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Alexander Seton

(d. 1542) [Fines]

Dominican prior of St Andrews; evangelical reformer; chaplain to Charles Brandon (duke of Suffolk); recanted with William Tolwin December 1541

William Tolwin was charged with allowing Alexander Seton to preach against Dr Smith at St Antholin's. Seton himself was detected and presented by three priests. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1205.

 
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Anne Askew (Kyme)

(c. 1521 - 1546) [ODNB]

Writer, protestant martyr; 2nd daughter of Sir William Askew of Lincolnshire; married name: Kyme

Anne Askew was brought before the Quest at her first examination at Sadler's Hall in 1545. She was then taken to the lord mayor, William Laxton, to be examined. 1563, p. 669; 1570, pp. 1413-14; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, pp. 1234-35.

Laxton committed Anne Askew to prison in the Counter after the examination and refused to take sureties. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Her cousin Christopher Brittayn tried to get her bailed, and she was examined again, this time before Bishop Bonner. At the end of the examination, she signed a confession of faith. After petitions to Bonner from Brittayn and Hugh Weston, she was released from prison and bailed under her sureties, Brittayn and Francis Spilman. 1563, pp. 670-72; 1570, pp. 1414-15; 1576, pp. 1205-07; 1583, pp. 1235-36.

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Anne Askew was examined a second time, before the king's council at Greenwich in 1546, where she was condemned. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

She became very ill and was in great pain. She asked to see Hugh Latimer, but was refused and sent to Newgate. She wrote to the council, to the lord chancellor and to the king, setting out her belief about the sacraments. 1563, pp. 683-75; 1570, pp. 1417-18; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Richard Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information about others, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

She sent a reply from Newgate to a letter from John Lassells. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

Anne Askew was brought from Newgate to Smithfield in a chair because her torture had left her unable to walk. 1563, p. 677; 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

Wriothesley brought her letters offering the king's pardon if she recanted, but she refused. 1563, p. 677; 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

John Hemmysley, John Lasselles, John Adams and Anne Askew were burnt together at Smithfield. 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1421; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, pp. 1240-41.

Stephen Gardiner, in a letter to the Lord Protector, accused John Bale of regarding Anne Askew as a saint. 1563, p. 733; 1583, p. 1343.

 
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George Joye

(1490x95 - 1553) [ODNB]

Evangelical author; BA Cambridge 1513; BTh 1524-5. Suspected of heresy, fled abroad in 1527; revised Tyndale's 1526 English New Testament in 1534 (Tyndale produced his own 3 months later); in conflict with Gardiner; returned to England after the death of Henry VIII

In a letter to John Frith, William Tyndale reported that George Joye in Bergen op Zoom had printed two leaves of Genesis and sent one copy to the king and the other to the new queen (Anne). He had also asked for licence to print the whole of the scriptures. 1563, p. 521; 1570, p. 1231; 1576, p. 1054; 1583, p. 1081.

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George Joye wrote a rejoinder to Stephen Gardiner's articles against Robert Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Joye was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

In a letter to Edward Seymour, Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner complained of Joye's books. 1563, p. 733; 1583, p. 1342.

 
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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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Jerome of Prague

(c. 1370 - 1416) [G. Holmes, Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 (London, 1975) pp. 197, 203]

Preacher, religious reformer; studied at Oxford, Paris, Heidelberg, Cologne; brought Wyclif's writings to Prague; friend and colleague of John Hus; burnt at Constance

The life and martyrdom of Jerome of Prague. 1563, pp. 242-50; 1570, pp. 748-57; 1576, pp. 608-15; 1583, pp. 632-39.

 
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John Bale

(1495 - 1563) [ODNB]

Bishop of Ossory, Ireland (1552 - 53); evangelical polemicist, historian, playwright

BTh Cambridge 1529; DTh c. 1531; Carmelite prior of Maldon (1530 - 33), prior of Ipswich (1533 - 34), prior of Doncaster (1534 - 36); priest at Thorndon, Suffolk 1536, married; in exile (1540 - 48, 1553 - 59)

In a letter to Matthew Parker, John Bale included the letter purported to be from Ulrich of Augsburg to Nicholas I. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

Bale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

In a letter to Edward Seymour, Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner complained of John Bale's books. He said that John Bale regarded Anne Askew as a saint. Bale had written a prayer for John, duke of Saxony. 1563, p. 733; 1583, pp. 1342-43.

