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Agricolus

fl. C4. Officer of Emperor Lucinius in the east

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Alban (St Alban)

(d. c. 303?) [ODNB]

Christian martyr in Roman Britain at Verulamium (St Albans)

Alban was converted by the example of a Christian priest staying at his house. When the soldiers came for the priest, Alban put on the priest's cloak and went in his place. He refused to worship the Roman gods and was whipped and then beheaded. 1570, pp. 123-24; 1576, p. 89; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Amones

fl. C4. Deacon of Heraclea, Thrace; martyr under Licinius

Amones was tortured and then killed by the sword. 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Basil of Amasea

(d. c. 322x323) [Gams]

Bishop of Amasea (314 - 322/23); martyred under Licinius

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Bede

(c. 673/4 - 735) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk at Wearmouth and Jarrow; historian and theologian

Wrote on the use of language, computation, chronology, biblical commentaries, hagiography and biography

Author of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum

Bede entered the monastery at Wearmouth under Abbot Benedict Biscop when he was seven years old. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

Bede was made deacon at nineteen years of age, and priest when he was twenty. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Pope Sergius I sent a letter to Ceolfrith, abbot of Wearmouth, praising Bede's learning and asking that he be sent to Rome. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede gave his Anglorum Historia to King Ceolwulf of Northumbria to be approved and amended. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede wrote that in his time Easter was celebrated in Britain following the eastern practice. 1570, p. 145; 1576, p. 107; 1583, p. 106.

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, said that Bede had translated the gospel of St John into English. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

Bede died during the reign of Æthelbald of Mercia. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

 
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Constantius I Chlorus

(c. 250 - 306) [ODNB; M. DiMaio www.roman-emperors.org]

Caesar of Maximian in the West (293 - 305); Roman emperor in the West (305 - 06); died in York

Father of Constantine I

Constantius was sent to Britain to collect tribute. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Constantius behaved favourably towards Christians. 1570, p. 114; 1576, p. 82; 1583, p. 81.

 
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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian

(236/7 - 316) [R. W. Mathisen www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (284 - 305), succeeding Carus's son, Numerian, in the east; controlled the whole empire after the death of Carinus, Carus's younger son, in 285. Introduced tetrarchy; enforced imperial cult; abdicated.

Declined an offer to take the throne in 308; died at Split.

Diocletian came to the throne with the support of the troops. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.

Having accused Aper of killing Numerian, Diocletian killed him with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian commanded that he be worshipped as a god. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian introduced the most severe persecution of the Christians. The persecution began with the destruction of churches and books of scripture. 1570, pp. 39, 109-111; 1576, pp. 31, 78-79; 1583, pp. 31, 77-79.

He went on use threats and imprisonment, and eventually he devised a great variety of tortures and methods of execution. 1570, pp. 112-14; 1576, pp. 80-81; 1583, pp. 79-81.

Diocletian abdicated and, having heard of the edict of Constantine and Licinius granting freedom of worship to Christians, died. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 87; 1583, p. 86.

 
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Gregory the Illuminator (St Gregory)

(d. 337?) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

of Caesarea, Cappadocia; missionary to Armenia

Patron saint of Armenia

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88 1583, p. 88.

 
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Herculius Maximianus

(d. 310) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]

Soldier; Roman emperor (286 - 305); elevated by Diocletian to rule in the West; made to abdicate with Diocletian

Attempted to depose his son Maxentius in 308; proclaimed himself emperor in 310; imprisoned by his son-in-law Constantine and pardoned. Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; Maximian died soon after, either by suicide or on the orders of Constantine.

Maximian was made emperor in the west because uprisings and unrest made it impossible for Diocletian to rule the entire empire alone. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Maximian was a persecutor of Christians. He decimated the troops of Maurice twice when they refused to sacrifice to his gods and finally commanded they all be killed. 1570, pp. 113-14; 1576, p. 81; 1583, pp. 80-81.

