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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

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Desiderius Erasmus

(c. 1467 - 1536) [ODNB]

b. Rotterdam; humanist scholar and reformer. Augustinian canon 1487; priest 1492. Studied at Paris and Oxford, DTh University of Turin; lectured in theology and Greek at Cambridge

Erasmus praised the learning of William Tyndale. 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

Erasmus wrote to Juan de Vergara informing him of the fall of Thomas Wolsey and his replacement as chancellor by Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Included in the injunctions of Edward VI for the reformation of the church in the realm was the requirement that every church should have a bible in English and a copy of Erasmus's Paraphrases on the gospels. 1563, p. 687; 1570, p. 1487; 1576, p. 1261; 1583, p. 1298.

Erasmus wrote on St Jerome. 1570, p. 1340; 1576, p. 1143; 1583, p. 1172.

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Humphrey Monmouth

(d. c. 1537) [Fines]

Draper and alderman of All Saints, Barking.

Imprisoned, abjured; sheriff of London (1535 - 36) [PRO List of Sheriffs]

Articles were put by John Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Monmouth admitted that William Tyndale had lived with him for about six months. He also admitted sending money to him in Hamburg, but also sent money to other scholars and religious houses. He abjured and was later knighted and made sheriff of London. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Hugh Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

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Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass,]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

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Robert Barnes

(c. 1495 - 1540) [ODNB]

Religious reformer; martyr of King's Lynn, Norfolk.

Augustinian friar; scholar of Cambridge and Louvain; prior of Augustinians, Cambridge; B.D. Cambridge 1522-23 ; BTh 1523

Arrested in 1526, abjured. Escaped to Wittenberg and became a good friend of Martin Luther; returned in 1531-32 and 1534; became royal chaplain in 1535

Robert Barnes went from Louvain to Cambridge. He became prior and master of the house of the Augustinians. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney, Thomas Arthur and others. 1563, p. 482.

Barnes preached his first sermon after his conversion at St Edward's church, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and was immediately accused of heresy by two fellows of King's Hall. His supporters met frequently at the White Horse tavern. 1563, p. 601; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was supported at Cambridge by William Paget and Gardiner. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Robert Barnes often visited Bury Abbey to see his friend Edmund Rougham, who had been his fellow student at Louvain. While there, Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund Rougham eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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Barnes preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Barnes was arrested and taken to London, where he was examined by Cardinal Wolsey. At the urging of Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox, he abjured. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Thomas Wolsey charged Barnes with heresy and made him bear a faggot. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 993.

Barnes performed his penance with four Stilliard men. He was then imprisoned in the Fleet for half a year. Afterwards he was committed to the Augustinian house in London as a free prisoner. Further complaints to the cardinal resulted in an order that Barnes be sent to Northampton to be burnt. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

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In Northampton Barnes left a suicide note and a pile of clothes on the river-bank and fled to London, from whence he escaped to Antwerp. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

From Antwerp Barnes went to Germany and found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

The king of Denmark sent Barnes as ambassador to Henry VIII with a delegation from Luebeck. Barnes flourished during the time that Anne Boleyn was queen. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Barnes and William Barlow informed Thomas Cromwell of the arrest of Thomas Frebarne for obtaining pork in Lent for his pregnant wife and asked him to send for the mayor. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1185.

Robert Barnes was sent on an embassy to the duke of Cleves by Henry VIII to help negotiate his marriage with Anne of Cleves. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

After the fall of Cromwell and Stephen Gardiner's return from France, Barnes and other preachers were arrested. He was examined, and he, Garrard and Jerome were appointed to preach sermons. Gardiner was present at Barnes' sermon, and Barnes was sent for and imprisoned in the Tower. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

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Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Barnes was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

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Sir Henry Guildford

(1489 - 1532) [ODNB]

Courtier; master of the horse; comptroller of the household

William Tyndale wished to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, and approached Sir Henry Guildford, who accompanied him and wrote a letter on his behalf. However, Tunstall in the end refused. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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Amongst the grievances against the clergy expressed in the 1530 parliament, Sir Henry Guildford complained that he and other executors of the will of Sir William Compton had to pay a thousand marks for probate to Cardinal Wolsey and the archbishop of Canterbury. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

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Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535) [ODNB]

