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Catherine of Aragon

(1485 - 1536) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1509 - 33); 1st consort of Henry VIII

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

When Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. She appealed from the cardinals to the pope. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. She appealed to the pope. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The duke of Suffolk was sent to Catherine of Aragon after her divorce from the king to reduce the size of her household, removing those who refused to serve her as princess rather than queen. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Catherine of Aragon died in the same year in which Anne Boleyn and William Tyndale were executed. 1570, p. 1232; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

 
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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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Clement VII (Giulio de Medici)

(1479 - 1534) [Kelly]

Illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici; b. Florence

Archbishop of Florence 1513; cardinal 1513; vice-chancellor 1517; governed Florence from 1519

Pope (1523 - 34); cousin of Pope Leo X

The indulgences granted by Pope Leo X to the guild of Our Lady at Boston had been granted previously by Innocent VIII and Julius II and were later renewed by Clement VII. Further indulgences granted by Nicholas V, Pius II and Sixtus IV were also renewed by Clement at the request of Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

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After Francois I was released from captivity in Spain, Clement VII released him from his oath, fearing the power of the emperor in Italy. He contracted an alliance with the Venetians and other princes. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

Clement was captured by the duke of Bourbon when he sacked Rome in 1527. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

He was besieged in the Castello Sant'Angelo after taking refuge there with many cardinals. He surrendered in July and was able to issue bulls, but was kept imprisoned in the fortress for six months. 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Thanks to the influence of Lorenzo Pucci and other cardinals, Clement VII initially viewed the proposed divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon favourably. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

Clement sent Cardinal Campeggi as legate to England to join with Cardinal Wolsey to consider the matter of the king's divorce. 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Clement pronounced a sentence definitive against Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1458-59; 1576, p. 1243; 1583, p. 1280.

 
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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

 
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Edward Fox

(1496 - 1538) [ODNB]

Diplomat; BA Cambridge 1517; MA 1520; doctor 1532; provost of King's College (1528 - 38); secretary to Wolsey 1526

Archdeacon of Leicester (1531 - 35); dean of Salisbury (1533 - 38); archdeacon of Dorset (1533 - 38); royal almoner (c. 1532 - 36); bishop of Hereford (1536 - 38)

Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Edward Fox accopmanied Stephen Gardiner to Rome to put the case for the king's divorce to Clement VII. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

Edward Fox was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Edward Fox was sent to the German princes. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Fox attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Fox opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

In a letter to Thomas Cromwell, Edmund Bonner, Fox's successor to the see of Hereford, asked for help in meeting any financial obligations left by Fox. 1570, p. 1240; 1576, p. 1062; 1583, p. 1088.

 
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Giles Germaine

(d. 1539) [Fines]

Joiner; martyr

Giles Germaine was tried for heresy along with John, a painter, and both were condemned. Launcelot, a member of the king's guard, attended their examination and seemed to favour them. All three were burnt together at St Giles in the Field. 1563, p. 574; 1570, pp. 1456-57; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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James V of Scotland

(1512 - 1542) [ODNB]

King of the Scots (1513 - 42)

James Hamilton, Katherine Hamilton, David Straiton, a woman of Leith, and Norman Gourlay were summoned to appear in the abbey church of Holyrood House, Edinburgh, by James Hay, commissioner to the archbishop of St Andrews, in the presence of King James V, who was dressed entirely in red. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 955; 1583, p. 982.

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King James advised James Hamilton not to appear, since he could not help him if he did. Hamilton fled, was convicted of heresy and had his goods confiscated. The king encouraged the others to recant. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 982.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Ralph Sadler was sent to James V, king of the Scots. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

François I of France married his daughter to James V, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

 
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John

(d. 1539) [Fines]

Painter; martyr, burnt at St Giles in the Field with Giles Germane and Launcelot

John was tried for heresy along with Giles Germaine, and both were condemned. Launcelot, a member of the king's guard, attended their examination and seemed to favour them. All three were burnt together at St Giles in the Field. 1563, p. 574; 1570, pp. 1456-57; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

 
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Launcelot

(d. 1539) [Fines]

