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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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François I

(1494 - 1547)

King of France (1515 - 47)

Having engaged in wars against Charles V, allied to Henry VIII, François I was captured at the battle of Pavia by the duke of Bourbon and the viceroy of Naples and taken into Spain in 1525. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

François was imprisoned for over a year, until he agreed with the emperor to focus their joint efforts against the Lutherans and Turks. François left his eldest sons, François and Henri, behind as pledges, but he was absolved of his oath by the pope. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Francis Brian was sent to François I. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

 
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James V of Scotland

(1512 - 1542) [ODNB]

King of the Scots (1513 - 42)

James Hamilton, Katherine Hamilton, David Straiton, a woman of Leith, and Norman Gourlay were summoned to appear in the abbey church of Holyrood House, Edinburgh, by James Hay, commissioner to the archbishop of St Andrews, in the presence of King James V, who was dressed entirely in red. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 955; 1583, p. 982.

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King James advised James Hamilton not to appear, since he could not help him if he did. Hamilton fled, was convicted of heresy and had his goods confiscated. The king encouraged the others to recant. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 982.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Ralph Sadler was sent to James V, king of the Scots. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

François I of France married his daughter to James V, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

 
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John Lambert (formerly Nicholson)

(d. 1538) [ODNB]

of Norfolk; religious radical; BA Cambridge 1519/20; imprisoned for heresy 1531-32; accused again and tried in 1538; burnt at Smithfield

John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. He became preacher to the English house in Antwerp. 1563, pp. 527-28; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

He was accused by Barlow in Antwerp and brought from there to London, where he was examined at Archbishop Warham's house at Otford before Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time because Thomas Cranmer replaced Warham and Anne Boleyn married the king. Lambert taught children Greek and Latin in London. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

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Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Lambeth wrote an apology of his cause to King Henry. 1563, p. 538; 1570, pp. 1285-91; 1576, pp. 1099-1105; 1583, pp. 1124-30.

At his trial, Lambert disputed with Cranmer, Gardiner, Tunstall, Stokesley and ten other bishops. At the end, the king had Thomas Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 533-37, 569; 1570, pp. 1281-84; 1576, pp. 1095-98; 1583, pp. 1121-24.

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Stephen Gardiner recalled hearing Thomas Cranmer reason against John Lambert. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

 
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Paul III (Alessandro Farnese)

(1468 - 1549) [Kelly]

b. Canino; received a humanist education; treasurer of the Roman church 1492; cardinal-deacon 1493; bishop of Parma 1509; dean of cardinals

Pope (1534 - 1549)

Paul III promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

He called a general council at Mantua to deal with heresy and the problem of the Turks. All princes were required to attend or to send delegates. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

1159 [1135]

K. Henr. 8. The king abused by wicked counsell. The sixe articles with their penalties.

theron, so alienated the kinges mind from the amity, that semed now to begin and grow betwene the Duke and the king, that by the occasion thereof, he brought the king at length cleane out of credit with that religiō and doctrine, which the duke had then mayntained many yeares before.

Thus wily Winchester with his crafty fetches partly vpon this occasion aforesayd, & partly also by other pestilent perswations creping into the kinges eares ceased not to seeke all meanes how to worke his feat & to ouerthrow Religion, MarginaliaThe king brought out of credite with the doctrine of the Germayne Princes.first bringing him in hatred with the Germane Princes, then putting him in feare of the Emperor, of the French king, of the Pope, of the king of Scottes, and other forraigne powers to rise agaynst him, but especially of Ciuil tumultes & commotions here within this realme (which aboue all thinges he most dreaded) by reason of innouation of religiō and dissoluing of Abbies: and for abolishing of rites, and other customes of the Church, sticking so fast in the mindes of the people, that it was to be feared, least theyr hartes were or woulde be shortly styrred vp agaynst him, vnlesse some spedy remedy were to the contrary prouided: declaring moreouer what a daūgerous matter in a common wealth it is to attempt new alterations of any thing, but especially of Religion. MarginaliaThe wicked councell of Steph. Gardiner, and other about the king.Which being so, he exhorted the king for his owne safegard and publicke quiet and tranquility of his realme, to see betime how and by what pollicy these so manifold mischiefes might be preuēted. Agaynst which no other way nor shift could better be deuised, then if he would shew himself sharp and seuere agaynst these new Sectaryes, Anabaptistes, & Sacramētaries 

Commentary  *  Close

The pairing of Anabaptists and 'sacramentaries' (ie. those who denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, a group which included Reformed Protestants and most Lollards, but not Lutherans) is a typical Henrician touch: Henry VIII repeatedly bracketed these two groups together as those who profaned the two holiest Christian sacraments. The Act of Six Articles was indeed aimed principally at sacramentaries, who were then a minority amongst English evangelicals. See Ryrie, The Gospel and Henry VIII, pp. 34-6, 38-9, 138-43.

