Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the Text
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Geoffrey Lome

of Steeple Bumpstead [Fines]

Abjured in 1528

Lome was charged with translating and dispersing Luther's works and of holding heretical opinions. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Geoffrey Lome had been porter of St Anthony's School, and abjured before the bishops of London, Bath and Lincoln. 1563, p. 480.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Barnehouse

Esquire present at the burning of Thomas Benet in 1532

Thomas Carew and John Barnehouse tried, both gently and roughly, to get Thomas Benet to recant at the stake. Barnehouse set fire to a furze bush on a pike and thrust it into Benet's face. 1570, p. 1183; 1576, p. 1012; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Raymund (Hans an Ruremond)

Dutch stationer; probably Christopher van Endhoven's collaborator in producing the first Antwerp New Testament; convicted by the town council in 1525 for producing Lutheran books; sent to the Fleet in 1528 for producing and importing New Testaments; in 1535 operating in London as John Holibusche [Fines]

[Back to Top]

John Raymund was charged with printing 1500 of Tyndale's New Testaments in Antwerp and importing 500 of them. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1500; DTh 1516; archdeacon of Surrey 1522; archdeacon of Dorset 1523; dean of St George's, Windsor 1524; royal confessor 1517; royal chaplain 1519; almoner 1520; bishop of London (1530 - 39)

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

John Stokesley became bishop of London after Thomas Wolsey was deprived. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

After King Henry had extended Wolsey's praemunire to the whole clergy, the bishops agreed to call all the priests in their dioceses to contribute. Stokesley called his clergy together, but there was such protest and disorder that he sent them away with his pardon. He then complained of his clergy to Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

[Back to Top]

Simon Fish was wary of returning home because he was afraid of Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

Articles were put by Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. According to Monmouth, Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

[Back to Top]

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to read openly the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

[Back to Top]

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Stokesley sent a letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, directing them to be present at the sentencing of Richard Bayfield. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Mr Selyard, writing to John Stokesley, asked him to send word by his friend William Saxey of anything that could be discovered against Robert Bate. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley had all of Tyndale's New Testaments and other books brought into St Paul's churchyard and burnt. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley pronounced sentence on John Tewkesbury as a relapsed heretic and turned him over to the sheriffs. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

James Bainham was examined before John Stokesley in the house of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Many people in the London diocese were made to abjure under Bishop Stokesley. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. 1583, p. 1044.

[Back to Top]

Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced sentence upon him and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London to be burnt. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

[Back to Top]

Stokesley swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Stokesley met Princess Elizabeth's christening procession at the church door. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Stokesley preached a sermon in 1534 commending the efficacy of masses. This was attended by Thomas Merial, who was accused of heretical opinions and brought before Stokesley. 1570, pp. 1439-40; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Stokesley was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Stokesley attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Stokesley favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Holland, Stokesley's summoner, was sent for by Sir Christopher Barker to take Thomas Frebarne to the bishop. Frebarne had obtained pork in Lent for his pregnant wife. The bishop had Holland take him and the pig to the civil authorities. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1184.

Edmund Bonner, when nominated to the bishopric of London, told Richard Grafton that John Stokesley had been wrong to persecute those like Lobley for having bibles in English. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Paul Luther

Warden of the Franciscan friars at Ware, Hertfordshire; charged in 1529 [Fines]

Paul Luther was charged with preaching against images, the power of saints and pilgimages. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Seager (Sygar, Segar) Nicholson

Stationer of Cambridge; allegedly tortured for having prohibited books; abjured in 1528 [Fines]

[Father of Seager Nicholson (1500? - 1567)]

Nicholson was charged with having in his house books by Luther and other prohibited works. He was cruelly tortured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas Dennis

Sheriff of Devon (1531 - 32) [PRO List of Sheriffs]; prepared to burn Thomas Benet in Southernhay, but the mayor of Exeter made him use the normal place of execution [Fines sub Thomas Bennet]

Thomas Benet was handed over to Sir Thomas Dennis to be burnt. 1570, p. 1183; 1576, p. 1012; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Carew

Esquire present at the burning of Thomas Benet in 1532

Thomas Carew and John Barnehouse tried, both gently and roughly, to get Thomas Benet to recant at the stake. 1570, p. 1183; 1576, p. 1012; 1583, p. 1040.