 
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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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John Hus

(1369 - 1415) [D. Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (London, 1966) pp. 324-5]

Bohemian theologian and reformer. BA Prague 1393, MA 1396; rector of Prague University; priest. Excommunicated 1410; called to the Council of Constance in 1414, where he refused to recant; burnt at Constance

The life of John Hus, the Council of Constance and his execution. 1563, pp. 183-241, 1570, pp. 701-42, 1576, pp. 567-602, 1583, pp. 588-626.

The letters of John Hus. 1570, pp. 742-48, 1576, pp. 602-08, 1583, pp. 626-31.

 
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John Lambert (formerly Nicholson)

(d. 1538) [ODNB]

of Norfolk; religious radical; BA Cambridge 1519/20; imprisoned for heresy 1531-32; accused again and tried in 1538; burnt at Smithfield

John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. He became preacher to the English house in Antwerp. 1563, pp. 527-28; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

He was accused by Barlow in Antwerp and brought from there to London, where he was examined at Archbishop Warham's house at Otford before Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time because Thomas Cranmer replaced Warham and Anne Boleyn married the king. Lambert taught children Greek and Latin in London. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

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Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Lambeth wrote an apology of his cause to King Henry. 1563, p. 538; 1570, pp. 1285-91; 1576, pp. 1099-1105; 1583, pp. 1124-30.

At his trial, Lambert disputed with Cranmer, Gardiner, Tunstall, Stokesley and ten other bishops. At the end, the king had Thomas Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 533-37, 569; 1570, pp. 1281-84; 1576, pp. 1095-98; 1583, pp. 1121-24.

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Stephen Gardiner recalled hearing Thomas Cranmer reason against John Lambert. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

 
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John Russell

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

Courtier, diplomat. MP Buckinghamshire 1529; JP Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonsshire, Northamptonshire 1533; MP Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Somerset 1539

Henry VIII's controller of the royal household 1536; lord privy seal (1542 - 55); lord high admiral 1540

Baron Russell 1539; earl of Bedford (1550 - 55)

John Russell had been saved from danger while abroad by Thomas Cromwell and later commended him to the king. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1179.

John Russell was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

John Russell was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

Sir John was appointed lieutenant-general of the king's troops in the west at the time of the Western Rising. Although outnumbered, his forces defeated the rebels and captured their leaders. 1570, pp. 1499-1500; 1576, pp. 1271-72; 1583, pp. 1307-08.

George Blage had been condemned to be burnt for heresy. John Russell made suit to the king on Blage's behalf and he was pardoned. 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

John Russell was present at Anne Askew's burning. 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

Russell was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814, 824-25.

John Russell was a witness in 1551 to the sentence against Stephen Gardiner and his appellation. 1563, p. 867.

 
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John Wyclif (Wycliffe)

(d. 1384) [ODNB]

Theologian, philosopher, religious reformer; studied at Oxford; master of Balliol by December 1360-61; promoted to college's benefice of Fillingham, Lincolnshire 1361-68; returned to Oxford for study: DTh 1372/73. Rector of Lutterworth, Leicestershire (1374-84)

John Wyclif's career. 1570, pp. 524-28; 1576; pp. 421-24, 1583; pp. 424-28.

The pope condemned Wyclif. 1563, pp. 89-95; 1570, pp. 529-34; 1576; pp. 425-26, 1583; pp. 430-34.

Wyclif and Urban VI. 1563, pp. 98-101; 1570, pp. 545-48; 1576; pp. 440-42, 1583; pp. 445-47.

Wyclif and the Council of Constance. 1563, pp. 103-30; 1570, pp. 548-53; 1576; pp. 443-46, 1583; pp. 448-64.