Humanist, author. Studied at Oxford (1492 - 94); Lincoln Inn (1496 - 1501/2); joined king's council 1518; royal secretary (1521 - 26); lord chancellor (1529 - 32); strong opponent of heresy; martyr

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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More became chancellor after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, Phillips was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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More was prevented from persecuting Simon Fish because the king had given him his signet, but he sent for Fish's wife to appear before him. She was saved from molestation because her daughter was ill with plague. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

More wrote The Supplication of Purgatory in opposition to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

More intercepted and confiscated a consignment of protestant books sent to England by Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

More examined John Tewkesbury, and sentence was pronounced in More's house. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

More pursued John Frith in England and abroad and promised large rewards for news of him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

John Fisher and More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Bishop Stokesley complained to More of the behaviour of his clergy in objecting to contributing large sums to the lifting of the praemunire on the higher clergy. More had the mayor of London arrest and imprison a number of clergy and laymen. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

The king sent More to speak to parliament, giving the opinion of the universities on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine. 1563, p. 459.

Because More opposed the king's separation from the pope, he was deprived of the chancellorship. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

In the preface to his book against Tyndale, More gave evidence that Thomas Bilney had recanted before his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

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William Hebilthwaite

Servant of Cuthbert Tunstall; 'old acquaintance' of William Tyndale [D. Daniell, William Tyndale (1994) pp. 85-6]

Sir Henry Guildford gave a letter of recommendation of William Tyndale to William Hebilthwaite to give to Bishop Tunstall. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

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Flanders, Belgium

Coordinates: 51° 13' 0" N, 4° 24' 0" E

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Bristoll, Brystoll, Bristow, Bristowe
NGR: ST 590 730

A city and county of itself, between the counties of Gloucester and Somerset. 34 miles south-west by south from Gloucester, 12 miles north-west from Bath. Bristol is the seat of a diocese, established in 1542. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Augustine, Christ Church, St. Owen, St. John Baptist, St. Leonard, St. Mary le Port, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Michael, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Werburgh, St. Stephen and St. Thomas. Also the Temple parish, and parts of St. James, St. Paul, St. Philip and St. Jacob. All are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the bishop. Christ Church, St. John Baptist, St. Mary le Port, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Stephen and St. Werburgh are discharged rectories. St. Leonard, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Nicholas, The Temple, St. Philip and St. Jacob are discharged vicarages. St. James and St. Thomas are perpetual curacies, the latter annexed to the vicarage of Bedminster, Archdeaconry of Bath, Diocese of Bath and Wells.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1100 [1076]

K. Hen. 8. The story of William Tindall. Tindall goeth into Germany.

that he doubted their priuie accusations: so þt he by the way in going thetherwards, cried in his mind hartily to God, to geue him strength fast to stande in the truth of his word.

Then when the time came of his appearance before the Chancellour, he threatned him greuously, reuiling and rating him as though he had ben a dog, & laide to his charge many thinges, MarginaliaTindal could not haue his accusers brought out.whereof no accuser yet coulde be broughte foorth (as commonly their maner is, not to bring foorth the accuser) notwithstanding that the Priests of the countrey the same time were there present. And thus M. Tindal after those examinatiōs escaping out of their hands, departed home and returned to his maister againe.

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MarginaliaOne good olde Doctor amongst many nought.There dwelt not farre of a certaine Doctour that hadde bene an olde Chauncellour before to a Byshop, who had bene of olde familiar acquaintance with M. Tyndall, and also fauoured him well. Vnto whome M. Tyndall went and opened his minde vpon diuers questions of the scripture: for to him he durst be bold to disclose his heart. Vnto whom the Doctor sayd: doe you not knowe that the Pope is very Antichrist, MarginaliaThe Pope Antichrist. whome the Scripture speaketh of. But beware what you say: for if you shall be perceiued to be of that opinion, it will cost you your life: and sayd moreouer, I haue bene an officer of his, But I haue geuen it vp and defie him and all his workes.

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It was not long after, but M. Tindal happened to be in the companie of a certaine diuine recounted for a lerned man, and in commoning and disputing with him, he droue him to that issue, that the sayde great Doctor burst out into these blasphemous wordes, and sayde: Marginalia

The blasphemy of a blind doctour.

