576, p. 81; 1583, pp. 80-81.

Having abdicated with Diocletian, he attempted to regain power when his son Maxentius was set up as emperor. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine, his son-in-law, killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife. Maximian was killed on the return journey from Gaul. 1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

 
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Marc' Antonio Sabellico (Coccio)

(1436 - 1506) [Eric Cochrane, Historians and Historiography in the Italian Renaissance (Chicago, 1981) pp. 83-6]

Venetian scholar and historian; curator of San Marco library 1487 Wrote a history of Venice 1485; wrote a history of the world 1504: Rapsodie historiarum enneadum

Sabellico and Platina recorded that Constantine IV decreed that bishops of Rome were to be chosen by the clergy and people, not by the emperor. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 62, 86, 105, 112, 133; 1576, p. 38, 60, 75, 80, 97; 1583, p. 38, 59, 74, 80, 96.

 
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Marcellinus (St Marcellinus)

(d. 304) [Kelly]]

Pope (296 - ?304) Rumoured to have sacrificed to the Roman gods in compliance with Diocletian's edict

Having sacrificed to idols, Marcellinus was excommunicated by the Christians. He repented, confessed his fault, proclaimed himself a Christian and died a martyr. 1563, p. 8; 1570, pp. 113, 133; 1576, pp. 81, 96; 1583, pp. 80, 95.

The pseudo-council of Sinuessa was said to have condemned Pope Marcellinus. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 97; 1583, p. 96.

 
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Marcellus I (St Marcellus)

(d. 308) [Kelly]

Leading presbyter; pope (306 - 308)

Exiled by Maxentius and died in exile.

Marcellus confirmed Maurice, Roman soldier and martyr, and his troops in their Christian faith in Rome. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 80.

Marcellus refused to sacrifice to the gods and was exiled. He gathered the Christians in the house of the widow Lucina. Maxentius turned the house into a stable and placed Marcellus in charge of the beasts, whereupon he died of the stench and rough handling. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 96.

According to Platina, Marcellus died at Rome during the reign of Maximinus Daia. 1570, p. 117; 1576, p. 84; 1583, p. 83.

 
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Maurice (Mauritius) (St Maurice)

(d. late C3 - early C4) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Roman leader of Theban Legion; Christian; massacred with his men

Maurice, having had his troops decimated twice, encouraged them to martyrdom. 1570, p. 111; 1576, p. 79; 1583, p. 79.

Foxe gives an account of the blessing in Rome by Pope Marcellus of Maurice and his troops and of their subsequent martyrdom for refusing to sacrifice to Maximian's gods. 1570, pp. 113-14; 1576, p. 81; 1583, pp. 80-81.

 
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Meletius

Early C3 bishop of Lycopolis, Egypt [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Author of the (Egyptian) Meletian schism, and opponent of Peter of Alexandria

Meletius was excommunicated by Peter of Alexandria for sacrificing to the gods. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 80.

 
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Otto von Freising

(c. 1114 - 1158)

Chronicler; fifth son of Leopold III, margrave of Austria, and Agnes, daughter of Emperor Henry IV

Cistercian abbot; bishop of Freising (c. 1136 - 58); went on crusade in 1147

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. ; 1570, pp. 63, 113, 143; 1576, pp. 38, 81, 106; 1583, pp. 38, 80, 105.

 
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Peter of Alexandria (St Peter of Alexandria)

(d. 311) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Alexandria (300 - 11); fled the city in 306. Melitius was installed, resulting in schism. Peter returned and was martyred.

Peter excommunicated Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, for sacrificing to the gods. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 80.

Peter was martyred at Alexandria in the reign of Maximinus Daia. 1570, p. 117; 1576, p. 84; 1583, p. 83.

 
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Socrates Scholasticus

C5 Greek Christian church historian; continued the history of Eusebius of Caesarea

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 77, 113; 1576, pp. 44, 53, 81; 1583, pp. 44, 53, 80.