Wyclif preached repentance but was disregarded. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Wyclif was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

Thomas Patmore reported that a well sprang up where Wyclif's bones were burned. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1569) [ODNB]

Bible translator and bishop of Exeter (1551 - 53)

Coverdale, with other Cambridge scholars, was a member of the Augustinian house under Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

During the night after he had been examined by Cardinal Wolsey, Robert Barnes stayed at the house of Thomas Parnell. He wrote throughout the night, dictating to Miles Coverdale, Master Goodwin and Thomas Curson. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

Thomas Topley had been converted by Richard Foxe and Miles Coverdale; he left his monastery and became a secular priest. 1570, pp. 1189-90; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, pp. 1046-47.

As William Tyndale was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Coverdale was the chief overseer of the Great Bible. He used Tyndale's translation and compared it with the Hebrew. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Edmund Bonner showed great friendship to Richard Grafton, Edward Whitchurch and especially to Miles Coverdale. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Miles Coverdale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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Richard Tracy

Son of William; gentleman of Toddington, Gloucestershire; BA Oxford 1515; MP 1529; his books were ordered to be burnt in 1546; wrote to Crome in 1546 urging him not to recant; imprisoned in the Tower 1551-52 [Fines]

In his will, William Tracy named his wife Margaret and his son Richard as executors and left them the residue of his goods. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Richard Tracy was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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Robert Barnes

(c. 1495 - 1540) [ODNB]

Religious reformer; martyr of King's Lynn, Norfolk.

Augustinian friar; scholar of Cambridge and Louvain; prior of Augustinians, Cambridge; B.D. Cambridge 1522-23 ; BTh 1523

Arrested in 1526, abjured. Escaped to Wittenberg and became a good friend of Martin Luther; returned in 1531-32 and 1534; became royal chaplain in 1535

Robert Barnes went from Louvain to Cambridge. He became prior and master of the house of the Augustinians. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney, Thomas Arthur and others. 1563, p. 482.

Barnes preached his first sermon after his conversion at St Edward's church, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and was immediately accused of heresy by two fellows of King's Hall. His supporters met frequently at the White Horse tavern. 1563, p. 601; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was supported at Cambridge by William Paget and Gardiner. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Robert Barnes often visited Bury Abbey to see his friend Edmund Rougham, who had been his fellow student at Louvain. While there, Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund Rougham eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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Barnes preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Barnes was arrested and taken to London, where he was examined by Cardinal Wolsey. At the urging of Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox, he abjured. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Thomas Wolsey charged Barnes with heresy and made him bear a faggot. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 993.

Barnes performed his penance with four Stilliard men. He was then imprisoned in the Fleet for half a year. Afterwards he was committed to the Augustinian house in London as a free prisoner. Further complaints to the cardinal resulted in an order that Barnes be sent to Northampton to be burnt. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

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In Northampton Barnes left a suicide note and a pile of clothes on the river-bank and fled to London, from whence he escaped to Antwerp. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

From Antwerp Barnes went to Germany and found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

The king of Denmark sent Barnes as ambassador to Henry VIII with a delegation from Luebeck. Barnes flourished during the time that Anne Boleyn was queen. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Barnes and William Barlow informed Thomas Cromwell of the arrest of Thomas Frebarne for obtaining pork in Lent for his pregnant wife and asked him to send for the mayor. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1185.

Robert Barnes was sent on an embassy to the duke of Cleves by Henry VIII to help negotiate his marriage with Anne of Cleves. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

After the fall of Cromwell and Stephen Gardiner's return from France, Barnes and other preachers were arrested. He was examined, and he, Garrard and Jerome were appointed to preach sermons. Gardiner was present at Barnes' sermon, and Barnes was sent for and imprisoned in the Tower. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

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Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Barnes was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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Thomas Becon (als Theodore Basile)

(1512 - 1567) [ODNB]

Priest of Norfolk; recanted in 1541; recanted again in 1543 at Paul's Cross, cutting up and burning 11 of his works

Thomas Becon was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

Becon was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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Walter Brute (Bryte, Bryt)

(fl. C14) [ODNB]

Welsh layman follower of Wycliffe; scholar; denounced as a Lollard in 1390; recanted in 1393; may be same as an astronomer of that name who taught at Oxford

Walter Brute was included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards persecuted. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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William Roy

(d. c. 1531) [ODNB]