The popes lawe preferred before Gods lawe.

wee were better to be without Gods lawe then the Popes. M. Tyndall hearing thys, ful of godly zeale, and not bearing that blasphemous saying, replied againe & sayde: I defie the Pope and all his lawes: and further added, that if God spared hym life, ere many yeares he would cause a boy that driueth the plough to know more of the Scripture, then he did.

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After this, the grudge of the priests increasing still more and more against Tyndall, they neuer ceased barking and rating at him, and laide many sore thinges to hys charge, saying that he was an hereticke in Sophistry, and hereticke in Logicke, an hereticke in Diuinitie: and sayde moreouer to him, that he bare himselfe bolde of the Gentlemen there in that country: but notwithstanding, shortly he should be otherwise talked withal. To whom M. Tyndall answearing againe thus said, that he was contented they shoulde bring him into any countrey in all England, geuing hym x. li. a yere to liue with, and binding him to no more but to teache children and to preache.

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To be short, M. Tyndal being so molested and vexed in the countrey by the Priests, was constrained to leaue that country and to seke an other place: MarginaliaTindall departeth from M. Welche. and so comming to M. Welche, he desired him of hys good will, that hee myght depart from him, saying on this wise to him: Syr I perceiue I shall not be suffered to tary long heere in this countrey, neither shall you be able though you woulde, to keepe me out of the hands of the spiritualtie, & also what displeasure might grow therby to you by keeping me, God knoweth: for the which I shoulde be right sorie. MarginaliaTindall cōmeth to London.So that in fine, M. Tindall with the good will of his maister, departed, & eftsoones came vp to London, and there preached a while, according as he had done in the country before, and specially about the towne of Bristowe, and also in the sayde towne, in the common place called S. Austines Greene 

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The chronology is a bit confused here; if Tyndale preached in Bristol, it was almost certainly before he left for London.

. At length he bethinking him selfe of Cutbert Tonstall, then Byshop of London, and especially for the great commendation of Erasmus, who in his annotations so extolleth him for his learning, thus cast with himselfe, that if hee might attaine vnto his seruice hee were a happy man. MarginaliaAn oration of Isocrates translated out of Greeke into Englishe by W. Tindall.And so comming to Syr Henry Gilford the kings controller, and bringing with him an Oration of Isocrates, which he had then trāslated out of Greke into English, he desired him to speake to the sayde B. of London for him. Which he also did 
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This account of Tyndale seeking the patronage of Tunstall and being comes from Tyndale's preface to the Penteteuch: see William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treartises and Introductions to Different Portions of Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge, 1848), pp. 395-6.

, and willed him moreouer to wryte an Epistle to the Byshop, and to go him self with him. MarginaliaTindall sueth to bishop Tonstall to be his Chaplaine.Which he did likewise, and deliuered his Epistle to a seruaunte of his, named William Hebilthwaite, a man of his olde acquaintaunce. But God who secretely disposeth the course of things, saw that was not the best for Tyndals purpose, nor for the profite of hys Churche, and therefore gaue him to finde little fauor in the Bishops sight. MarginaliaTonstal refuseth M. Tindall.The answer of whom was thys, that hys house was full, he had mo then he could wel finde, and aduised him to seeke in London abroade, where hee saide hee coulde lacke no seruice. &c. and so remained hee in London the space almoste of a yeare, beholding and marking wyth him selfe the course of the world, and especially the demeanour of the preachers, howe they boasted them selues and set vp their authoritie and kingdome: beholding also the pompe of the Prelates, wyth other thynges moe whiche greatly misliked him: In so muche that he vnderstoode, notonely there to be no rowme in the Bishops house for hym to translate the new Testament: but also that there was no place to do it in al England. And therfore finding no place for his purpose within the realme, and hauing some ayde and prouision, by Gods prouidence ministred vnto hym by Humphrey Mummoth aboue recited 
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See 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970 and 1583, p. 957.

, as you may see before, pag. 1076. and certain other good men, MarginaliaTindall departeth into Germany.hee tooke hys leaue of the realme, & departed into Germanie. Where the good man being inflamed with a tender care and zeale of his countrey, refused no trauell nor diligence howe by all meanes possible, to reduce his brethren and coūtreymen of England to þe same tast and vnderstanding of Gods holy word and veritie, which the Lord had endued him withal.