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(as they called them) & would also set forth such Articles, confirming the auncient & Catholick fayth, as wherby he might recouer agayne his credence with Christen Princes, and whereby all the world besides, might see and iudge him to be a right and perfite Catholicke. MarginaliaThe king abused by wicked coūcell.By these & such like crafty suggestions, the king being to much seduced and abused, began to withdraw his defēce from the reformation of true Religion, supposing thereby to procure to himselfe more safety both in his owne realme, and also to auoide such daungers, which otherwise might happen by other Princes, especially seing of late he had refused to come to the generall Councell at Vincence 
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Vicenza. In 1537, Pope Paul III's plan for a General Council at Mantua having failed, he translated the Council to Vicenza, intending it to open on 1 May 1538. This plan too failed, and after a series of further delays the Council finally assembled at Trent in 1545.

, being thereto inuited both by the Emperor, & other forraigne potētates, as ye haue heard before. And therfore, although he had reiected the Pope out of this Realme, yet because he woulde declare himselfe neuerthelesse to be a good Catholicke sonne of the mother Church, and a withstander of new innouations and heresies (as the blinde opinion of the world did then esteme them) first he stretched out his hand to the condemning and burning of Lambert 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1563, pp. 527-569; 1570, pp. 1255-85.

, then after he gaue out those Iniunctions aboue prefixed: & now further to encrease this opinion with all men, in the yeare next flowing, which was of the Lorde. 540 
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1539.

. MarginaliaAnno. 1540. The Popes crafty factors in England. through the deuise and practise of certayne of the Popes factors about him, he sūmoned a solemne Parliamēt to be holden at Westminster the 28. day of Aprill, of all the states and Burgeses of the Realme: Also a Synode or conuocation of all the Archbishops, Bishops, and other learned of the Clergy of thys Realme to be in like maner assembled.

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The Acte of the vi. Articles.

MarginaliaThe 6. Articles.In which Parliamēt Synode, or conuocation, certein Articles, maters and questions, touching religiō, were decreed by certein prelates, to the nūber especially of 6. commonly called the 6. Articles (or the whip with 6. stringes) to be had & receiued among the kings subiects in pretence of vnity. But what vnity therof folowed, þe groning harts of a great number, and also the cruell death of diuers both in the dayes of K. Henry, & of Queene Mary 

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The mention of Mary is strictly inaccurate, for the Act was repealed in 1547 and never reenacted, but it demonstrates how the Act became a symbol of persecution of heresy more generally.

, can so well declare, as I pray God, neuer the lyke be felt hereafter.

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The doctrine of these wicked articles in the bloudy act conteined, although it be worthy of no memory amongest christen men, but rather deserueth to be buried in perpetuall obliuion, yet for that the office of history, compelleth vs therunto, for the more light of posterity to come: faythfully and truly to comprise thinges done in the church, as well one as another, this shalbe briefely to recapitulate þe sūme & effect of the foresayd 6. articles, in order as they were geuen out, and hereunder do folow.

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The first Article. 
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The text of the articles is taken verbatim from the statute 31 Henry VIII c. 14 (Statutes of the Realm, vol. 3 (London 1817), pp. 739-40).

MarginaliaTransubstantiation. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe notes quite correctly that this first article defends the full doctrine of transubstantiation. However, although the word itself had appeared in early drafts of the bill, it was deliberately omitted from the final Act. See Ryrie, The Gospel and Henry VIII, p. 36.

THe first Article in this present Parliament accorded and agreed vpon: was this: that in the most blessed Sacramēt of the aultar, by the strength and efficacy of Christes mighty worde (it being spoken by the priest) is present realy vnder the forme of bread and wine, the naturall body and bloud of our Sauiour Iesu Christ, conceiued of the virgine Mary and that after the cōsecra-tion there remayneth no substaunce of bread or Wyne, or any other substance, but the substance of Christ God and man.

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The 2. Article.

MarginaliaThe sacrament in both kindes excluded.Secondly, that the communion in both kindes, is not necessary ad salutem, by the law of God to all persons: and that it is to be beleued & not doubted of, but that in the flesh, vnder forme of bread, is the very bloud, & with the bloud, vnder forme of wine, is the very flesh as well aparte, as they were both together.

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The 3. Article.

Thirdly, that priestes after the order of priesthoode receiued as afore, may not mary by the law of God.

The 4. Article.

Fourthly, that the vowes of chastity or widowhead, by mā or woman made to God aduisedly, MarginaliaAduisedly, that is made, aboue the age of 21. yeares, priestes onely excepted. ought to be obserued by the law of God: and that it exempteth them from other libertyes of christen people, which without that they may enioy.

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The 5. Article.

MarginaliaBy these benefites of priuate masses, is ment, the helping of soules in Purgatory.Fiftly, that it is meete and necessary, that priuate Masses be continued and admitted in this english Church and congregation, as whereby good Christē people, ordering themselues accordingly, do receiue both godly & goodly consolations and benefites: And it is agreable also to Gods law.

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The 6. Article.

MarginaliaThe 6. Article.Sixtly that auricular confession is expedient and necessary to be retayned, and continued, vsed and frequented in the Church of God.

After these Articles were thus concluded and cōsented vpon the Prelates of the Realme craftely perceiuing that such a foule & violent act could not take place or preuayle, vnlesse straight and bloudy penalties were set vpon them, they caused through theyr acustomed practise to be ordeyned and enacted by the king and the Lordes spiritual, and temporall, and the commons in the sayd Parliament, as foloweth.

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The penalties vpon the 6, Articles. 
Commentary  *  Close

In 1570, 1576 and 1583, Foxe replaced 1563's lengthy verbatim quotes from the text of the Act with verbal summaries which are, as he says, 'briefly collected' from the Act. Only this first clause, on the penalties for denying transubstantiation, is reproduced in full. However, exactly the same material is included and excluded as in the 1563 edition.

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MarginaliaThe penaltyes vpon the 6. articles.That if any person or persons within this Realme of England, or any other the kings dominions, after the xij. day of Iuly next comming by word, writing, imprinting, ciphring, or any otherwise, shuld publish, preach, teach, say affirme, declare, dispute, argue or holde any opinion, MarginaliaTransubstantiation.that in the blessed Sacrament of the Altar, vnder forme of bread and wine (after the consecration therof) there is not presēt really, the naturall body and bloud of our Sauiour Iesus Christ, conceiued of the virgin Mary, or that after the sayd consecration, there remayneth any substaunce of bread or wine, or any other substance but the substāce of Christ, god and mā, or after the time abouesayd, publish, preach, teach, say, affirme, declare, dispute, argue, or hold opinion, that in þe flesh, vnder forme of bread, is not the very bloud of christ or that with the bloud of Christ, vnder the forme of wine, is not the very flesh of Christ, aswell aparte, as though they were both together: or by any of þe meanes abouesayd or otherwise, preach, teach, declare, or affirme the said sacrament to be of other substance then is abouesayd, or by any meane contemne, depraue, or despise the sayd blessed sacrament: that then euery such person, so offēding their ayders comforters, counseliers, consenters and abbeters therein (being therof conuicted in forme vnder written, by the authority abouesayd) should be deemeed and adiudged heretickes, and euery of such offence should be adiudged manifest heresy: & that euery such offender and offenders, should therfore haue & suffer iudgemēt, execution, payn & paynes of death, by way of burning, without any abiuratiō, MarginaliaSuffering without any abiuration. benefite of the cleargy, or Sanctuary, to be therfore permitted, had, allowed, admitted or suffered: MarginaliaLosse of goodes.and also should therfore forfeit and loose to the kinges highnesse, his ayres and successors, all his or theyr honors, manors, castles, landes tenementes, rentes, reuersions, seruices, possessions, & all other his or theyr hereditaments, goods and cattell, termes and freeholdes, whatsoeuer they were, which any such offence or offēces, committed or done, or at any time after, MarginaliaOpinion against the Sacrament of the aultar made treason.as in any cases of high treason.

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The penalty of the last v. Articles.

MarginaliaThe penalties of the last 5. articles.And as touching the other v. articles folowing, the penalty deuised for them, was this: That euery such person or persons, which do preach, teach, obstinately affirme, vphold, mainteine or defend, after the 12. day of Iuly, the sayd yeare any thing contrary to the same, or if any being in orders or after a vow aduisedly made did mary, or make mariage, or contract matrimony, in so doing should be adiudged as felones, and lose both life, and forfeit goodes, as in case of felony, without any benefite of the clergye, or priuiledge of the Church or of Sanctuary &c.

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