King's guard; present at the trial of John a painter and Giles Germane; martyr

Giles Germaine was tried for heresy along with John, a painter, and both were condemned. Launcelot, a member of the king's guard, attended their examination and seemed to favour them. All three were burnt together at St Giles in the Field. 1563, p. 574; 1570, pp. 1456-57; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

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Leo X (Giovanni de Medici)

(1475 - 1521) [Kelly]

b. Florence, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent; abbot of Font Douce, Passignano and Monte Cassino; cardinal 1489 (aged 13); studied theology and law at Pisa (1489 - 91)

Pope (1513 - 21)

Thomas Cromwell presented Leo X with English delicacies, and Leo immediately granted the pardons for Boston that Cromwell had requested. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, p. 1178.

Leo X sent legates to France, Germany and England in 1518 when he was preparing to fight the Turks. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1120; 1576, p. 959; 1583, p. 986.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lorenzo Pucci

(1458 - 1531) [www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1513.htm.Pucci]

DCnCL; professor of law at University of Pisa; cardinal-priest of Ss IV Coronati 1513 - 31; conducted lucrative trade in indulgences, called to account by Adrian VI; restored to old position by Clement VII; imprisoned with him in 1527

Foxe says Pucci was killed before the siege of Castello Sant'Angelo. 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Thanks to the influence of Pucci and other cardinals, Clement VII initially viewed the proposed divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon favourably. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Robert Outred

Sir Robert Outred witnessed the burning of Stile at Smithfield c. 1528 - 30 and was Foxe's source. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Stile

(d. c. 1528 - 30 towards the end of Tunstall's episcopate in London) [Fines]

Martyr, burnt at Smithfield

Stile was burnt with a copy of the Apocalypse, which he was accustomed to read. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

1303 [1279]

K. Henry. 8. Lancelot, a Paynter, Germayne, Stile, Martyrs. The Popes sentence agaynst K. Henry. 8.

that might be found. Howbeit, amōgst many other things omittted, the story and Martyrdome of Lancelot, and hys felowes, is not to be forgottē. The story of whō with their names is this.

¶ The Martyrdome of Lancelot one of the kinges garde, Iohn a Paynter, and Gyles Germane. 
Commentary  *  Close
London martyrs in 1539

Foxe's source for this triple burning is unclear. The immediately preceding comment suggests that it comes from a now-lost episcopal register, but the imprecise and narrative nature of the tale he tells makes such a formulaic source unlikely. The account was first introduced in 1570 and remained unchanged thereafter.Three other sources record this event, although there are significant differences between each account. In a letter written early in 1541, Richard Hilles wrote that 'before Whitsuntide [1540] three persons were burned in the suburbs of London, in that part of the city belonging to the diocese of Winchester, because they denied transubstantiation, and had not received the sacrament at Easter'. Epistolae Tigurinae de rebus potissimum ad ecclesiae Anglicanae reformationem (Cambridge, 1848), p. 133 (Hastings Robinson (ed.), Original Letters relative to the English Reformation (Cambridge, 1846), p. 200). Charles Wriothesley's chronicle records that on 3 May 1540 three individuals were burned at Southwark for 'heresie against the sacrament of the aulter.' The place, date and offence all fit neatly with Hilles' account (Whitsun fell on 16 May in 1540). Wriothesley named one of the offenders as Maundevild, a French groom to the queen (that is, Anne of Cleves), described another of them as a painter, and gave no information at all about the third. Charles Wriothesley, A Chronicle of England during the Reigns of the Tudors, ed. William D. Hamilton, vol. I (Camden Society ns XI, 1875), p. 118. Perhaps most significantly for Foxe's account, his mentor John Bale wrote in 1544 that Bishop Gardiner had, at an unspecified point in the previous few years, 'broyled in saynct Georges felde beyonde Sothwarke one gyles a Ioynar with one of the quenes seruauntes and a paynter before fyue a clocke in the morninge, least the common people shuld haue knowen your lewde legerdemayne ouer theyr last confessions.' John Bale, The Epistle exhortatorye of an Englyshe Christiane (STC 1291: Antwerp, 1544), fos. 14v-15r.It is near-certain that this is the same event which Foxe describes. The discrepancy of dates between May 1540 and Foxe's 'about' 1539 can be disregarded, given Foxe's cavalier chronology. Foxe's insistence that his executions took place at St. Giles in the Fields, north of the Thames and in London diocese, is harder to reconcile with Hilles' and Wriothesley's account, but Bale's claim that it took place in St. George's field, by Southwark, suggests a neat solution in which a mistranscription by one of Foxe's researchers introduced the confusion. The names 'Lancelot' and 'Maundevild' are probably too different to be garbled versions of one another, but are perfectly plausible as a Frenchman's Christian name and surname, and Foxe agrees with Wriothesley and Bale that this man was in royal service. Foxe agrees with Wriothesley and Bale that the second man was a painter, with Bale that the third man was called Giles, and with Bale that the executions took place at the crack of dawn.Strikingly, either two or three of the victims were foreigners: Maundevild / Lancelot was French and John the painter Italian, and Giles Germane may have been German, as his surname suggests. This raises the possibility that all three were executed in the wake of the panic about foreign Anabaptists in 1538-9.Alec Ryrie