 
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Sulpicius Severus

(c. 360 - 420x425) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b. Aquitaine; historian and biographer; friend and disciple of St Martin; wrote the Life of St Martin

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 80.

 
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Victor

(d. early C4); martyr with St Maurice

Victor was a retired soldier who refused to eat with those who had executed Maurice and his troops. He confessed to being a Christian and was murdered. 1570, p. 114; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 81.

 
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Cologne (Köln; Colonia Agrippina)

[Colen; Colleyn; Collen; Colon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 57' 0" N, 6° 58' 0" E

Cathedral city

 
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Izmit (Nicomedia)

[Philomilium]

Anatolia, Turkey

Coordinates: 40° 46' 0" N, 29° 55' 0" E

 
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Martigny (Martinach: German; Octodurum: Latin; Octodure: French) [Ottodor]

Lower-Valais, Switzerland

Coordinates: 46° 6' 0" N, 7° 4' 0" E

 
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Saint-Maurice (Agaunum) [Agawne]

Lower-Valais, Switzerland

Coordinates: 46° 13' 0" N, 7° 0' 0" E

 
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Xanthus (Xanthos)

[Zanthus]

Kinik, Lycia, Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 20' 0" N, 29° 19' 0" E

103 [80]

The first Booke conteyning the X. first persecutions, of the Primitiue Churche.

those he left, and not to be let downe vntill either through the intollerablenes of the payne, or by the extremitie of cold, they being neare the point of death, should be let downe: and so were they haled vpon the ground. And further they were commaunded that they should shew not so much as one sparke of mercy or compassion vpon vs, but so extremely and furiously did deale with vs, as though our soules and bodies should haue died together. MarginaliaStraunge kindes of tormentes. And therfore yet an other torment our aduersaries deuised to augmēt our former plagues. After that they had most lamentably beaten them, they deuised moreouer a new kinde of racke, wherein they lying vpright, were stretched by both the feete aboue the fourth stop or hole with sharpe shels or shares strowed vnder them, after a strange kind of engine to vs here vnknowen. Other some were cast downe vpoi the pauement where they were oppressed so thicke, and so grieuously with tormentes, that it is not almost to be thought what afflictions they suffred.

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Thus they lying in paines and torments, some died therwith, not a little shaming and confounding their enemies by their singular pacience. Some halfe dead and halfe aliue, were thrust into prison, where shortly after by paynes and woundes of their bodies they ended their bitter life. Some again beyng cured of their woundes by their indurance in prison, were more confirmed; who beyng put to the choise whether they would come to their cursed sacrifice, and enioy their wicked libertie, or els sustaine the sentence of death, did willingly and without delay abide the extremitie, remembring with themselues what is written in the Scriptures: He that sacrificeth (sayth he) to straunge Gods, shall be exterminate, &c. Item, thou shalt not haue any strange Gods beside me, &c. MarginaliaEuseb. Lib. 8. cap. 10. Ex Sabellico. Lib. 7. cap. 9. Thus much wrote Phileas to the Congregation where he was Bishop, before he receyued the sentence of death, beyng yet in bandes; and in the same exhorteth his brethren constantly to persist after his death, in the truth of Christ professed. Euseb Lib 8. cap. 10.

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MarginaliaAn holy martyr of Nicomedia tormented. Sabellicus in his vij. Ennead. and viij. booke, sayth that that christened man, which tore and pulled down the wicked Edict of the Emperour in Nicomedia, beyng stript and beaten þt the bones appeared, and after washed in salt and vineger, was then slaine with this cruell kind of torment. But Platina writeth that Dorotheus and Gogonius exhorteth him to dye so constantly.