Person and Place Index  *  Close


Flanders, Belgium

Coordinates: 51° 13' 0" N, 4° 24' 0" E

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Liverydole [Liuerie dole]

Heavitree, nr Exeter, Devon

OS grid ref: SX 945 925

Person and Place Index  *  Close
NGR: NGR: TL 365 144

Market town and parish in the hundred of Broughton, county of Hertford. 2.75 miles east north east from Hertford, 21 miles north from London. The living is a vicarage with that of Thundridge annexed, in the Archdeaconry of Middlesex, diocese of London; in the patronage of the Master and fellows of trinity College, Cambridge.

[Back to Top]

Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

1064 [1040]

K. Hen. 8. A table of certen persons abiured. The cruell Martyrdome of Tho.Benet.

vaine then vanitie it selfe. If I should heare & folowe you this day, euerlasting death should hang ouer me, a iust rewarde for all them that loue the life of thys worlde. Away from me, your company liketh me not.

Thus a whole weeke, nighte and daye was Benet applied of these and such other hyprocrites. It were an infinite matter to declare all things done & saide to him in the time of his imprisonment, and þe hate of the people þt time, by meanes of ignorance, was hote against him: MarginaliaTho. Benet pacient & cōstant.notwithstanding they could neuer mooue his patience. He aunsweared to euery matter soberly, and that more by the aid of Gods spirite, then by any worldly studie. I thinke he was at the least 50. yeres olde. Being in prison, his wife prouided sustenance for him, & when shee lamented, he comforted her, and gaue her many good and godly exhortatiōs, and prayd her to mooue him nothing, to apply vnto his aduersaries.

[Back to Top]

Thus when these godly Canons & priestes wyth the monkes & friers had done what they could, and perceiued þt he would by no meanes relent, then they proceding vnto iudgement, MarginaliaSentence read against Tho. Benet.drewe out their bloudy sentence against hym, condemning him (as the maner is) to be burned. Whyche being done, and the wryt which they had procured De comburendo, being brought from London, 

Commentary  *  Close

'De heretico comburendo' was the statute authorizing the death penalty for heresy. It mandated that a writ had to be sent from Chancery authorizing the execution of a condemned heretic.

MarginaliaTho. Benet deliuered to the secular power.they deliuered hym the 15. of Ianuary 1531. vnto sir Tho. Denis Knyght, then sherife of Deuonsh. to be burned. The milde martyr reioycing his ende to approche so neare, as the sheepe before the shearer, yelded himselfe wtall humblenes to abide and suffer the crosse of persecution. MarginaliaTho. Benet brought to the place of executionAnd being brought to his execution, in a place called Liuerie dole, without Exeter, 
Commentary  *  Close

The Freeman's Book of Exeter records that Sir Thomas Dennys, sheriff of Exeter, wished to burn Dusgate in Southernhay (just aside the city walls), but that the mayor insisted that he be burned at Liverydole, the normal site of executions, a mile outside the city (Exeter City Muniments, Book 55, fo. 89r). This entry does not record the reasons for this decision, but it seems likely that the sheriff wished to make a public spectacle of Dusgate's death and that the mayor resisted this, possibly from sympathy for Dusgate, possibly from fear of disorder.

[Back to Top]
hee made his most humble confession and praier vnto almighty God, and requested all the people to do the like for him, whom he exhorted with such grauitie and sobriety, & wyth suche a pithie oration to seeke the true honouring of God, and þe true knowledge of him, as also to leaue the deuises, fantasies, and imaginations of mans inuentions, that all the hearers and beholders of him were astonied & in great admiration: In so much that the moste part of the people, as also the Scribe who wrote the sentence of condemnation against him, did pronounce and confesse that hee was Gods seruaunt, and a good man.

[Back to Top]

Neuerthelesse two Esquiers, namely Thomas Carew and Iohn Barnehouse standing at the stake by hym, firste with faire promises & goodly wordes, but at length rough threatnings, willed him to reuoke his errours, and to call to our Ladie and the Saintes, and to say, Precor sanctam Mariam & omnes Sanctos Dei. &c. 

Commentary  *  Close

'I pray to holy Mary and all the saints of God'.

To whome hee wyth all mekenesse answeared, saying: MarginaliaTho. Benet refuseth to pray to our Ladye. One Aduocate Christe.No, no, it is God onely, vpon whose name we must call, and we haue no other aduocate vnto him, but onely Iesus Christ: Who died for vs, and nowe sitteth at the right hande of the father, to be an aduocate for vs, and by him must we offer & make our prayers to God, if we will haue them to take place and to be hearde. MarginaliaA fursebush thrust in his face because he would not pray to our Ladye.Wyth which answere the foresayde Barnehouse was so enkindled, that he tooke a furse bush 
Commentary  *  Close

A furze is an evergreen bush with spiny leaves. It was used in this case as kindling for the fire to burn Dusgate.

vpon a pike, and being set on fire, thrust it vnto his face, saying, Ah whoresone heretike, pray to our Lady, and say, Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis, or by

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe Martirdome of Tho. Benet.The burning of Thomas Benet.
woodcut [View a larger version]

Gods wounds I will make thee to do it.