Having abdicated with Diocletian, he attempted to regain power when his son Maxentius was set up as emperor. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine, his son-in-law, killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife. Maximian was killed on the return journey from Gaul. 1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

 
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Locias

fl. C4. Officer of Emperor Lucinius in the east

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Nicephorus

(d. 828) [Gams]

Greek Orthodox theologian and historian; patriarch of Constantinople (806 - 15)

He is cited extensively by Foxe as a source in Book 1.

 
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Nicholas

According to Nicephorus, bishop of Mirorus martyred under Licinius

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Paul of Neocæsarea

C4 bishop of Neocæsarea [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Attended the Council of Nicæa in 325

Paul had both his hands cut off during the persecution of Licinius, according to Nicephorus. 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Theodorus

C4 martyr under Licinius

Theodorus was crucified, had nails driven into his armpits and was finally beheaded. 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Theodorus

According to Nicephorus, bishop of Tyre and martyr under Licinius

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 123; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Marseille (Massilia)

[Marsels; Marsilia; Masilia; Marscile]

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Coordinates: 43° 17' 51" N, 5° 22' 38" E

Cathedral city

 
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Perga (Perge)

Pamphylia, Antalya, Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 57' 39" N, 30° 51' 12" E

 
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Sivas (Sebastia)

Capadocia, Turkey

Coordinates: 39° 45' 0" N, 37° 1' 0" E

 
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St Albans
S. Albones, Saint Albons
NGR: TL 155 075

Borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Hundred of Cashio, Hertfordshire. 12.5 miles west-by-south from Hertford; 20 miles north-west-by-north from London. The town comprises the parish of St Alban, or the Abbey parish, and part of the parish of St Michael and St Peter, in the archdeaconry of St Albans, diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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St Albans (Verulamium) [S. Albanes; S. Albons]

Hertfordshire

OS grid ref: TL 155 075

 
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York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Zervokhori (Heraclea Sintica)

Thracian Macedonia, Greece

Coordinates: 40° 39' 4" N, 22° 13' 59" E

111 [88]

The first Booke conteyning the X. first persecutions, of the Primitiue Churche.

were faine to be the habitations, and resting places of the poore and miserable Christians. Eusebius. Lib. 10. cap, 14. Of those worthy men and famous Martyrs, which in this persecution founde the way to heauen, Nicephorus. Lib. 7. cap. 10. first speaketh of Theodorus, MarginaliaHote persecution renued. Theodorus. who first being hanged vpon the crosse, had nawles thrust into his arme pits, and after that his head stirken of. Also of another Theodorus being the Byshop of Tyre, MarginaliaAnother Theodorus Byshop of Tyrus. the thirde was a man of Perga. MarginaliaA man of Perga. Basilius also the Byshop of Amasenus, Nicolaus, the Byshop of Mirorus, Gregorius, of Armenia the great: MarginaliaNicholaus Bushop of Mirorus. Gregorius Byshop of Armenia. After that, Paule of Neocæsaria, which by the impious commandemēt of Licinius had both his hands cut of with a searing yron. Besides these were in the Citie of Sebastia, xl. worthy men, & Christian souldiours in the vehemēt cold time of winter, soused and drowned in a horse pond, whē Locias as yet, of whom we spake before, and Agricolaus executing the Shrieues office vnder Licinius in the East parts, were aliue: and were in great estimation, for inuenting of new and strange torments against the Christians. The wiues of those 40. good men, were caried to Heraclea a Citie in Thracia, and there with a certaine Deacon whose name was Amones, were (after innumerable torments by them most constauntly indured) slaine with the sworde. MarginaliaPaulus Byshop of Neoceæsaria, with 40. other martyrs. XL good men and their wiues martyrs. Amones with xl wiues of xl. men martyrs. These thinges wryteth Nicephorus. Also Zozomenus in his ninth booke & 2. Chapter maketh mention of the same Martyrs. And Basilius in a certaine Oration seemeth to intreate of their history, sauing that in the circumstances he somwhat varieth. And surely Licinius was determined, for that the first face of this persecution fel out according to his desire, to haue ouerrunne all the Christians: to which thing neither consell, nor good will, nor yet oportunitie, perchance wanted: MarginaliaThe wicked purpose of Licinius had he not bene preuented by God and slayne by Constantinus. vnlesse God had brought Constantinus into those parties, where he gouerned: where, in the warres which hee himselfe began (knowing right well that Constantinus had intelligence of his conspiracy & treason) ioyning battaile with him, was most cowardly ouercome. MarginaliaLicinius ouercome in battaile by Constantinus.

