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Henry Philips

(d. after 1542) [D. Daniell, William Tyndale (1994) pp. 361-84; ODNB sub William Tyndale]

BCL Oxford by 1533; ne'er-do-well disowned by his parents; gambled away money entrusted to him by his father; betrayed William Tyndale in Antwerp

Henry Philips became acquainted with William Tyndale in Antwerp. Tyndale got him a place in Thomas Poyntz's house where he was lodging, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Philips went to the emperor's court at Brussels and brought imperial officers with him when he returned to Antwerp. He went to Poyntz's house while Poyntz was away for a few weeks and set a trap for Tyndale. The officers were waiting in an alley when Philips tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. 1563, p. 516; 1570, p. 1228; 1576, p. 1051; 1583, p. 1078.

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After Tyndale's arrest, Poyntz worked for his release at the emperor's court in Brussels. Philips then accused Poyntz of harbouring Tyndale. He continued to watch Tyndale and Poyntz during their examinations. 1563, p. 517; 1570, p. 1228; 1576, p. 1051; 1583, p. 1078.

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Margaret von Emmerson

Widow of Hamburg; protestant sympathiser; possibly Tyndale and Coverdale translated the 1st five books of the Old Testament at her house in 1529 [D. Daniell, William Tyndale (1994) pp. 198-200]

William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the first five books of the Old Testament in the house of Margaret von Emmerson. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1569) [ODNB]

Bible translator and bishop of Exeter (1551 - 53)

Coverdale, with other Cambridge scholars, was a member of the Augustinian house under Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

During the night after he had been examined by Cardinal Wolsey, Robert Barnes stayed at the house of Thomas Parnell. He wrote throughout the night, dictating to Miles Coverdale, Master Goodwin and Thomas Curson. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

Thomas Topley had been converted by Richard Foxe and Miles Coverdale; he left his monastery and became a secular priest. 1570, pp. 1189-90; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, pp. 1046-47.

As William Tyndale was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Coverdale was the chief overseer of the Great Bible. He used Tyndale's translation and compared it with the Hebrew. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Edmund Bonner showed great friendship to Richard Grafton, Edward Whitchurch and especially to Miles Coverdale. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Miles Coverdale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

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Simon Smith

MA, Gonville Hall, Cambridge; curate of Thomas Patmore at Much Hadham [Fines]

Simon Smith was charged in London in 1531 with marrying while a priest. He and his pregnant wife were subjected to a lengthy examination, made to abjure and given penance to perform. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

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Thomas Poyntz

(d. 1563) [D. Daniell, William Tyndale (1994)]

of Antwerp; kept a house of English merchants; Tyndale was living with him when arrested

William Tyndale lodged in the house of Thomas Poyntz. He introduced Henry Philips into the house and befriended him, but Thomas Poyntz distrusted Philips. Philips set a trap for Tyndale while Poyntz was away for a few weeks. 1563, pp. 515-16; 1570, pp. 1227-28; 1576, pp. 1050-51; 1583, pp. 1077-78.

After Tyndale had been arrested, Poyntz worked assiduously to gather support to release him from prison. He enlisted the help of the marquess of Bergen op Zoom. When he took letters to the emperor's court at Brussels, he was himself examined. He was kept in prison for a length of time, but finally escaped. 1563, pp. 517-18; 1570, pp. 1228-29; 1576, pp. 1051-52; 1583, pp. 1078-79.

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[Hamborow; Hamburge; Hamborough]


Coordinates: 53° 35' 0" N, 9° 59' 0" E

Imperial free city 1189

1101 [1077]

K. Henry. 8. The story of William Tindall Martyr. William Tindall sustaineth shipwracke.

Amongst his other bokes which he compiled, one work he made also for the declaration of the sacrament (as it was then called) of the alter: the which he kept by him, considering how the people were not as yet fully persuaded in other matters tending to superstitious ceremonies & grose idolatry. Wherefore he thought as yet time was not come, to put forth that work, but rather that it should hinder the people from other instructions, supposing that it woulde seeme to them odious to heare any such thing spoken or set foorth at that time, sounding againste their great Goddesse Diana, that is, againste their Masse, being had euery where in great estimation, as was the Goddesse Diana amongest the Ephesians whom they thought to come from heauen. 

