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Arthur Plantagenet

Lord Lisle

(before 1472 - 1542) [ODNB]

Illegitimate son of Edward IV; soldier, diplomat, administrator; lord deputy of Calais

Adam Damplip was asked to stay for a while in Calais to preach to the people there. He agreed, but only if he obtained licence. He was taken to Lord Lisle, who asked him to stay and preach three or four times a week. Lord Lisle offered him a room in his house and meals at his own table. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

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Lord Lisle's servant, Cranwell, was sent to remove the notice of interdict of the king and realm posted at the pope's command on the door of the church at Dunkirk. He removed it and brought it back whole to Lord Lisle. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Lord Lisle was sent to England and imprisoned in the Tower. The king pardoned him, but he died before he could be released. 1563, p. 665; 1570, p. 1405; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1227.

Lord Lisle was one of the Calais councillors who persecuted the protestants there. All of those councillors eventually were imprisoned or died miserably. 1563, p. 668; 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1228.

 
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Cranwell

Calais spear; servant to Lord Lisle [Lisle Letters, p. 214]

Lord Lisle's servant, Cranwell, was sent to remove the notice of interdict of the king and realm posted at the pope's command on the door of the church at Dunkirk. He removed it and brought it back whole to Lord Lisle. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Edward Bocking

(d. 1534) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk; BTh Oxford 1513; DTh 1518; confessor and spiritual advisor, publicist to Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); hanged for treason with her

Edward Bocking was executed for treason. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Edward Lee

(1481/2 - 1544) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1501; MA Cambridge 1502/3; BTh Cambridge 1515; studied at Louvain and Bologna; DTh; entered into a vendetta with Erasmus; royal chaplain 1520; king's almoner 1523; archdeacon of Colchester (1523 - 31); ambassador to the imperial court (1525 - 29)

Archbishop of York (1531 - 44)

Edward Lee, along with other archdeacons in the London diocese, was sent a commission to seek out and deliver any copies of the New Testament in English and anything from a list of proscribed books in 1526. 1563, p. 450; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1018.

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Lee swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Edward Lee summoned Queen Catherine to appear before the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops, but she refused to attend. The archbishop pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Lee was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Lee attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Lee favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

 
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Edward Thwaites

Gentleman, JP, of Chilsham, Kent; accused of treason with Elizabeth Barton in 1533, did penance; attainted of misprision and concealment of treason in 1534 [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Edward Thwaites was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Henry Gold

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Parson of St Mary Aldermary, London; former chaplain to Archbishop Warham; one of the chief followers of Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); hanged for treason with her

Henry Gold was executed for treason. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Henry Risby

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Warden of the Greyfriars, Canterbury; one of the chief followers of Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); hanged for treason with her

[Foxe names him as Richard Risby.]

Henry Risby was executed for treason. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Hugh Rich

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Warden of the Franciscans, Richmond Priory; one of the chief followers of Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); hanged for treason with her

Hugh Rich was executed for treason. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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John Addison

(d. 1540) [ODNB]

Clergyman; DTh Cambridge (1523); chaplain to John Fisher of Rochester; attainted of misprision of treason in 1534 for supporting Elizabeth Barton

John Addison was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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John Butler

BCL, chaplain to Henry VIII; Cranmer's commissary in Calais by 1534; supported Adam Damplip in 1538; removed from Calais in 1539; imprisoned in the Marshalsea for nine months [Fines; Lisle Letters]

After the pope had had a notice posted on the church door in Dunkirk ordering the king to cease his pursuit of a divorce from Queen Catherine, John Butler took it down on the king's orders. This was followed by the posting of a notice of interdict of the king and realm, which Butler was also sent to remove. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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John Butler was one of those accused of heresy to the privy council by councillors of Calais. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

He was accused by Richard Thorpe and John Ford, soldiers of Calais. John Butler and William Smith were taken into England from Calais and were sent to the privy council to answer charges of heresy and sedition and then taken to the Fleet. They were then brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. Butler was eventually discharged and sent home, but deprived of his office. 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

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Adam Damplip was sent to the mayor's prison in Calais along with John Butler and the curate Daniel. There were orders that no one was to speak to Butler. 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1229.

After the execution of Damplip, Massie returned to England with John Butler and Daniel the curate, who were imprisoned in the Marshalsea. They stayed there nine months until, with his brother-in-law and Sir Leonard Musgrave standing surety, he was released and eventually allowed to return to Calais. 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1229.

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John Clerk

(1481/2? - 1541) [ODNB]

Diplomat; bishop of Bath and Wells (1523 - 41)

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Clerke took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Clerk was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Clerk attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Clerk favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

 
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John Dering

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Monk of Christ Church, Canterbury; follower of Eizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); hanged for treason with her

John Dering was executed for treason. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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John Fisher

(c. 1469 - 1535) [ODNB]

Vice-chancellor of Cambridge University (1501 - 1504); chancellor of Cambridge University (1504); bishop of Rochester (1504 - 34); cardinal; martyr

John Fisher preached a sermon at the penance of Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1193.

Fisher preached a sermon against Luther in 1526. 1563, p. 436; 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, pp. 993-94.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Fisher was one of the chief advocates for Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Fisher protested in parliament in 1530 about the proposed bill relating to the probate of testaments, saying it would mean the ruin of the church. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

The bishop of Rochester said that angels were ministers to the souls in purgatory. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Fisher wrote against Johann Oecolampadius and Luther. He was a persecutor of John Frith. He and Sir Thomas More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

Fisher was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

The pope promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Fisher is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

 
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John Longland

(1473 - 1547) [ODNB]

Scholar, preacher; BTh Oxford by 1509; DTh by 1511; dean of Salisbury 1514

Bishop of Lincoln (1521 - 1547); royal confessor 1524

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Harding was brought before Bishop Longland to be examined. Longland condemned him as a relapse, and he was sentenced to be burnt. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 983.

John Longland took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced the sentence of condemnation. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Other Lollards were brought before Longland to be examined, confess and abjure. 1570, pp. 1118-20; 1576, pp. 957-59; 1583, pp. 984-86.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Longland was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Longland attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Longland favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Longland preached a sermon against the pope's supremacy in front of the king at Greenwich on Good Friday in 1538. 1570, pp. 1250-54; 1576, pp. 1071-74; 1583, pp. 1097-1100.

Mark Cowbridge went mad, was condemned by John Longland and burnt in Oxford. 1563, p. 574; 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1105; 1583, p. 1131.

Longland and Anthony Draycot were active in enforcing the Six Articles within the diocese of Lincoln. 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1207.

 
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Mr Edney

Sergeant to the lord mayor of London living above Bishopsgate

Just before Pavier hanged himself, he sent his servants to Edney, asking him to wait for him at Finsbury. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Pavier or Pavie

(d. 1533); town clerk of the city of London

Edward Hall reported that Pavier had said that if the king sanctioned an English edition of the scriptures and allowed people to read it, he (Pavier) would cut his throat. He was at the burning of James Bainham (Foxe calls him Richard Bainham), calling for the heretic to be burnt. The next year he hanged himself. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Richard Foxford

(d. by 20/8/1533) [Fasti]

DCnCL; prebendary of Wenlocksbarn in the diocese of London (1530-33)

The trial of Richard Bayfield began before Richard Foxford, the bishop of London's official. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

Foxford read out the articles and answers at James Bainham's abjuration. He presided over Bainham's examination as a relapse and his condemnation. 1563, pp. 498-500; 1570, pp. 1169-71; 1576, pp. 1000-02; 1583, pp. 1028-29.

Foxford interrogated Thomas Patmore. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

Foxford died, suddenly and unpleasantly, while sitting in his chair. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Richard Master

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Parson of Aldington, Kent; reported Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent) to Archbishop Warham; became one of her chief followers; indicted for high treason, reprieved

Foxe says that Richard Master was executed with Elizabeth Barton. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
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Thomas Lawrence

Registrar to the archdeacon of Canterbury; one of the chief supporters of Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent); attainted of misprision and concealment of treason in 1534 [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Thomas Lawrence was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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William Warham

(c. 1450 - 1532) [ODNB]

Studied at Oxford; lawyer in Oxford and London; diplomat

Bishop of London (1502 - 04); keeper of the great seal (1502 - 04); archbishop of Canterbury (1504 - 32); lord chancellor (1504 - 15); chancellor of the University of Oxford (1506 - 32)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. Warham had brought in witnesses who had already abjured and would therefore tell everything they knew lest they be found guilty of relapse. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

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Thomas Wolsey caused his cardinal's hat, when it arrived, to be taken back to Dover so that the archbishop of Canterbury could greet it. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Warham was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

In a letter to Juan de Vergara, Erasmus of Rotterdam described how, after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, Warham was offered the chancellorship but declined due to his advanced years. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

William Tracy's will was sent to the Archbishop Warham to be proved. It contained reformed sentiments, and Warham brought it to the convocation. Tracy's body was exhumed and burnt. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

John Lambert was brought from Antwerp to London, where he was examined before Archbishop Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

 
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Aldington

Kent

OS grid ref: TR 065 365

 
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Ampthill [Ampthyl]

Bedfordshire

OS grid ref: TL 035 375

 
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Buckden

[Buckdone; Bugden]

near Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire

OS grid ref: TL 195 675

 
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Calais

[Calyce; Calice; Calis; Callis]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 56' 53" N, 1° 51' 23" E

 
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Dunkerque (Dunkirk)

[Dunkyrke]

Nord-Pas de Calais, France

Coordinates: 51° 2' 18" N, 2° 22' 39" E

 
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Dunstable

Bedfordshire

OS grid ref: TL 015 215

 
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Finsbury [Finisbery]

Islington, north London

OS grid ref: TQ 315 825

 
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Huntingdon

[Huntington; Huntyngton]

Cambridgeshire

OS grid ref: TL 245 725

Historic county town of Huntingdonshire

1079 [1055]

K. Hen. 8. Elizabeth Burton. Pauier. Lady Kathrine diuorced. Writings set vp at Dunkirke.

Lord Cromwell, and Maister Hugh Latimer 

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At this time he was the rector of West Kington, Wiltshire (1531) and soon to be bishop of Worcester (from 12 August 1535).

, shee was condemned and put to death with certeyne of her affinitie and Councell in the moneth of Aprill, an. 1533. MarginaliaElizabeth Bartō with her false cōspirators.The names of which conspiratours with her, were these: Edwarde Bocking, Monke of Canterbury, Richard Master, Person of Aldington, Iohn Dering, Monke of Canterbury, Hugh Riche, Frier Warden of the Gray Friers of Canterbury, Richard Risby, Henry Gold, bacheler of Diuinitie, and Person of Aldermary, Fisher Byshop of Rochester, Iohn Adeson Priest, his Chapleine, Thomas Laurence, the Byshops Register of Caunterbury, Edwarde Thwates, 
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Edward Thwaites' treatise A marvellous work (an account of the nun's miracles and prophecies) was printed at the Robert Redmen press of London (1527). The treatise was referred to 'as very popular' by Cranmer in a letter of 1533 [for which see, Diane Watt, Secretaries of God: Women Prophets in Late Medieval and Early Modern England (Cambridge, 2001), p.58; Miscellaneous Writings and Letters of Thomas Cranmer, 2 vols. ed. by J E Cox (Cambridge, 1846), ii, p.273]. Other men on the list include Thomas Abel (the author of Invicta veritas).

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Thomas Abell. Of the which persons, the sayd Elizabeth Berton, Henry Gold, Richard Master, Edwarde Bocking, Iohn Dering, Hugh Riche, Richarde Risby, were attaynted of Treason by Acte of Parliament, and put to execution. 
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20 April 1534.

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The residue as Fisher Byshop of Rochester, Thomas Golde, Thomas Laurence, Edward Thwates, Iohn Adeson, Thomas Abell, being conuicte and atteynted of misprison 

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Misprision of treason is an offence which is committed by someone who knows that a treason offence is going to happen but who fails to report this to the authorities while an attainder is an act of parliament which declares a person guilty of a crime without the need of trial. Fisher was sent to the Tower on 26 April 1534.

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, were condemned to prison, and forfayted theyr goodes & possessions to the King. Ex Statut an. 25. Reg Hen 8.

Edward Hall, 

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Barton and the executions are mentioned in the 1550 edition of Hall's Chronicle at fols.218v and 223v.

a writer of our Englishe Stories, making mention of this Elizabeth Barton aforesayd, adioyneth next in his booke, the narration of one Pauier or Pauie, a notorious enemie (no doubt) to Gods truth. MarginaliaA maruelous iudgement of god against Pauier an open enemye to his worde.Thys Pauier 
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For William Pavier, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.806; Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), pp.218-9.

beyng the towne Clerke of the Citie of London, was a man (sayth he) that in no case coulde abyde to heare that the Gospell shoulde be in Englishe: In so much that the sayd Hall hymselfe heard hym once say vnto hym, and to other by, swearing a great othe: that if he thought the Kings highnes would set forth the Scripture in English, and let it be read of the people by his authoritie, rather thē he would so long liue, he would cut his owne throate, but he bake promise (sayth Hall) for he dyd not cut his throate with any knife, but with an halter did hang himselfe. Of what minde and intent he so did, God iudge.

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My information farther addeth this, touching the sayd Pauier or Pauie, that he was a bitter enemie, very busie at the burning of Richard Bayneham MarginaliaPauier a bitter e-enemy against Rich. Baynham. aboue mentioned. Who hearing the sayd Baynham at the stake speakyng against Purgatory and transubstantiation: set fire (sayd he) to this hereticke and burne hym. And as the trayne of gunpouder came toward the Martyr, he lifted vp his eyes and hands to heauen, saieng to Pauier: God forgiue thee, and shewe thee more mercy then thou doest to me. The Lord forgiue Sir Thomas More, and pray for me all good people: and so continued he praieng, till the fire tooke hys bowels and his head, &c.

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After whose Martyrdome, the next yeare folowing, this Pauier the towne Clerke of the Citie, went and bought ropes. Which done, he went vp to an hygh garret in hys house to pray, as he was wont to doe, to a roode which he had there, before whom he bitterly wept: And as his own mayde comming vp found him so doyng, he bad her take the rustye sworde, and go make it cleane, and trouble him no more, and immediately he tied vp the rope, and hoong himselfe. The maydes hart still throbbed, and so came vp, and founde him but newly hanged. MarginaliaPauier a persecutor hāged him selfe. Then she hauing no power to helpe him, ranne crieng to the Church to her mistres to fetch her home. His seruants and Clerkes he had sent out before to Finisbery, and to Maister Edney Sergeant to the Lord Maior 

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The mayor of London was Sir Christopher Ascue.

, dwelling ouer Byshops gate, to tary for him at Finisebery Court till he came: but he had dispatched himselfe before, so that they might long looke for him before he could come. Which was an. 1533.

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To this story of Pauier, may also be added the lyke terrible example of Doctor Foxford, Chauncellour to the Byshop of London, a cruell persecutor and a common butcher of the good Saincts of God: who was the condemner of all those aforenamed, which were put to death, troubled, or abiured vnder Byshop Stokesley through all the dioces of London. MarginaliaThe terrible hād of Gods iudgement vpon Foxford the Byshops Chācellour.This Foxford dyed 

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Foxford died suddenly if perhaps not so dramatically.

about this present yeare and time: of whose terrible end it was then certainely reported and affirmed by suche as were of right good credite, vnto certayne persons, of whom some be yet aliue, that he dyed sodenly sitting in his chayre, his belly being brust, and his guts falling out before him.

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MarginaliaThe death of W. Warham Archb. of Cant.About the same time died also William Warrham Archbyshop of Canterbury: 

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The archbishop died on 22 August 1532.

in whose roume succeeded Thomas Cranmer, MarginaliaTho. Cranmer Archb. of Cant. which was the Kings Chapleyne, and a great disputer against the vnlawful mariage of Lady Katherine Princesse Dowager, being then so called by Act of Parliament.

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Ye heard before, 

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The Act of Appeals (24 Henry VIII, c.12).

how the Parliament had enacted, that no person after a certeine day, should appeale to Rome for any cause. MarginaliaQueene Catherine appealeth to Rome.Notwithstanding which Acte, þe Queene, now called Princesse Dowager, had appealed to the Courte of Rome, before that Acte made: so þt it was doubted, whe-ther that Appeale were good or not. This question was well handled in the Parliament house, but much better in the Conuocation house, and yet in both houses it was alledged, yea and by bookes shewed, that in the Councels of Calcedone 
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The council of Chalcedon (451) produced the condemnation of monophysitism and affirmed the two distinct natures of Christ.

, Affrike 
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Foxe may be here referring to one of many national or plenary Episcopal synods (e.g. Hippo in 393 or Carthage in 407) representing the church in North Africa.

, Toletane 
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Foxe may be here referring to a synod held at Tolentino.

, and diuers other famous Councels in the primatiue Church, MarginaliaConcluded by councells of the primitiue church, that nōe should appeale out of their prouince. yea in the tyme of S. Augustine it was affirmed, declared, & determined that a cause rising in one Prouince, should be determined in the same & that neither the Patriarke of Cōstātinople should medle in causes moued in the iurisdictiō of the Patriarke of Antioch, nor no Byshop should entermedle within an others Prouince or coūtry. Which thyngs were so clerkly opened, & so cūningly set forth to all intētes, þt euery mā that had witte, & was determined to folow þe truth, & not wilfully wedded to his owne mynde, might playnly see þt al appeales made to Rome, were clearely voyde & of none effect. Which doctrines & coūsailes, were shewed to þe Lady Katherine Princesse Dowager, but she (as womē loue to lose no dignitie) euer continued in her old song, trusting more to the Popes partialitie, then to the determination of Christes veritie.

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Wherupon the Archbyshop of Cāterbury Cranmer aboue named, accōpanied with þe Bishops of Lōdon, Winchester, Bathe, Lincolne, & diuers other great Clerkes in a great number, road to Dunstable, which is vi. myle frō Ampthyl, 

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Catherine's household was established at Ampthill. It was here, on 3 July 1533, she was informed of her official title change from queen to princess dowager.

where the Princesse Dowager lay: & there by a Doctor called Doctor Lee, 
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Archbishop Edward Lee met with Catherine at Ampthill, c.21 May 1533, on the verge of the conclusion of the marriage tribunal at Dunstable.

she was ascited to appeare before the sayd Archbyshop, in cause of Matrimony, in the sayd towne of Dunstable: 
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The priory at Dunstable was selected due to its remoteness from London, because it was unlikely to be disturbed, and because it was close to Ampthill. Late in April 1533, Cranmer cited Catherine and Henry to appear before this new tribunal [see, L&P, vi, 737 (no.7)] and, on her behalf, ambassador Chapuys sent a letter of protest to the king [see, L&P, vi, 391, 465]. The tribunal opened on 10 May and, because she had not appeared, Catherine was declared 'contumacious' [see, L&P, vi, 470] which, in a legal sense, not only means she refused to abide by the order but also means stubbornly disobedient, wilfully obstinate or even rebellious. Final sentence was rendered on 23 May 1533 [for a discussion, see Andrew A Chibi, Henry VIII's Conservative Scholar (Bern, 1997), pp.82-4].

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& at the day of appearaunce, she would not appeare, but made default, & so was called peremptorily, euery day. xv. dayes together, and at the last, for lacke of appearaunce, & contumacie, by the assent of all the learned men there beyng present, MarginaliaLady Catherine solemnly diuorced frō the king.she was diuorced from the kyng, & their Mariage declared to be voyde and of none effect: which sentence geuen, the Archbyshop and all the other, returned backe agayne.

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MarginaliaA note.¶ Where note that although this diuorce folowyng after the new Mariage, needed not at all to be made, the first Mariage beyng no Mariage at all before God, yet to satisfie the voyce of the people, more then for any necessitie, the kyng was contented through the persuasions of some, so to doe. For els as touchyng God and conscience, what great neede was of any diuorce, where before GOD, no Mariage was to be accounted, but rather an incestuous & detestable adultery, as the Act of Parliamēt doth terme it? But to our matter agayne.

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After the dissolutiō of this first Mariage made betwen the king & the Lady Princesse Dowager, she neuerthelesse bearyng a stout mynde, would not yet relēt, neither to the determination of the Vniuersities, nor to the cēsure of the Clergy, nor of the whole Realme, but folowyng the coūsaile rather of a few Spanyardes, to molest the kyng & the realme by sute, & meanes made to the Pope, procured certaine writynges, first of monition and aggrauation, thē of excommunication and interdiction to be sent downe from Rome, 

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Foxe is here referring to the fact that Catherine's appeal was still very much alive in the courts of Rome, with which Henry VIII still had to deal (largely through his agents there, Edmund Bonner and Sir Edward Carne). The marriage tribunal in Rome proceeded c.6 July 1533 and lasted to 11 July. The final sentencing was not, however, given until 23 March 1534. [See, Henry A Kelly, The Matrimonial trials of Henry VIII (Stanford, 1976), pp.164-70].

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wherein the Pope had interdicted both the kyng & the whole Realme. MarginaliaWritinges set vp at Dunkirke against the king.But the Popes Cursor beyng not the hardyest mā (belike) that euer shewed his head, thought it much more sure for him to discharge his Popishe cariage without the kynges reach, & so keepyng himselfe aloofe of (like a prety man) set vp his writynges in the Towne of Dunkirke in Flaunders. In the which towne, first vpon the Northdoore of the Church was set vp a monition, that the kyng of Englād should surcease the sute of diuorce, MarginaliaIoh. Butler of Calis tooke downe the writte at Dunkirke against the King.the which Iohn Butler Clerke 
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John Butler was a Cranmer protégé, a royal chaplain, and was appointed his commissary of Calais by the archbishop by 1 April 1534. There seems, however, to be a question about the exact dating of his appointment [for which, see Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (Yale, 1996), p.113].

, thē Commissary of Calice, by commaundement tooke downe in a night.

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MarginaliaK. Henry & the realme indicted by the Pope.After that, before Whitson 

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This is Pentecost, seven weeks after Easter (which in 1533 was 23 April).

weeke there was set vp in the same place an excōmunication, aggrauation, regrauation, & interdiction. For the which also, the sayd Butler by commaūdement was sent to Dunkirke to take it downe. And because the coūsell of Calice would be certified of his diligence therein, they sent a seruaūt of the Lord Lisle, thē Deputie of Calice, whose name was Cranuell, and vpon Wensday in Whitsonweke, at vij. of the clocke in the mornyng, he tooke it downe whole and brought it with hym, & deliuered the same to the Lord Deputie aforesaid. Which was about the yeare. 1533.

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This beyng knowne & certified vnto the kyng, he was motioned by his counsell, that such as were about her, and moued her thereto, should be put frō her. And therfore the Duke of Suffolke 

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Charles Brandon was sent (c.18 December) to the village of Buckden, where Catherine was lodged at the Great Hall of the palace of Bishop Grossteste since July 1533. [See, Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, iv/ii, pp.892-99; L&P, vi, 622].

was sent to Bugden beside Huntyngdō, where þe sayd Lady Katherine lay, who perceiuyng her stomacke to cōtinue froward still, in aūsweryng him with high wordes, & sodenly so in a fury to part frō him into her priuy chamber, & shut the doore: brake vp the doore of her Court, MarginaliaThe Lady Catherines court discharged.& discharged a great sort of her houshold seruaūts, & yet left her a conueniēt number to serue her like a Princesse. They that remayned still, were sworne to serue her

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