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MarginaliaLancelot, Iohn a Painter, Gyles Germaine Martyrs.ABout the yeare of our Lord. 1539. one Iohn a Paynter, and Giles Germaine were accused of heresy, and whilest they were in examination at London, before the Byshop and other Iudges, by chaunce there came in one of the kinges seruantes named Lancelot, a very tall man, and of no lesse godly minde and disposition, then strong & tall of body.

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This man standing by, seemed by his countenaunce & gesture to fauour both the cause & the poore men his frēds. Wherupon he being apprehended, was examined and condemned together with them, and the next day at v. of the clocke in the morning, was caryed with thē into S. Giles in the field, and there burned, being but a small concourse or company of peple at theyr death.

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In the company and felowship of these blessed Saints and Martyrs of Christ 

Commentary  *  Close

This account was, as Foxe states, provided directly to him by Sir Robert Outred. No corroborating evidence of this incident survives, and it can only be dated by reference to Cuthbert Tunstall's episcopate in London (1522-30). The date makes it likely that Stile was a Lollard, and this is corroborated by Foxe's account: the Apocalypse (that is, the book of Revelation) was a favourite Lollard Biblical text, of which handwritten copies frequently circulated independently. It can only be a Wycliffite book of Revelation that is referred to here.

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, which innocently suffered within þe time of K. Henryes raigne, for the testimony of Gods word and truth, an other good man also commeth to mind not to be excluded out of this number, who was with like cruelty oppressed and burned in Smithfield, about the latter end of Cutb. Tonstals time Byshop of Londō: whose name was called Stile, MarginaliaOne Style martyr burned in Smithfield with the Apocalyps. as is credibly reported vnto vs by a worthy & auncient Knight, named Syr Robert Outred, MarginaliaEx testimonio D. Rob. Outradi. who was the same time preesent himselfe at his burning, and witnes of the same. With him there was burned also a book of the Apocalips, which belike he was wont to read vpon. This book when he saw fastened vnto the stake to be burned with him, lifting vp his voyce, O blessed Apocalips (sayd he) how happy am I, that shal be burned with thee? And so this good man, and the blessed Apocalips were both together in the fire consumed.

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ANd thus (through the gracious supportatiō of Christ our Lord) we haue runne ouer these 37. laborious yeares of king Henries race. Vnder whose tyme and gouernance, such actes and recordes, troubles, presecutions, recantations, practises, alterations and reformations as thē happened in the church, we haue here discoursed, with such statutes, iniunctions and proclamations, as by him were set forth in causes & matters to the sayd church apperteyning: Albeit not cōprehending all things so fully as might be, yet pretermitting so few thinges as we could, of suche matters as came to our handes: saue onely, that certayne instruments with a few other occurrentes somewhat perteining to the course of this kinges history, haue past our hands, as the false lying MarginaliaPope Leo his Bull agaynst Luther.bul of pope Leo x. against M. Luther: with the forme also of the sayd MarginaliaM. Luthers appeale from the Pope to a generall Councell.M. Luthers appeale from the Pope vnto a generall counsel. All which, wt other matters moe besides omitted, we haue differred by themselues hereafter to be exhibited and declared in the sequele of this present story, as in his due place shall appeare. 