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This is a reference to Acts 19: 24-41.

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MarginaliaTindal bearing with tyme.Wherfore M. Tindall being a man both prudent in his doings, and no lesse zealous in the setting foorth of Gods holy truth, after such sort as it might take most effect wyth the people, did forbeare the putting forth of that work, not doubting but by Gods mercifull grace, a time shuld come, to haue that abhomination openly declared, as it is at this present day 

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This a reference to William Tyndale, A brief declaration of the sacraments, STC 24445, which was not published until around 1548. In this work, Tyndale denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, arguing instead that it is the inner faith of the communicants that makes the Lord's Supper a Sacrament. This view was not only objectionable to Catholics, but also to Henry VIII and (at this time) Thomas Cranmer.

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: the Lorde almighty be alwaies praised therefore. Amen.

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These godly bookes of Tindall, and specially the newe Testament of his translation, after that they begā to come into mens handes, and to spread abroad, as they wroughte great and singuler profite to the godly: MarginaliaDarckenes hateth the vngodly enuying and disdaining that the people should be any thing wiser then they, & againe fearing least by the shining beames of truth, their false hypocrisie & workes of darkenesse should be discerned: began to stirre with no small ado, like as at the birth of Christ, Herode & al Ierusalem was troubled with him. 

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See Matt. 2.

MarginaliaSathan an enemye to all good purposes, especially to the Gospell.But especially Sathan the prince of darkenes, maligning þe happy course and successe of the Gospel, set to his might also, how to empeache and hinder þe blessed trauailes of that man: as by this, and also by sondry other wayes may appeare. For at what time Tindall had translated the fift booke of Moises called Deuteronomium, minding to Printe the same at Hamborough, hee sailed thereward 
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David Daniell has cogently argued that this entire account of a voyage to Hamburg and a shipwreck is fictitious; see David Daniell, 'Tyndale and Foxe' in John Foxe: Historical Perspectives, ed. David Loades (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 26-8.

: MarginaliaWilliam Tindall lost his bookes & copies, by shipwracke.where by the way vpon the coast of Holland, he suffred shipwracke, by the which he loste all his bookes, wrytings and copies, and so was compelled to begin al againe a new, to his hinderāce and doubling of his labors. Thus hauing lost by that ship, both money, his copies and time, he came in an other ship to Hamborough, where at his appoyntment M. Couerdale taried for him, MarginaliaM. Couerdale a helper of M. Tindall in the translation of the testament.and helped hym in the translating of the whole 5. bookes of Moises, from Easter till Decemb. in the house of a worshipfull widowe, Maistres Margaret van Emmerson. Anno 1529. a greate sweating sicknesse being the same time in the Towne. So hauing dispatched his businesse at Hamborough, he returned afterward to Antwerpe againe.

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Thus as Sathan is, and euer hath bene an ennemy to all godly endeuors, and chiefly to the promoting & furtherance of Gods word, as by this & many other experimēts may be sene: so his ministers and members following the like qualitie of their maister, be not altogether idle for their partes: as also by the Popes Chapleins and Gods ennemies, and by their cruell handling of the sayde M. Tindall the same time, both here in England and in Flāders, may well appeare.

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When Gods will was, that the newe Testament in the common tongue should come abroad, Tindall the translator therof added to the latter ende a certain Epistle, wherin hee desired them that were learned to amende, if oughte were found amisse 

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For what followers see William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge, 1848), pp. 396-8.