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But as all their torments were for their horriblenesse, meruailous and notable, and therewithall so studiously, deuised, & no lesse greuous and sharpe: so notwithstāding therwith were these Martyrs neither dismayd, nor ouercome, but rather thereby confirmed and strengthened, so merily and ioyfully sustained they what so euer was put vnto them. MarginaliaEusebius a beholder and a witnes of their suffering. The swordes blunt, and the hangmen weryed with slaughter. Eusebius sayth that he himselfe beheld and sawe the huge and great persecution that was done in Thebaide, in so much that the very swordes of the hangmen and persecutors beyng blunt with the great and often slaughter, they themselues for wearines sate downe to rest them, and other were fayne to take their places. And yet all this notwithstanding the murthered christians, shewed their meruailous readines, willingnes, and diuine fortitude, which they were indued with, with stout courage, ioy, and smiling, receiuing the sentence of death pronounced vpon thē, and song euen vnto the last gaspe, Hymnes and Psalmes to God. MarginaliaThe marueilous constancie of the martyrs of God in persecution and at the tyme of death. So did also the Martyrs of Alexandria, as witnesseth Phileas aboue mentioned. The holy martyrs (saith he) keping Christ in their myndes, beyng led with the loue of better rewards, sustained not onely at one tyme, whatsoeuer labour and deuised punishments they had to lay vpon them: but now also the second tyme haue done the same, and haue borne all the manaces of the cruell souldiors, not onely in wordes, wherwith they threatned them, but also whatsoeuer in deede and worke they could deuise to their destruction, and that with most manly stomackes, excluding all feare, with the perfection of their inspeakable loue towards Christ, whose great strength and fortitude cānot by wordes bee expressed. And Sulpitius sayth in the second booke of his sacred history, that then the Christians with more greedie desire preased and sought for Martyrdome, then now they desire bishoprikes. MarginaliaMartyrdome more desired in the olde tyme, then Bishopprickes be now.

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Although some there were also, as I haue sayd, that with feare and threatnings, and by their owne infirmitie, were ouercome and went backe. MarginaliaChristians that denyed in this persecution. Eusebius, Lib. 8. cap. 3. Amongst whom Socrates nameth Miletius, Lib. 1. cap. 6. and Athanasius in his second Apologie, nameth the bishop of Licus a Citie in little Egypt, whom Peter the Bishop of Alexandria, excōmunicated, for that in this persecution he sacrificed to the Gentiles Gods. MarginaliaMiletius reuolteth from the fayth, and is excommunicated. Of the fall of Marcellinus the Byshop of Rome, I will speake afterwardes. For he beyng perswaded by others, and specially of the Emperour Dioclesian himselfe, did sacrifice, whereupon he was excōmunicated; but afterwardes he repēting the same, was agayne receaued into the congregation, and made Martyr MarginaliaMarcellinus the bishop reuolteth and cōmeth agayne to the fayth and is martyred. as Platina and the compiler of the booke of the general coūcels, affirme. The number of the Martyrs increased daily, sometymes tenne, sometymes twenty were slaine at once, some whiles 30. and oftentymes 60. and otherwhiles a C. in one day, men, women, and children by diuers kindes of death. MarginaliaA hundred martyrs in one day. Eusebius, Lib 8. cap. 9. MarginaliaEuseb. lib. 8. cap. 9. Seuenteene thousand Martyrs in one moneth. also Damasus, Beda, Orosius, Honorius and others do witnes, that there were slayne in this persecution by the names of Martyrs, within the space of 30. days, 17. thousand persons, beside an other great number and multitude that were condemned to the mettall mines and quaries with like crueltie.

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At Alexandria with Peter the Bishop, of whom I haue made mention before, were slayne with axes 300. & aboue, as Sabellicus declareth. MarginaliaThree hundred slayne at one tyme in Alexandria. Gereon was beheaded at Colonia Agrippina, MarginaliaGereon Martyr. with 300. of his fellowes, as saith Henricus de Erfordia. Mauritius the Captaine of Christian religion, with his fellowes 6666. MarginaliaMauritius with 6666. Martyrs. Victor in the citie of Troy now called Xanthus, with his fellowes 360. were slayne, as sayth Otto Phrinsigensis, Lib. 2. cap 45. MarginaliaVictor with 360. martirs slayne. Reginus reciteth the names of many other Martyrs, to the number of 120.