Observant friar and evangelical author; worked on the New Testament with Tyndale; burnt in Portugal

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Roy was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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William Swinderby

(fl. 1382 - 1392) [ODNB]

Preacher in Leicester; follower of Wyclif; examined in 1382 by the bishop of Lincoln, abjured; continued preaching on the Welsh border; examined in 1391 by the bishop of Hereford; found guilty, escaped from custody

Swinderby is included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards persecuted. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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William Thorpe

(fl. 1381 - 1407) [ODNB]

Lollard preacher; faced six charges for erroneous preaching before Bishop Robert Braybrooke 1382 - 86; detained in 1407 under the 1406 anti-Lollard statute; putative author of 'Testimony of William Thorpe'

William Thorpe is included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards persecuted. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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William Turner

(1509/10 - 1568) [ODNB]

Naturalist, religious controversialist; BA Cambridge 1529-30; MA 1533; MD Bologna, studied botany; lived in the Rhineland; physician and chaplain to the duke of Somerset 1547

Dean of Wells (1551 - 54, 1561 - 68); presented by the king (the incumbent John Goodman was deposed); Turner was deposed 1554

William Turner testified that Thomas Bilney did not recant at his burning. 1570, p. 1150; 1576, p. 984; 1583, p. 1011.

William Turner was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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William Tyndale

(c. 1494 - 1536) [ODNB]

Translator of the bible and religious reformer; martyr

BA Oxford 1512; MA 1515; read theology

Strangled and burnt at Vilvorde Castle

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Foxe erroneously includes Tyndale in a list of scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College, Oxford. Tyndale was in Germany at this time. [ODNB sub John Frith] 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Tyndale was schoolmaster to Sir John Walsh's children. Sir John and his wife joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy his translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Tyndale was examined on a charge of heresy by the bishop's chancellor. He returned to his master, but was troubled by the priests in the area and left for London. He tried to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. Eventually, with the aid of Humphrey Monmouth and others, he left the country. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

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Humphrey Monmouth had heard Tyndale preach two or three sermons at St Dunstan-in-the-West. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Tyndale preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. Tyndale had lodged with Monmouth for about six months. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

While in Germany, Tyndale met John Frith and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. Copies of these and other books he had written were sent to England. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, pp. 1049-50; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Simon Fish, sought by Cardinal Wolsey, was forced to go overseas to join Tyndale. While there, he wrote his book, Supplication for the Beggars. 1563, p. 448; 1570, pp. 1152-53; 1576, pp. 986-87; 1583, p. 1014.

Tyndale left Germany and went to Antwerp. As he was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament in Hamburg. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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John Tyndale, William's brother, was charged in 1530 in London with having sent his brother five marks and having received and kept letters from him. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1041.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

William Tyndale was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Tyndale returned to Antwerp and lodged at a house of English merchants kept by Thomas Poyntz. He became acquainted with Henry Philips and obtained for him a place in the same house, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

While Thomas Poyntes was away, Thomas Philips set a trap for Tyndale. He arranged for imperial officers to be ready in an alley when he tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. Tyndale was captured and imprisoned. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Tyndale was strangled and then burnt at Villevorde. 1563, p. 519; 1570, p. 1229; 1576, p. 1052; 1583, p. 1079.

Tyndale wrote letters to John Frith in the Tower in London. 1563, pp. 520-22; 1570, pp. 1231-32; 1576, pp. 1053-55; 1583, pp. 1080-82.

Tyndale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

1270 [1246]

K. Henry 8. A proclamation for burning of Scripture bookes. The falsehood of Papistes.

neuer abide) commaunded them to tell hym the matter. Whereupon the matter being opened, and sute made to the king, especially by the good Earle of Bedford then L. priuie Seale, the king being sore offended with their doings, that they would come so nere him, & euen into his priuie chamber without hys knowledge, sent for Wrisley, commaunding him eftsoones to draw out hys MarginaliaM. Blage pardoned by the king.pardon himself, and so was he set at libertye. Who cōming after to the kings presence: ah my pig sayth the king to him, (for so he was wont to call him.) Yea sayd he, if your maiestie had not bene better to me then your Bishops were, your pig had bene rosted ere this time. MarginaliaThe kinges pigge almost rosted.