To whom the sayde Thomas Benet wyth an humble and a meeke spirite, most patiently answeared: Alas Syr, trouble me not. And holding vp his handes, sayde; Pater ignosce illis. 

Commentary  *  Close

Dusgate is quoting Luke 23:34 in theVulgate.

Whereuppon the Gentlemen caused the woode and furses to be set a fire, and therewith this godly manne lifted vp his eyes and hands to heauen, saying, O Domine, recipe spiritum meum: 
Commentary  *  Close

Dusgate is quoting Luke 23:46 in the Vulgate.

MarginaliaThe constāt ende and Martirdome of Tho. Benet.and so continuing in his prayers, did neuer stirre nor striue, but most patiently abode the cruelty of the fire, vntil his life was ended. For the which the Lord God be praised, and send vs his grace and blessing, that at the latter day we may with hym enioy the blesse and ioye prouided and prepared for the elect children of God.

[Back to Top]

This Benet was burned in a Ierkine of neates leather 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e. a jerkin of the highest quality leather.

, at whose burning, such was the deuilishe rage of the blinde people, that wel was he or shee that coulde catche a sticke or furse to cast into the fire.

HItherto we haue runne 

Commentary  *  Close
Bishop Stokesley's persecution

This is largely an account of evangelicals, who were forced to abjuretheir beliefs and do pennance during a crackdown on heresy conducted jointly by Bishop John Stokesley and Thomas More, during his tenure as Lord Chancellor.There are two two notable insertions into this material. The first is an account ofWilliam Tracy, whose outspokenly evangelical will led to his posthumous convict-ion of heresy and the exhumation of his body. Foxe reprinted his copy of Tracy's will from the version in Hall's Chronicle (See Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York [London, 1548], STC 12721, fo. 211r-v) Foxe's account of Tracy, including a translation of his will into Latin, first appeared in the Rerum (pp. 125-6). The second is an account of Richard Bayfield's apprehension which Foxe found in the London court books.

[Back to Top]

In fact, most of the material in this section was taken from London court books from the episcopates of Cuthbert Tunstall and John Stokesley. The fact that this was not joined to the main narrative of Bayfield's martyrdom (the material on Bayfield's background comes from a knowledgeable informant, probably based in London. However, the articles charged against Bayfield, his answers to them, the sentence of degradation imposed on him and the letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, are taken from a now lost court book of Bishop John Stokesley.) is an indication that Foxe's search through the diocese of London archives was being made while this section of the first edition was being printed. Another indication of this is the list of names of the people who were forced to do penance in London - a list of names that includes the people described in this section - which appeared in the first edition. The list, without any of the details which appear in this section, indicate that Foxe only had time to scan this material in 1563. Most of these London court books are, now lost, but much of the detail in this section can be confirmed in other sources. (Pages from one register, relating to a visitation of the diocese in 1527 survive in Foxe's papers as part of BL, Harley MS 421; the visitation was by Geoffrey Wharton, the vicar-general of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London and he uncovered a network of heretics in Colchester and its environs, particularly the villages of Boxted, Witham and Steeple Bumpstead. Much of this visitation was recorded in a register whosepages - apparently torn out by Foxe or his associates - form a significant portionof BL, Harley MS 421. Some pages of this register that now longer survive, were transcribed by John Strype, when he had custody of Foxe's papers and printed inhis Ecclesiaiastical Memorials.). One item also comes from the register of Bishop Tunstall (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r) and another comes from petition sent to Anne Boleyn (Anne Boleyn was marchioness of Pembroke from 1 September 1532 until her recognition as queen in March 1533. The accurate citation of Anne's title of marchioness helps to confirm that Foxe was drawing his information from a petition). Interestingly, Foxe only obtained this petition between 1576 and 1583. Some of Foxe's narratives are confirmed by contemporary chronicles (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp, CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121 and 'Two London Chronicles', ed. C. L. Kingsford in Camden Society Miscellany XII, third series, 18 [London, 1910], p. 5).