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Papal sentence on Henry VIII's divorce

Henry VIII's struggle to rid himself of Catherine of Aragon had been going on for more than five years by the time that Pope Clement issued his decree. Clement had refused for a number of reasons to grant the king the annulment which he had wanted, and in the spring of 1533 the King had taken matters into his own hands. He had secretly married Anne Boleyn, and had caused Thomas Cranmer, the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, to declare his first marriage null and void. Anne Boleyn had then been crowned as Queen, and Clement's reaction had been to order him to take Catherine back on pain of excommunication. Meanwhile Catherine's appeal for a definitive sentence in her favour still hung fire in the Curia. It appears that Clement was still hoping to settle the issue by diplomacy. It was not until March 1534 that the Consistory finally issued its verdict. These issues are thoroughly discussed in Garrett Mattingly, Catherine of Aragon (1942), J..J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968), H.A. Kelly, The Matrimonial Trials of Henry VIII (1976) and E. Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004). The reference to 'his defense against the Emperour and the Spayniards' is an allusion to the determined influence which Charles V had exercised from the beginning on behalf of his aunt.

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

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In the meane season, amongst other omissions here ouerpast, forsomuch as a certayne instrument of the MarginaliaThe sentence definitiue of Pope Clement 7. agaynst the diuorce of king Henry.popes sentence definitiue 

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The 'sentence definitive' against Henry VIII which came into Foxe's hands was probably the copy now surviving as BL Cotton MS Vitellius B.XIV, 3. Three copies are listed in Letters and Papers (VII, 362), of which two are described as 'modern copies'. The document was printed by Nicholas Pocock in Records of the Reformation, II, p.532. Gardiner's mission to Rome with Edward Foxe took place in 1528, not 1532, and no letter survives which corresponds with the description here given. Gardiner wrote to Henry VIII from Viterbo on the 11 June (before he had met the Pope) saying that he thought Clement, entertained a 'sincere love' for Henry.(James Muller, Letters of Stephen Gardiner, 1933, p.5). If a more favourable letter was written to Wolsey it does not apparently survive. The 'Kinges booke' referred to was probably A Glasse of the Truthe (T. Berthelet, 1532)

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against K. Henries first deuorse wt Lady Katherine Dowager, hath of late come to our handes, conteining matter neither impertinent nor vnmeet to be committed to history, I thought here presently to place the same, to the intent that the Reader seing the arrrogant and impudent presumption of the Pope in the sayde sentence, going about by force & authority so to constrayne & cōpell kings and princes agaynst theyr willes, & agaynst right & scripture to apply to his imperious purpose, may the better vnderstand thereby, what was the true cause & groūd why the king first began to take stomacke against the pope and to send him cleane packing out of this realme. But before I shall produce this foresayd sentence of the Pope definitiue, to make the matter more plain to þe reader, it shal not be amisse, first to discipher & rip vp the originall of such occasions as shal induce the reader to the better vnderstāding of this falling out betwene the king and the Pope.

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For so I finde by the letters of D. Stephen Gardener written to Cardinall Wolsey frō Rome, (at what time he & Foxe were sent Ambassadors by the king to Pope Clement the 7. about the expedition of the kings diuorce. Ann. 1632.) that the sayd Pope Clement with the counsell of the Cardinall Sanctorum quatuor and other Cardinals, at first was well willing, and very inclinable to the accomplishment and satisfaction of the kinges desire in that bahalfeand that for diuers respectes.

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MarginaliaThe causes mouing the Pope at the first to fauour the cause of the kinges diuorce.As first, for the great benefites receiued, and the singuler deuotion of the king toward the sea Apostolicke, in taking warre for the Churches cause, in surceasing warre at the Popes desire, and especially in procuring the Popes deliueraunce, whereby the Pope then thought himselfe with his whole Sea, much obliged to the king in all respectes, to passe by his authority whatsoeuer reasonably might be graunted in gratifiyng the kinges so ample merites and desertes.