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MarginaliaAnno 1546.But to let this matter of syr George Blage passe, wee will now reduce our storie againe to Anne Askew and her fellowe Martyrs, who the same weeke were burned, and could finde no pardon.

Then the Catholicke fathers when they had broughte this christian woman wyth the residue (as aboue hath ben declared) vnto theyr rest, they being now in their ruffe and triumph, like as the Phariseis when they hadde broughte Christ to his graue, deuised w wt themselues howe to keepe him down stil, & to ouertreade truth for euer. Whereupon consulting with certaine of the Counsell, they made oute a straight and harde proclamation, authorised by the kinges name, for the abolishing of the scripture, & al such English bookes, which might geue any light to the setting foorth of Gods true word and grace of the Gospel, the copie and tenour of which Proclamation is this as followeth. 

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Proclamation of 1546

Henry VIII's 'streight & cruell proclamation…' had been issued on 8 July 1546 and printed by Berthelet as A proclamation deuised by the kinges hyghnes, with thaduise of his most honorable counsell, to auoide and abolish suche englishe bookes, as conteine pernicious and detestable errours and heresies made the .viii. daye of Iuly, the .xxxviii. yere of the kynges maiesties most gracious reigne (London, 1546) - STC 7809). The circular letter abolishing holy days was not notices by the editors of the Letters and Papers, and may well have been taken from one or other of the bishop's registers to which Foxe had access. Anne Askew's story is taken mainly from John Bale, The lattre examinacyon of Anne Askewe latelye martyred in Smythfelde, by the wycked Synagoge of Antichrist, with the Elucydacyon of Iohan Bale. ('Imprented at Marpurg in the lande of Hessen' - i.e. Wesel, n.d. [1546]) - STC 850. The source of the 'publicke instrument' issued in the name of William Warham is Warham's register (full publication details….p. 188 et seq), from whence it was printed by David Wilkins (Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ et Hiberniæ : a synodo verolamiensi A.D. CCCC XLVI. ad londinensem A.D. M DCCXVII. Accedunt constitutiones et alia [London, 1737], p. 727). The list of heresies gathered out of Tyndale's works appears to be Foxe's own composition from a variety of sources. William Tyndale, The parable of the wycked mammon Compiled in the yere of our lorde .M.d.xxxvi (London: John Daye, 1547) - STC 24457 had been published by the publisher of the Acts and Monuments itself. William Tyndale's The obedie[n]ce of a Christen man and how Christe[n] rulers ought to governe, where in also (if thou marke diligently) thou shalt fynde eyes to perceave the crafty conveyance of all iugglers ('At Marlborow in the la[n]de of Hesse' [i.e. Antwerp], n.d. [1528]) - STC 24446 is also readily identifiable. John Frith's A pistle to the Christen reader The revelation of Antichrist. Antithesis, wherin are compared to geder Christes actes and oure holye father the Popes ('At Marlborow in the lande of Hesse' [i.e. Antwerp]: 'Hans Luft' [i.e. Johannes Hoochstraten], n.d. [1529]) - STC 11394 was a literal and unsophisticated translation by John Frith of Martin Luther's tract Ad Librum Magistri Nostri Magistri Ambrosii Catharine…..Responsio…cum exposita Visione Danielis viii. De Antichristo of 1521, omitting Luther's address and valediction but introducing a commentary on Daniel 8 in the preface by Frith in which theantithesis of the ways of Antichrist and Christ (as indicated in the title) is a summary of the exegesis. Foxe's marginal note 'Ex Gil Genebrardo' is something of a mystery. For Foxe's sources for the history of the early reformation in Scotland, see Thomas S. Freeman, 'Foxe, Winram and the Martyrs of the Scottish Reformation' in Sixteenth Century Journal 27 (1996), pp. 23-46. King Henry VIII's brief to Bonner appears to be taken from his register, although there is also a copy of it in BL Add MS 38656 at fol 3b.

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David LoadesHonorary Research Fellow,
University of Sheffield

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A Proclamation for the abolishing of English bookes, after the death of Anne Askew, set forth by the king. An. 1546. the 8. day of Iuly.