[Back to Top]

Foxe's unwillingness to describe the abjurations of Henrician evangelicals(and, earlier in his work, the Lollards) contrasts starkly with his desire to conceal such submissions in the case of the Marian martyrs. This an indication of the extent to which an earlier tolerance of recantations had eroded among Protestants, and alsoof Foxe's conviction that those born before the full onset of the Reformation had bothlesser spiritual knowledge and lesser obligations to God.

[Back to Top]

Thomas S. Freeman

ouer (good reader) the names, þe Acts and doings of them which haue susteined death and the tormēt of burning for Christes cause, through the rigorous proclamation aboue specified 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1570, pp. 1959-60; 1576, pp. 991-2 and 1583, pp. 1019-20.

, MarginaliaThe kings Proclamation. Vid supra. pag. 991. set out (as is sayd) in the name of K. Henrie, but in dede procured by the Bishops 
Commentary  *  Close

Notice that Foxe shifts the blame for persecution from Henry VIII to his bishops.

. Which proclamation was so straitly looked vpon & executed so the vttermost in euery poynt, by the sayd popish Prelates, that no good man habens spiramentum, wherof Esdras Marginalia4. Esd. 7. speaketh) coulde peepe out wyth his head neuer so little, but he was caught by the backe, & brought eyther to the fire, as were these aboue mentioned: or els compelled to abiure. Wherof there was a great multitude, as wel men as women: whose names if they were sought oute through al registers in England, no doubt it would make too long a discourse. Neuerthelesse omitting the rest, it shal content vs at this present, briefly as in a shorte Table, to insinuate the names, with the speciall Articles, of suche as in the diocesse of London vnder Bishop Stokesley, were molested and vexed, and at last cōpelled to abiure, as heere vnder may appeare.

[Back to Top]
MarginaliaMē abiured.Persons abiured,with their Articles.
HIs Articles were these: For ha-
uing and dispersing certain bookes
of Luther. Item, for translatinge cer-
taine chapters of his booke De bonis o-
peribus. For holding that faith without
works, is sufficient to bring vs to hea-
Geffreyuen. That christen men ought to wor-
Lome.ship God onely and no Saintes. That
Commentary  *  Close

These articles are taken from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall's register (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r).

christen men shuld not offer to images
in churches, nor sette any lyghte before
them. That pardons granted by pope
or bishop do not profite man.
His Articles were like: and more-
ouer, for hauing in his house certayne
Bookes of Luther and other prohibi-
Sygar Ny-ted, and not presentyng them to the
colson, Sta-Ordinarie. The handling of this man
tioner ofwas too too cruell, if the reporte be true,
Cambridgethat hee shoulde be hanged vp by those
1528.partes, whych nature well suffreth not
to be named. 
Commentary  *  Close

Thomas More, defending himself from charges of torturing accused heretics, admitted that Nicholson had been detained in his house for four or five days. More also admitted that there were reports that Nicholson was whipped and otherwise tortured while he detained him. More indignantly denied these reports and declared that Nicholson was physically unharmed during the entire time thathe was More's involuntary guest (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp,CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121). Foxe is probably refering here to wilder versions of these stories, although he must have known of More's denialof these stories. As a result, Foxe is being disingenous here by repeating the charges, but not endorsing them and not naming More.

[Back to Top]
Iohn Ray-For causing fiftene hundreth of Tin-
mund adals new Testaments to be printed at
Commentary  *  Close

John Raimund (or more correctly, Hans von Ruremond) was aFlemish printer who had already been convicted in 1525 for printing hereticalworks in 1525. Ae appears to have moved permanently to London and wasstill active there in 1535 under the alias of John Holibusch (see Fines).

Antwarpe, and for bringing 500. into
Hys Articles: For preachyng and
sayinge that it is pitie, that there be so
manye Images suffered in so manye
places, where as vndiscreate and vn-
learned people be: for they make theyr
Prayer and Oblations so intirely and
heartely before the Image, that they
Paule Lu-beleeue it to be the very selfe Sainct in
ther Grayheauen. Item, that if he knewe hys fa-
Frier, andther and mother were in heauen, hee
Warden ofwould counte them as good as S. Pe-
the house atter or Paule, but for the paine they suf-
Ware.fred for Christes sake. Item, that there no nede to go on pilgrimage. Item,
that if a manne were at the poynte of
drowning or anye other daunger: hee
shoulde call onely vppon God, and no
Sainct, for Saincts in heauen can not
helpe vs, neither know no more what
men do here in this world, then a man
iu the North countrey knoweth what
is done in the South countrey.
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield