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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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Sir John Baker

(c. 1489 - 1558) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Judge, administrator; MP London 1529, 1536; MP Guildford, 1542; MP Lancaster 1545; MP Huntingdonshire 1547; MP Bramber 1553; MP Kent 1554

Attorney-general (1536 - 40); chancellor of the exchequer (1540 - 58); speaker of the House (1545, 1547)

Sir John Baker was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Baker was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

After the execution of Adam Damplip in Calais, John Butler and Daniel the curate were taken to England and imprisoned in the Marshalsea. They stayed there nine months and were accused of having retained Damplip by Sir John Gage, Sir John Baker and Sir Thomas Arundel. [NB: Sir John Gage is named as Sir George Gage in the 1576 and 1583 editions.] 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1229.

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Before Henry VIII gave his oration to parliament in 1545, the speaker of the House of Commons, Sir John Baker, gave an eloquent oration to the king. 1570, p. 1412; 1576, p. 1203; 1583, p. 1233.

Richard Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir John Baker was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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Sir John Baker was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 826.

 
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Boulogne-sur-Mer (Bonen: Flemish)

[Bullen; Boleyne; Bollayn; Bullenburgh]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 43' 28" N, 1° 36' 43" E

 
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Bury St Edmunds

[St Edmundsbury; Berry; Bery]

West Suffolk

OS grid ref: TL 855 645

Contains a ruined abbey, the shrine of St Edmund

1257 [1233]

King. Henry. 8. The bill set vp in Ipswich. The kinges Oration to the Parlament.

his handes so long as remembraunce would serue, and so ended his life, the people geuing shoutes, & praysing God, with great admiration of his constancy, being so simple & vnlettered.

On the Gang Monday, 

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This is the Monday of the Minor Rogations, i.e., the Monday before Ascension Day.

an. 1546. about tenne of the clocke, MarginaliaRoger Clarke of Mendelsham brought to the stake at Burye.Roger Clarke of Mendelsham was brought out of prison and went on foote to the gate, called Southgate in Bury, and by the way the Procession mette with them, but he went on, and would not bow cap nor kne, but with most vehement words rebuked that idolatry and superstition, MarginaliaRoger Clarke geueth no reuerence to the procession. the Officers being much offended. And without the gate, where as was the place of execution, the stake beyng ready, aud the wood lying by, he came and kneeled down, and sayd Magnificat in the English tongue, making as it were a Paraphrase vppon the same: Wherein he declared how that the blessed virgine Mary, who might as well reioyce in purenes, as any other, yet humbled her selfe to her Sauiour. And what sayst thou Iohn Baptist, sayd he, the greatest of all mens children? MarginaliaIohn. 1.Behold the Lambe of God whiche taketh away the sinnes of the world. 
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John 1:29.

And thus with loude voyce he cried vnto the people while he was in fastning to the stake, & then the fire was set to him, wheras he suffered paines vnmercifully, MarginaliaThe painfull burning and Martyrdome of Roger Clarke of Mendelsham.for the wood was greene and would not burne, so that he was choked with smoke: 
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The following details were added in the second edition, the first edition merely states that Clarke died in torment after a prolonged period in the fire (1563, 655).

and moreouer being set in a pitch barrel, with some pitch sticking stil by the sides, was therwith sore payned, till he had got hys feet out of the barrell. And at length one standing by tooke a fagotte sticke, and striking at the ring of yron about hys necke, so pashed him, and stroke him belike vpon the head, that he shronk downe on the one side into the fire, & so was dissolued.

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In the beginning of this story of Kerby and Roger, mention was made of a certayne Bill put vpon the towne house doore, and brought the nexte day to the Lord Wentworth: the wordes of which Bill were these.

¶ The Byll set vpon the Townehouse dore in Ipswich.

MarginaliaThe wordes of the bill set vp on the Townhouse doore.IVstê iudicate filij hominum: 

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Psalm 82: 8.

yet when ye shall iudge, minister your iustice with mercy.

A fearfull thing it is to fall into the hands of the liuing God: 

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Heb. 10:31.

be ye learned therfore in true knowledge, ye þt iudge the earth, least the Lord be agry with you.

The bloud of the righteous shall be required at your handes. What though the veile hanged before Moses face? yet at Christes death it fell downe. 

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See Matthew 27: 51.

The stones will speak, if these should hold theyr peace: 

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Luke 19: 40.

therfore harden not your hartes agaynst the verity.

For fearefully shall the Lord appeare in the day of vēgeance to the troubled in conscience. No excuse shall there be of ignorance, but euery fat shall stand on his owne bottome. Therfore haue remorse to your conscience: feare him that may kill both body and soule.

Beware of innocent bloud shedding: take heed of iustice ignorantly ministred: worke discreetly as the Scripture doth commaund: looke to it, that ye make not þe trueth to be forsaken.

We beseech God to saue our king, king Henry the 8. that he be not lead into temptation. So be it.

This yeare also it was ordeined & decreed & solemnly geuen out in Proclamation by the kings name & authority and his Counsell, that the english Procession should be vsed throughout al England, according as it was set forth by his sayd counsell, and none other to be vsed throughout the whole Realme.

About the latter 

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The description of events down to Henry VIII's oration is taken from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Yorke and Lancastre (London, 1560), STC 12734a, fos. 257v-260r.

end of this yeare. 1545. in the Moneth of Nouember, after that the king had subdued the Scots, MarginaliaThe Scottes subdued and afterward ioyning together with the Emperour, had inuaded France, and had got from them the town of Bollayn, MarginaliaBollayne wonne. he summoned his high Court of Parliament. In the which was graunted vnto him besides other snbsidies of mony, all Colledges, Chaūtries, free chappels, hospitals, fraternities, brotherhoodes, guildes, & perpetuities of stipēdary priestes, to be disposed at his wil & pleasure. MarginaliaStat. an. 37. Reg. Hen. 8. Colledges and Chauntreis geuen to the king. Wher vpon in the moneth of Decem. folowing, 
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This account of Henry VIII's oration to Parliament in December 1545, is taken from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Yorke and Lancastre (London, 1560), STC 12734a, fos. 260r-262r.

the king after the wonted maner, came into the parliamēt house, to geue his roiall assent to such actes as were there passed: MarginaliaA Parliament. where after an eloquent Oration made to him by the Speaker, he answering agayne vnto the same, not by the L. Chancellour (as the maner was) but by himselfe, vttred forth this oration word for word, as it is reported, and left in story.

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In the contentes of whiche Oration, first eloquently and louingly he declared his gratefull hart to his louyng subiectes, for theyr grauntes and subuentions offered vnto him. In the second part, with no lesse vehemency he exhorteth them to concord, peace, and vnity. Whereunto if hehad also ioyned the third part, MarginaliaThe Third parte lacking in this Oration of the king. that is, as in wordes he exhorted to vnity, so had begon in deed first himselfe to take away the occasion of deuision, disobedience, & disturbance frō his subiectes, that is, had remoued the stūbling blocke of the 6. articles out of the peoples way, which set brother agaynst brother, neighbour agaynst neighbor, the superior agaynst subiect, & the wolues to deuour the poore flocke of Christ: then had he not onely spoken, but also done like a worthy prince. But of this more shalbe sayd in the sequele hereof, God willing.

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The kinges Oration in the Parliament house.

MarginaliaThe kinges Oration made in the Parlament house.ALthough 

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This was the last major speech of Henry's reign and probably the most famous one he made. Foxe added this printing of the speech - taken from Hall's chronicle - in the 1570 edition.

my Chauncellour for the time being, hath before this time vsed, very eloquently and substantially to make answere to such Orations as haue bene set forth in this high Court of Parlirment: yet is he not so able to opē and set forth my mind and meaning, and the secretes of my hart, in so playne and ample maner, as I my selfe am and can doe. Wherefore I taking vpon me, to aunswere your eloquent Oration Mayster Speaker, say: that where you in the name of our welbeloued Commons, haue both praysed and extolled me, for the notable qualities that ye haue conceiued to be in me, I most hartely thanke you all, that you haue put mee in remembraunce of my duety, which is to endeuor my selfe to obteine and get such excellent qualityes, and necessary vertues, as a prince or gouernour should or ought to haue: of whiche giftes I recognise my selfe both bare and barrayne.