. Wherfore, if any such default had bene, deseruing correction, it had bene the parte of courtesie and gentlenesse, for men of knowledge and iudgement to haue shewed their learning therein, and to haue redressed þt was to be amended. But the spiritual fathers then of the clergy being not willing to haue that booke to prosper, cryed out vpon it, bearing men in hand, that there were a thousande heresies in it, & that it was not to be corrected, but vtterly to be suppressed. MarginaliaThe practise of popishe prelates to keepe the Scripture from the people.Some said it was not possible to translate the Scripture into Englishe: some that it was not lawfull for the lay people to haue it in their mother tongue, some þt it woulde make them all heretickes. And to the intent to induce the temporall rulers also vnto theyr purpose, they made more matter, & said, that it would make the people to rebel and rise against the king. All this Tindall himselfe in his own prologue before the first booke of Moses declareth: and addeth further, shewing what great paines was taken in examining that translation, & comparing it wyth their owne imaginations and termes, that with lesse labor (hee supposeth) they might haue translated them selues a great part of the Bible: Shewing moreouer, that they scāned and examined euery title and poynt in the said translation, in such sorte and so narrowly, that there was not one i. therein, but if it lacked a pricke ouer his heade, they did note it, and numbered it vnto the ignoraunt people for anheresie. So great was then the froward deuises of þe English Clergy (who should haue ben the guides of light vnto the people) to driue the people from the texte & knowledge of the scripture, which neither they would translate themselues, not yet abide it to be translated of others: MarginaliaThe causes why the popes clergy could not abide the Scripture in the common the intent (as Tindall sayeth) that the woorde being kept still in darknesse, they might sitte in the consciences of the people through vaine superstition & false doctrine, to satisfie theyr lustes, their ambition, and vnsaciable couetousnesse, and to exalte theyr owne honour aboue King and Emperour, yea and aboue God him selfe. Hæc ille.

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The Bishops and Prelates of the realme, thus (as ye haue hard) incensed and inflamed in their minds, although hauing no cause against the olde and newe Testament of the Lorde newly translated by Tindall, and conspiring together wt all their heads and counsails, how to repeale the same, neuer rested before they had brought the king at last to their consent. MarginaliaThe popishe prelates procured not onely the condemnation of M. Tindals bookes, but also burned both them and the testament, calling it Doctrinā peregrinam, straunge doctrine.By reason wherof a proclamatiō in al hast was deuised and set forth vnder publike authoritie: but no iust reason shewed, that the testament of Tindals translation, with other workes mo both of his and of other wryters, were inhibited and abandoned, as ye hearde before 

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In concentrating upon the prohibition of the circulation of the scriptures in English, issued by Cuhbert Tunstall on 23 October 1527 (not 24 October 1527, as Foxe states) were crystal-clear. It was a golden opportunity to emphasise the opposition to the spread of evangelical truth among the English ecclesiastical hierarchy on the eve of the events that Foxe will shortly describe, and which led to the reformation. Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of London, had been consecrated there on 19 October 1522 (provided on 10 September and the temporalities assigned 7 October). He would be translated to the see of Durham on 21 February 1530. The archdeacon, to whom the prohibition was addressed, was Geoffrey Wharton, collated 29 March 1526 (see Tunstal's register at London Guildhall MS, 9531/10: Episcopal Register Tunstal: 1522-29/30, fol.14b). Wharton died two years later on c.30 October 1529 (fol.28). His vicar-general, also mentioned in the prohibition, was Richard Foxford. The translated and printed New Testament, whose circulation it sought to prevent was Tyndale's New Testament, completed by February 1526 at the Peter Schoeffer printer in Worms, the first to be printed in the English vernacular. It is interesting that, for all the trouble Chancellor Thomas More and Bishop Stokesley would put him through, the major influence upon Tyndale's translation had been Erasmus' own Greek New Testament, which was available to him in its third edition of 1524 (with its Latin translation and notes). Stokesley had defended an earlier edition of Erasmus before Henry VIII in 1521 (Collected Works of Erasmus, 67 vols. (Toronto, 1974-91), vi, p.63 (no.855), viii, pp.8ff, 19; L&P, ii/ii, 4340) while More's relationship with Erasmus is well known. Tyndale had also used Luther's 1521 September Testament (see, Brian Moynahan, William Tyndale [London, 2002], p.6). Tyndale would make much of the fact that Erasmus had been his major influence.