MarginaliaA proclamation for the abolishing of Englishe bookes.THe kings most excellent Maiestie vnderstanding howe vnder pretence of expounding and declaring the truthe of Goddes Scripture, diuers leud and euil disposed persons haue taken occasion to vtter and sow abroade by bookes imprinted in the English tongue, sondry pernitious and detectable errours & heresies, not onely contrary to the lawes of this realme, but also repugnant to the true sence of Gods law and his word, MarginaliaNay rather for the ignorance and lack of Gods Scripture, many haue taken occasion of error & heresies intollerable. by reason whereof certaine men of late, to the destruction of their owne bodies & soules, and to the euill example of others, haue attempted arrogātly and malitiously to impugne the truth, and therewith trouble the sober, quiet and godly Religion vnited and established vnder the kings Maiestie in this his realme: his highnesse minding to foresee the daungers that myght ensue of the sayd bookes, is enforced to vse hys generall prohibition commaundement and proclamation, as followeth.

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First, that from henceforth no man, woman, or person, of what estate, condition, or degree so euer he or they be, shal after the last day of August next ensuing, receiue, haue, take, or keepe in his or their possession, the text of MarginaliaThe new testament of Tindals & of Couerdals translation in Englishe forbidden.the newe Testament of Tyndalles or Couerdales translation in English, nor any other then is permitted by the Acte of Parliament made in the Session of the Parliament holden at Westminster in the 34. or 35. yere of his maiesties most noble raigne, nor after the sayd day, shall receiue, haue, take, or keepe in his or their possession, any maner of bookes prynted or wrytten in the English tongue, which be, or shalbe set forth in the names of Frith, Tindal, Wickliffe, Ioy, Roy, Basil, Bale, Barnes, Couerdale, Turner, Tracy, or by any of them, or any other booke or bookes, containing matter contrary to the sayde Acte made An 34. or 35. MarginaliaEnglishe bookes in Scripture restrayned. but shall before the last day of August next cōming, deliuer the same English booke, or bookes to his maister in that housholde, if hee be a seruaunt or dwell vnder any other, and the maister or ruler of the house, & suche other as dwell at large, shall deliuer all such bookes of the sortes aforesaid as they haue, or shal come to their hāds, deliuered as afore or otherwise, to the Maior, Bailiffe or chiefe Constable of the towne where they dwell to be by them deliuered ouer openly within 40. daies next folowing after the said deliuerie to the Shiriffe of the shire, or to the Byshops Chancellour, Commissary of the same diocesse, to the entent the said Bishop, Chauncellour, Commissary, and Shiriffe, and euery of them shall cause them incontinently to be openly burned, MarginaliaBurning of Scripture bookes. which thing the kinges Maiesties pleasures is, that euery of them shall see executed in most effectuall sort, and of their doings thereof make certificate to the kings Maiesties most honourable Councell, before the 1. of October next comming.

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And to the intent that no man shall mistrust any daunger of such, penall statutes as be passed in this behalfe, for the keeping of the sayd bookes, MarginaliaA baite to bring in bookes.the kings Maiestie is most graciously contented by this proclamation, to pardon that offence to the sayd time appoynted, by this proclamation for the deliuery of the said bokes and commaundeth that no Bishoppe, Chauncellor, Commissarie, Maior, Bailiffe, Shiriffe, or Constable, shall be curious to marke who bringeth foorth such bookes, but only order, & burne them openly, as is in this proclamation ordered. And if any man after the last day of August next comming shall haue any of the saydebookes in his keeping, or be proued, and conuinced by sufficient witnesse before 4. of the kings most honourable counsail, to haue hidden thē, or vsed thē, or any copy of any of them, or any parte of thē, wherby it shuld appeare that he willingly hath offēded the true meaning of this proclamation, MarginaliaThe penaltye limited.the same shall not onely suffer imprisonment and punishment of his body at the kings maiesties will and pleasure, but also shall make suche fine and raunsome to his highnesse for the same, as by his Maiestie or 4. of hys graces said counsaile shalbe determined. &c.