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But of such small qualities, as God hath endued me withall, I render to his goodnesse my most hūble thankes entending with all my wit and diligence, to gette and acquire to me such notable vertues and princely qualities as you haue alledged to be incorporate in my person. MarginaliaThe kinges thankes to his commōs.

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These thankes for your louing admonition and good counsell first remembred, I eftsoones thanke you agayne because that you considering our great charges (not for our pleasure, but for your defence, not for our gayne, but to our great cost) which we haue lately susteined, as well in defence of our & your enemies, as for the conquest of that Fortresse, whiche was to this Realme most displeasaunt and noysome, and shalbe by Gods grace hereafter, to our nation most profitable and pleasaunt, haue freely of your owne minde, graunted to vs a certayne subsidy here in an acte specified, which verely we take in good part, regarding more your kindnesse, then the profite therof as he that setteth more by your louing harts, then by your substance. Beside this harty kindnesse, I cannot a litle reioyce when I consider the perfect trust & sure confidence, which you haue put in me, as men hauing vndoubted hope, and vnfayned beliefe in my good doinges, & iust proceedings for that you, without my desire or request, haue cōmitted to mine order and disposition, all Chauntreys, Colledges, Hospitals, and other places specified, in a certayne acte, firmelye trnsting that I will order them to the glory of God, & the profite of the common wealth. MarginaliaThe kinges promises for the well bestowing of Chauntreis, and Colledges. Surely, if I contrary to your expectation, should suffer the Ministers of the Church to decay, or learning (which is so great a iewell) to be minished, or poore and miserable people to be vnrelieued you might say that I being put in so speciall a trust, as I am in this case, were no trusty frend to you, nor charitable man to mine euen Christen, neither a louer of the publique wealth, nor yet one that feared God, to whome account must be rendered of all our doinges. Doubte not I pray you but your expectation shalbe serued, more godly & goodly then you will wish or desire, as hereafter you shall playnely perceiue.

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Now sithens I finde such kindenesse on your part toward me, I can not chuse, but loue and fauor you, affirming that no prince in the world more fauoureth his subiectes then I doe you, nor no subiectes or commons more loue and obey theyr soueraigne Lord, then I perceiue you doe me, for whose defence my treasure shall not be hidden, nor if necessitie require, my person shall not be vnaduentured. Yet although I with you, and you with me, be in this perfect loue and concord, this frendly amity can not cōtinue except both you my Lordes Temporall, and you my Lords Spirituall, and you my louing subiectes, studye and take payne to amend one thing, which is surely amisse and farre out of order, to the which I most hartely require you: which is, that charity & concord is not amongest you, but discord and dissention beareth rule in euery place. Saynt Paule sayth to the Corinthians, in the xiij. Chapiter. Charity is gentle, Charity is not enuious, Charity is not proud, and so forth in the sayde Chapter. Beholde then what loue and * Marginalia* Charitye and concorde in common wealthes be thinges most necessary: but in matters of religion, charitye and concord is not enough, without veritye & true worship of God. charitye is amongest you, when the one calleth the other Heretique and Anabaptist, and he calleth hym agayne Papist, Hypocrite, and Pharesey? Be these tokens of charity amongest you? Are these the singes of fraternall loue betweene you? No, no, I assure you, that this lacke of charitye amongest your selues, wil be the hinderaunce and asswaging the feruent loue betwene vs, as I sayd before, except this woūd be salued, and clearely made whoe. I must needes iudge the faulte and

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