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MarginaliaThe causes mouing Tindall to translate the Scripture into the Englishe tongue.Whereupon he considering in his minde, and partely also conferring with Iohn Frith, thought wyth him selfe no way more to conduce therunto, then if the Scripture were turned into the vulgar speach, that the poore people might also reade and see the simple plaine woord of God. For first hee wisely casting in hys minde, perceiued by experience, how that it was not possible to stablish the lay people in any truth, except the Scripture were so plainly layde before theyr eyes in theyr mother tongue, that they myght see the processe, order, and meaning of the text: For els what so euer truth shuld be taught them, these enemies of the truth would quenche it againe, either wyth apparant reasons of Sophistrie, and traditions of their own making, founded without all ground of Scripture: either els iuggling with the text, expoūding it in such a sense, as impossible it were to gather of the text, if the right processe, order, & meaning thereof were seene.

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MarginaliaHiding of Scriptnre the cause of mischiefe.Againe, right wel he perceiued and considered this only, or most chiefly to be þe cause of all mischief in the church, that the Scriptures of God were hidden from the peoples eyes: For so long the abhominable doings and idolatries maintained by the Pharisaicall Clergie, could not be espied, and therefore al theyr labour was wyth might & maine to keepe it downe, so that eyther it should not be red at all, or if it were, they would darken the right sense with þe mist of theyr Sophistrie, and so entangle them whych rebuked or despised theyr abhominations, wyth arguments of philosophie, and with worldly similitudes, and apparant reasons of naturall wisedom: and with wresting the scripturs vnto their owne purpose, contrary vnto the processe, order, and meanyng of the texte, woulde so delude them in descanting vppon it with Allegories, and amaze them, expounding it in many senses layed before the vnlearned lay people, that though thou felt in thy hart, & were sure that all were false that they said yet couldest not thou solue their subtle ridles.

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For these and such other considerations, this good man was moued (and no doubt styrred vp of God) to translate the Scripture into his mother tongue, for the publicke vtility and profit of the simple vulgar people of the country: MarginaliaThe newe testament and the 5. bookes of Moyses translated with Tindalls prologues.first, setting in hand with the newe Testament, whiche he first translated about the yeare of our Lord 1527. After that he tooke in hand to translate the olde Testament, finishing the fiue bookes of Moyses, with sondry most learned and godly prologues prefixed before euery one, most worthy to be read and read againe of all good Christians: as the lyke also he did vpon the new Testament.

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Hee wrote also diuers other woorkes vnder sundry titles, among the which is that most worthy monument of his, intituled: The obedience of a Christian man: wherin with singulare dexteritie he instructeth all men in the office and duetie of Christian obedience, wyth diuers other treatises: as The wicked Mammon: The practise of Prelates, wyth expositions vppon certaine partes of the Scripture, and other Bookes also aunswearing to Syr Thom. More and other aduersaries of the truthe, no lesse delectable, then also most fruitfull to be read, which partly before beyng vnknowen vnto many, partly also being almost abolished and worne out by time, the Printer heereof 

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I.e., John Day, the printer of the Acts and Monuments.

(good Reader) for conseruing and restoring such singulare treasures, hath collected and set foorth in Print the same in one generall volume, all and whole together, as also the woorkes of Iohn Frith, Barnes, and other, as are to be seene most special and profitable for thy reading. 
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This is a reference to The whole workes of W. Tyndale, John Frith and Doct. Barnes, ed. John Foxe, STC 24436, which was printed by John Day in 1572.

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These bookes of W. Tyndal being compiled, published & sent ouer into England, it cannot be spoken what a dore of light they opened to the eies of the whole English nation, which before were many yeres shut vp in darkenesse.

At his first departing out of þe realme, he toke his iorny into þe further parts of Germany, MarginaliaTindal went into into Saxony, where he had conference wt Luther and other learned mē in those quarters. Where, after þt he had continued a certen season, he came down from thence into the netherlands, MarginaliaTindal came to Antwerpe.& had his most abiding in the town of Antwerp, vntil þe time of hys apprehēsiō: wherof more shalbe said god willing hereafter.

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