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Finally, his Maiestie straightly chargeth and commandeth that no person or persons, of what estate, degree, or condition so euer he or they be, from the day of this proclamation presume to bring any maner of English booke, concerning any maner of Christian religion, printed in the parties beyonde the seas into this realme, to sell, geue, or distribute any English booke printed in outwarde parties, or the copie of any such booke, or any part thereof to any persone dwelling within this his graces realme, or any other hys maiesties dominions, vnlesse the same shalbe specially licenced so to doe by his highnesse expresse graunt to be obtained in writing for the same, vppon the paines before limited, and therewithall to incurre his maiesties extreeme indignation.

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MarginaliaThe vntrue dealing of the Papistes in gathering heresies where none isFor so much as it is & hath alwayes bene the common guise and practise of the popes church to extinct, condemne and abolish all good bookes and holesome treaties of learned men, vnder a false pretence of errors & heresies, wherof examples aboundantly maye appeare in this historie aboue.

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Now for the better triall hereof, to see and trie the impudent & shamelesse vanitie of these Catholicke Clergimē, in mistaking, falsifying, deprauing, blaspheming and slandering, where they haue no cause, against al right & honest dealing, yea against their own knowledge, conscience and manifest verity of Gods worde. I shall therfore desire the attentiue Reader, before we passe any further to consider & expend here 2. things by the way. First what opiniōs and Articles these men gather out of their bookes for errours and heresies. Secondly how wittingly and willingly they wrast, peruert, and miscōstrue their sayings, and writings in such sense as the wryters neuer spake nor ment, and all to bryng them into hatred of the worlde, after they haue burned their bookes.

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MarginaliaArticles of Wickliffe and others falsified by the Papistes.So did they before wyth Iohn Wickliffe, Iohn Hus, & Hierome, So did they with M. Luther, Tindal, Frithe, Lambert, Barnes, Ioy, Roy, Seton, and briefly yet do stil wyth all the Protestants, either peruerting their sayings, otherwise then they meante, or noting for heresies suche as are manifest principles, & grounds of our religion: Or els falsly belying them, or vntruely mistaking them, eyther in mangling þe places, or adding to their words as may serue for their most aduauntage, to bring them out of credite wt Princes and all the people,

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For the more euident probation and experience wherof thou shalt see here (Christen reader) as in a table laid before thine eyes: the booke or cataloge of such errours, blasphemies and heresies, whiche the Catholicke Papistes in their own registers haue extracted out of their bokes whō in this & other proclamatiōs they haue condemned. Wher vnto moreouer, we haue annexed þe very places also of the Authors, out of which euery Article is gathered, keepyng the same signature of verse and page, whyche they in theyr registers doe send vs vnto. So that with a little diligence, thou maist now (louing reader) easely perceiue, conferring the Articles and places together, what trueth and fidelitie these bloudye Catholickes haue vsed towarde the children of God: First in burning vp theyr bodies, then in consuming, and abolishing theyr bokes, and afterward drawing out Articles, such as they list thēselues out of their workes to make the people beleue what damnable heretickes they were, as by these articles here vnder ensuing collected and contained in their owne registers may wel appeare. In al which articles, there is not one (speaking of these wryters which here they haue condemned) but either it is a perfect truth and a principle of Christen doctrine, or els it is falsly gathered, or peruersly recited, or craftely handled & maliciously mangled, hauing either something cut frō it, or some more added, or els rackt out of his right place, or wrasted to a wrōg meaning which the place geueth not, or els whych some other place folowing doth better expound & declare. This false & malitious dealing, hath alwayes bene a common practise amongst Gods enemies from the beginning to falsifie, wrast, and depraue all thinges what soeuer maketh not to their faction & affection, be it neuer so true and iust. So began they wt Steuen þe 1. martyr of Iesus Christ, MarginaliaThe wordes of S. Steuen, falsely depraued. Act. 6. 7. and so haue they continued stil, & yet do to this present day.

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Long it were to recite, but more greuous to behold what spite and falshoode was vsed in the articles of þe Albingenses Waldenses, Wickliffe, Swinderby, Brute, Thorpe,

Armachanus
QQQ.iij.
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