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Diuers battailes betweene them were fought, the first fought in Hungarie, where Licinius was ouerthrowen: Then he fled into Macedonia, & repairing his army, was againe discomfited. Finally, being vāquished, both by sea and lande: he lastly, at Nicomedia, yelded himselfe to Constantine: and was cōmaunded to liue a priuate life in Thessalia, where at length he was slaine by the souldiours.

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MarginaliaThe end and death of the tyrauntes whiche were the authors of this x. persecution.Thus haue ye heard, the ende and conclusion of all the vij. tyrants, which were the authors and workers of this x. and last persecutiō, against the true people of God. The chiefe Captaine, and incentour of which persecution was first Dioclesian, who died at Salena, as some say, by his owne poyson. An. 319. The next was Maximinian, who as is sayde, was hanged of Constantine at Masilia, about the yeare of our Lorde. 310. Then died Galerius, plagued with an horrible disease sent of God. Seuerus was slaine by Maximinian, father of Maxentius the wicked tyraunt was ouercome and vanquished of Constantine. an. 318. Maximinus the vj. tyraunt taried not long after, who being ouercome by Licinius, died, about the yere of our Lord. 320. Lastly, how this Licinius was ouercome by Constantine and slaine. An. 324. is before declared. Only Constantius, the father of Constantine being a good and a godly Emperour, died in the third yeare of the persecution. An. 310. and was buried at Yorke. After whom succeeded after his godly father, Constantinus, as a seconde Moses sent and set vp of God to deliuer his people out of this so miserable captiuitie, into libertie most ioyfull.

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MarginaliaA briefe story of the most notable Martirs, that suffered in this x. persecution.Now remaineth after the end of these persecutors thus described, to gather vp the names & stories of certain particular Martyrs, which nowe are to be set forth worthy of speciall memory: 

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St. Alban

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

for their singular constancie & fortitude, shewed in their sufferings & cruell torments. The names of all which that suffered in this foresaid tenth persecution, being in number infinite, in vertue most excellēt, it is impossible heere to comprehend: but the most notable, and in most approued authors expressed, we thought heere to insert, for the more edification of other Christiās, which may and ought to looke vpon their examples, first beginning with Albanus, the first Martyr that euer in England suffered death for the name of Christ.