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Secondly, for the euident reasons and substantiall argumentes in the * Marginalia* This booke called the kinges booke, was a certaine treatise cōcerning the reasons and argumentes of diuers learned mē, for the lawfull dissolution of the kinges mariage, with aunswere also to the contrary obiections of Abell, & others. And this booke the king here sent to the Pope. kinges booke conteyned, which seemed well to satisfy the Popes liking, and to remoue away all scruples.

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Thirdly, for the good opinion & confidence that þe pope had in the excellent wisedome, profoūd learning, and mature iudgement of the king, which the Pope (as he sayd in formall words) would soner leane vnto, then to any other learned mans minde or sentence, so that the kinges reasōs (he sayd) must needes be of great efficacy and strength of himselfe to order and direct this matter.

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The fourth cause mouing the Pope to fauor the kings, request, was for the quiet and tranquility of his conscience which otherwise in that vnlawful Mariage with his brothers wife could not be settled.

MarginaliaThe fifte cause.The fift cause was for the consideration of the perils & daungers, which otherwise might happen to the realm by the pretensed titles of the king of Scottes, & other, without an heyre male to establish the kinges succession: for the auoyding of which perils and also for the other causes aboue rehearsed, the pope shewed himselfe at that time propense and forward to promote and set forward the kinges desired purpose in that behalfe. MarginaliaThe double dealing of the Pope with king Henry.

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And thus much touching this by matter I thought here to suggest, & repeat to the reader, albeit the same is also sufficiently expressed before, pag. 1057. and 1058. to the end that the studious Reader pondering these first proceedinges of the Pope, & comparing them with this sentence definitiue, which vnderfoloweth, may þe better vnderstād MarginaliaThe Pope false, double and contrary to himselfe.what inconstant leuity, what false dealing, what craftye packing, and what contrariety in it selfe, is in this Popes holy Sea of Rome: as by this case of the Pope may well appeare, who in short time after all this, was so clean altered from that he was, that whereas before he pretended to esteme so gratefully the kinges trauell and benefites exhibited to the sea Apostolicke, in his defence agaynst the Emperor and the Spanyardes, now he ioyneth vtterly wyth the Cesarians agaynst the king. And where before he so greatly magnified the kinges profound learning, & mature iudgement, esteming his minde & Sentence aboue al other learned mē, to be as a iudge sufficient in the directiō of this case: now turning head to the tayle, he vtterly refuseth to bring the matter in iudiciū orbis, but will needes deteine it at home. Agayne, where before he pretēded a tēder prouision for the state of this Realme: now he setteth all other realmes against it. And finally where he before semed to respect the quiet & tranquility of the kinges conscience: now MarginaliaThe Pope how presūtuously he compelleth and commaundeth kinges & Princes.he goeth about to commaund & compell the king agaynst his will and cōscience to do cleane contrary to that, which he himselfe before in his iudgemēt had alowed, thinking to haue the king at his becke, and to doe and vndoe what he listed and commaunded: as by the tenor and true copy of this his Sentence definitiue, ye may vnderstand. Which as it came newly to our hāds, I thought here to exhibite vnto the world, that al mē might see what iust cause the king had, being so presūptuously prouoked by the pope to shake of his proud authority, & vtterly to exile him out of his realme. Marke, I pray thee, the maner of the popes proud Sentence bow presumptuously it procedeth.

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Anglici Matrimonij.
¶ Sententia diffinitiua.

MarginaliaEx Archetypo Rom. Pontificis ad Catherinam misso.¶ Lata per Sanctissimum Dominum nostrum D. Clementem Papam vij. in sacro Consistorio, de Reuerendissimorum. S.R.E. Cardinalium consilio, super validitate Matrimonij inter Serenissimos Henricum VIII. & Catherinam Angliæ Reges contracti.

PRO

Eadem Serenissima Catherina Angliæ Regina.

CONTRA

Serenissimum Henricum VIII. Angliæ Regem.

Clemens
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