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And for as much as mention here hath bene made of Mauritius and Victor, the perticular description of the same history I thought here to insert, taken out of Ado & other story writers, as insueth. 

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St. Maurice and St. Victor

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

MarginaliaThe history of Mauritius captaine of the Theban souldiours. Mauritius came out of Syria into Fraunce and Italy, beyng Captaine of the bande of the Theban souldiours, to the number of 6660. beyng sent for of Maximianus, to goe agaynst the rebellious Bangandes, but rather as it should seeme by the treason of the tirant, which thought he might better in these quarters vse his tiranny vpon the Christians, then in the East part. These Thebans with Mauritius the Captaine, after that they had entred into Rome, who were there of Marcellus the blessed bishop, confirmed in the fayth, promising by othe that they would rather be slayne of their enemies, then forsake that faith which they had receaued, who followed the Emperours hoste through the Alpes euen into Fraunce. At that tyme the Cæsarians were incamped not farre from the towne called Ottodor, where Maximianus offred sacrifice to his deuils, and called all the souldiours both of the East and West to the same, straightly charging them by the aultars of his Gods, that they would fight against those rebels the Bangandes, and persecute the christian enemies of the Emperors Gods: which his commaundement was shewed to the Thebanes hoste, which were also incamped about the riuer of Rode, and in a place that was named Agawne, but to Ottodor they wold in no wise come, for that euery man did certainly appointe and perswade with themselues rather in that place to dye, then either to sacrifice to the gods, or beare armour against the Christians. Which thing in deede very stoutly and valiantly they affirmed, vpon their othe befor taken to Maximianus when he sent for them. MarginaliaEuery tenth man in the legion slayne. Wherwith the tyrant beyng wrathfull and all mooued, commaunded euery tenth man of that whole band to be put to the sworde, whereto striuingly and with great reioysing they committed theyr neckes. To which notable thing and great force of fayth, Mauritius himselfe was a great incourager, who by & by wt a most graue Oration exhorted & animated his souldiours both to fortitude & cōstancie. Which beyng again called of þe Emperor, answered in this wise saying: MarginaliaThe oration of the souldiours to the Emperour. We are O Emperour your souldiours, but yet also to speake freely, the seruants of god. We owe to thee seruice of war, to him innocēcie: of thee we receaue for our trauell, wages: of hym the beginning of lyfe. But in this we may in no wayes obey thee O Emperour, to deny God our author and Lord, and not onely ours, but your Lord likewise, will ye, nill ye. If we be not so extreemely enforced that we offend him, doubtles as we haue hitherto before, we will yet obey you, but otherwise we will rather obey hym then you. We offer here our handes agaynst any other enemies: but to defile our handes with the bloud of innocentes, that we may not doe. These right hands of ours haue skill to fight agaynst the wicked and true enemies: but to spoyle and murder the godly and Citizens, they haue no skill at all. We haue in remembraunce how we tooke armour in hand for the defence of the Citizens, and not agaynst them. We fought alwayes for iustice sake, pietie, and for the health of innocentes. These haue bene alwayes the rewardes of our perils and trauell We haue fought in the quarreil of fayth, whiche in no wise we can keepe to you, if we doe not shewe the same to our God. We first sware vpon the Sacramentes of our God, then afterward to the king: and doe you thinke the second will aduaile vs if we breake the first? By vs you would plague the Christians, to doe which feate we are onely commaunded by you. We are here ready to confesse God the author of all thinges, and beleue in hys sonne Iesus Christ our Lord. We see before our eyes our fellowes and partakers of our labours and trauailes, to be put to the sword, and we sprinkled with their bloud, of which our most blessed companions and brethrē, their end and death we haue not bewayled nor mourned, but rather haue bene glad, and haue re-

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