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At what time Dioclesian & Maximinian the Pagan Emperours had directed out their letters with all seueritye, for the persecuting of the Christians: Alban MarginaliaAlbanus, Martyr.being then an infidell, receiued into his house a certaine Clerke, fleeing from the persecutours hands, whom when Alban beheld, continually both day & night to perseuer in watching and in prayer: sodenly by the great mercy of God, he began to imitate the example of his faith & vertuous life: MarginaliaFruite of hospitalitie to be noted. whereupon by litle and litle he being instructed by his holesom exhortation, and leauing the blindnesse of his Idolatrie, be-came at length a perfect Christian. MarginaliaAlbanus first counerted, and by what occasion. And when the forenamed Clerke had lodged with him a certaine time, it was enformed the wicked Prince, that this good man & Confessour of Christ (not yet condemned to death) was harbored in Albans house, or very neare vnto him. Whereupon immediately he gaue in charge to the souldiours, to make more diligent inquisition of the marter. Who as soone as they came to the house of Alban the Martyr, hee by and by putting on the apparell wherewith his guest and maister was apparelled (that is, a garment at that time vsed, named Caracalla) offered him selfe in the steade of the other to the souldiours: MarginaliaAlbanus offereth himselfe to death for an other. who binding him, brought him forthwith to the iudge. It fortuned that at that instant when blessed Alban was brought unto the Iudge, they founde the same Iudge at the aulters offering sacrifice vnto Deuils, who as soone as hee sawe Alban, was straight waies in a great rage, for that hee woulde presume of his owne voluntary will, to offer him selfe to perill, and geue him selfe a prisoner to the souldiours, for safegarde of his guest whome he harbored: and commaunded him to be brought before the Images of the deuils whome he worshipped, saying: MarginaliaThe words of the Iudge to Albane. For that thou haddest rather hide & conuey away a rebell, then to deliuer him to the officers, and that (as a contemner of our Gods) he should not suffer punishment and merite of his blasphemye: looke what punishment he shoulde haue had, thou for him shalt suffer the same: if I perceiue thee any whit to reuolt from our maner of worshipping. But blessed Alban, who of his owne accorde had bewrayed to the persecutors that hee was a Christian, feared not at all the manaces of the Prince, but being armed with spirituall armour, openly pronounced that hee woulde not obey his commandement. Then sayd the Iudge: of what stocke or kindred art thou come? Alban answered, MarginaliaThe constācy and zeale of Albane.what is that to you, of what stocke soeuer I am come of, if you desire to heare the veritie of my Religion, I do ye to wit that I am a Christian, and apply my selfe altogether to that calling. Then sayd the Iudge, I woulde knowe thy name, and see thou tell me the same without delay. Then sayde hee, my parentes named me Alban, and I worship and honour the true and liuing God, which hath created all the worlde. Then sayd the Iudge fraught with fury, if thou wilt enioy the felicitie of this present life, doe sacrifice (and that out of hande) to these mighty Gods. Alban replieth: MarginaliaThe confession of Albane. these sacrifices which ye offer vnto deuils, cā neither helpe them that offer the same, neither yet can they accomplish the desires and prayers of their suppliāts: But rather shal they, what soeuer they be, that offer sacrifice to these Idoles, receaue for their meede euerlasting paines of hell fire. The Iudge, when he heard these words, was passing angry, and commaunded the tormentors to whip this holy Confessour of God, indeuoring to ouercome the constancy of his hart wt stripes, which had preuailed nothing with wordes. MarginaliaThe suffering and martyrdome of Alban. And when he was cruelly beaten, yet suffered he the same paciently, nay rather ioyfully, for the Lordes sake. Then when the Iudge saw that he would not with torments be ouercomen, nor be reduced from the worship of Christian Religion, he commaunded him to be beheaded.

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MarginaliaSuperfluous miracles in this story written by Bede omitted.The rest that foloweth of this story in the narration of Bede, as of drying vp the Riuer, as Alban went to the place of his execution: then of making a welspring in the top of the hill, and of the falling out of the eyes of him that did behead him (with such other prodigious miracles mētioned in his story) because they seeme more legēdlike, then truthlike: againe, because I see no great profit, nor necessitie in the relation thereof, I leaue them to the free iudgement of the Reader, to thinke of them, as cause shall moue him.

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MarginaliaThe legend of S. Alban disproued.The like estimation I haue of the long story, wherein is written at large a fabulous discourse of all the doings & miracles of S. Alban, taken out of the Librarie of S. Albans, compiled (as there is saide) by a certaine Pagan, who (as he sayth) afterwarde went to Rome, there to be Baptised. But because in the beginning or Prologue of the Booke, the sayde writer maketh mention of the ruinous walles of the towne of Verolamium, containing the storye of Albanus, and of his bitter punishments: which walles were then falling downe for age, at the wryting of the sayde booke, as he saith: Therby it seemeth this story to be written a great while after the martyrdome of Alban: either by a Britaine, or by an English mā. If he were a Britaine, how then did the Latin translation take it out of the English tounge, as in the Prologue he him selfe doeth testifie. If hee were an Englishmā, how then did he go vp to Rome for baptisme, being a Pagan, when he myght haue bene baptised amōg the Christian Britaines more neare at home.

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But among al other euidences and declarations sufficient to disproue this Legendary story of S. Alban, nothing maketh more against it, then the very storie it selfe: as

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