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, page 1018. Which was about the yere of our Lorde. 1527. And yet not contented heerewith, they proceeded further, howe to entangle him in their nettes, and to bereft him of his life. Which howe they brought to passe, nowe it remaineth to be declared.

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MarginaliaPriuy conspiracyon of the Byshops against M Tindall.In the registers of London it appeareth manifest, how that the 

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'Coram' means 'court'; in this case, the people summoned before an episcopal court.

Bishops & sir Tho. More hauing any poore man vnder Coram, to be examined before them, namely, such as had bene at Antwerpe, most studiously would searche and examine all things belonging to Tindall, where and with whom he hosted, where aboutes stood the house, what was his stature, in what apparell he went, what resorte he had. &c. All which things when they had diligently learned (as may appeare by the examination of Simon Smith, and others) 
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Foxe only mentions a crucial fact later in his narrative: Smith was Patmore's curate and Benmore his maidservant. Patmore's active support, if not outright instigation, of this marriage was necessary.

then began they to worke their feates, as you shall heare by the relation of his owne host.

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MarginaliaThe order and maner of taking of Tindal, testified by Poynt, his host.William Tindall being in the towne of Antwerp, had ben lodged about one whole yere in the house of Thomas Pointz an Englishmā, who kept there an house of english Marchauntes 

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Thomas Poyntz was a merchant in the English House at Antwerp and a kinsman of Lady Walsh, the wife of Tyndale's first patron.

. About which time came thither one out of England, whose name was Henry Philips, his father being customer of Poole, a comely felow, like as he had bene a Gentleman, hauing a seruaunt with him: but wherfore he came, or for what purpose he was sent thither, no man could tell.

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MarginaliaThe frendship of Tindal shewed to Philips his betrayer.Maister Tindall diuers times was desired forth to diner and supper amongst marchants: by þe meanes wherof this Henry Philips became acquaynted with him, so that within short space M. Tindall had a great confidence in him: and brought him to his lodging to the house of Tho. Pointz, and had him also with him once or twise to dinner & supper, and further entred such frendship with him that through his procurement, he lay in the same house of the sayd Pointz: To whom he shewed moreouer his bookes and other secrets of his study, so litle did Tindall then mistrust this Traytor.

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But Pointz hauing no great confidence in the fellowe, asked Mayster Tindall howe hee came acquaynted wyth this Philips. Maister Tindall aunswered, that he was an honest man handsomely learned, and very comfortable. Then Pointz perceiuing that he bare such fauor to hym, sayd no more, thinking that hee was hroughte acquaynted with him by some frend of his. The sayd Phillippes beyng in the Towne iij. or iiij. dayes, vppon a tyme desired Pointz to walke with him foorth of the Towne to shewe him the commodities therof, and in walking together wtout the towne, had communication of diuers thinges, and some of the kinges affayres. By the whiche talke Pointz as yet suspected nothing, but after by the sequele of þe matter hee perceiued more what hee entended. In the meane time this he well perceiued, that he bare no great fauour, either to the setting forth of any good thing, either to the proceedinges of the king of England. But after when the time was past, Pointz perceiued this to be his mynde, to feele if he could perceiue by him, MarginaliaThe Papists will spare no cost to fulfill their malicious enterprises.whether he might breake with him in the matter for lucre of money, to helpe hym to his purpose: for he perceiued before that he was monied & would that Pointz should thinke no lesse: but by whome, it was vnknowne: For hee had desired Pointz before to helpe him to diuers things, and such things as he named, he required might be of the best, for sayd he, MarginaliaPhillippes well monyed by the Englishe Byshops.I haue money enough, But of this talke came nothing but þt men should thinke he had some thinges to doe, for nothing els folowed of his talke. So it was to be suspected, that Philips was

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