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Hieronymus Emser

(1477 - 1527) German Catholic theologian; disputed with Luther

Hieronymus Emser and Sylvester Prieras obtained a papal commission to cite Martin Luther to appear at Rome. 1570, p. 1476; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

 
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John Frederick I (the Magnanimous)

(1503 - 1554) [C. Scott Dixon and M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Eldest son of Elector Johann 'The Constant' and nephew of Elector Friedrich 'the Wise'

Elector of Saxony (1532 - 54); early, strong supporter of Luther

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Æpinus, the duke (elector) of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

When Martin Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy, John Frederick pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

The duke of Saxony was married to the sister of Anne of Cleves. He was thought not to approve of the proposed marriage between Anne and Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

 
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Marius

Proctor to Pope Leo X

In his appeal to Pope Leo X, Martin Luther said that Marius had reported him to be a heretic. 1570, p. 1476; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

 
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Sylvester Prieras

(1456 - 1523) b. Priero, Piedmont; Catholic theologian; disputed with Luther

Hieronymus Emser and Sylvester Prieras obtained a papal commission to cite Martin Luther to appear at Rome. 1570, p. 1476; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

1313 [1289]

King Hen. 8. Luthers aunswere to the Popes Bull. The appeale of Luther in Englishe.

which I will not suffer to be wreasted from mee, for all the Popes and papists in the world. MarginaliaThe answere of mayster Luther to the 6. article.For thys I meant by that doctrine, that repentaunce is of no force, vnlesse it be done in faithe and charitie, whiche thinge they also teache them selues, but that they do not knowe nor teach, neither what faith nor charitie is. And therefore in condemning my doctrine, they condemne also their owne, foolishly repugnyng against themselues in their owne cōtradiction. I say therfore that he which teacheth repentaunce in such wise & maner, that he hath not a greater regard to the promised mercye of God and faith in the same, then to this afflicting and vexing of the minde, he teacheth the repentaunce of Iudas Iscarioth, he is pertilent, a deuil to mens soules, and a tormentor of consciences. Read the bookes of those sophisters, where they wryte of repentaunce, and thou shalt see there no mētion made eyther of promise or faith. For these liuely parts of repētance, they cleane omitte, & onely do vexe mē with these dead contritions. But heereof we haue, and wil hereafter entreat more at large.

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MarginaliaThe purpose of Luther in setting forth hys articles.But what should I here stand vpon euery Article, seeing my bookes be abroade, wherein I haue geuen a reason of all sufficiently, and more woulde haue done, if mine aduersaries also had brought to light theirs. For what folishnesse is this, that they thinke to answere me with thys one saying, that they count all my sayings as damned, wheras I did wryte to this ende onely, that they shoulde acknowledge their errours, wherewith they haue so long bewitched the people of God. Neither did I looke that I should be condemned, which vnderstanding & knowing the same right wel, haue iustified those things which they haue condemned before with sufficient authoritie, bothe of scripture and reason. Neither looked I that they should tel me what they thought (for I knew all that well enough) but that I sought of them was to knowe whether they thought right therin or not. Here looked I to be taught, and behold, none of them all durst once put foorth his head. Wherefore I see these asses nothing to vnderstand either the things that I say, or yet themselues. But they be suche blinde bussardes, that they perceiue not what it is that I seeke in my bookes. For they dreame that I haue suche an opinion of them, as though they had the truthe of their side, when there is nothing that I lesse thinke to be true. For I foreseeing that they had condemned al these things before, came foorth and shewed my selfe, as one not to be condemned, but as already condemned of them, to accuse their condemnation to be wicked, hereticall, and blasphemous, and so openly to denounce them as heretikes and erroneous, vnles they shewed some better reason and ground of their doings & doctrine: where as they on the other side, like foolish minstrels harping all on one string, haue nothing else in theyr mouthes, but we condemne that we haue condemned, proouing after a newe kinde of Logike, the same thing by it selfe. O most idiote huddypeaks, and blockish condemners, where is the saying of Peter? Marginalia1. Pet. 3.Be alwayes ready to rēder a count of that faith and hope which is in you.

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Wherefore seeing these ignorant Papistes, being thus confounded, doe so flie away, from the face of the manifest veritie, that they dare not once open their mouthes in defence of themselues, or of their cause, and haue blasted oute with much ado this timerous Bul of theirs: I being comforted with the flight of these mine aduersaries, do account this theyr dastardly damnation in sted of full allowing and iustifying of my cause, and so rebounde againe theyr owne damnation vppon their owne heads, for howe coulde they more condemne themselues, then whiles they, (fearing to be founde themselues culpable of heresie, if they shoulde be driuen to geue account of their doctrine) do flie to this miserable and desperate refuge, willingly to shutte their eyes and stop their eares, and to say, I will not, I damne thee, I heare thee not, I allow thee not. If I should haue plaid any such mad part, how would they (I pray you) haue triumphed against me? This dastardly feare declareth what cowardes they are.

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Wherefore, not to burden the reader with any tedious prolixitie of matter in prosecutinge euery Article, I heere protest in these presents, that I * Marginalia* Note here good reader that amongest these articles, certayne there be which because they seemed somewhat to beare wyth the Pope and his pardons, Luther comming after to more knowledge that the pope was Antichrist, confesseth himselfe in his Assertions, that he vtterly calleth back the same, not reuoking then as the pope would haue had him, but rather aggrauating them agaynst the Pope. confesse all these thinges here condemned by this miserable Bull, for pure, clear and Catholike doctrine: whereof I haue sufficiently geuen accompt in my bookes which be extant abroade.

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Furthermore, I wil also that the sayd my bokes being extant abroad, shalbe taken as a publike accusation against these wicked Sophisters & seducers of the people of God: so that vnlesse they shall geue a count of their doctrine, and shall conuicte me with good grounde of Scripture, I doe here as muche as in me lieth, denounce thē as guiltie of errour, heresie, and sacriledge, admonishing, desiring, and inthe Lorde exhorting all them which truely confesse Christ, that they will beware and take heede of their pestiferous doctrine, and not to dout, but that the true Antichrist raigneth by them in the world amongst vs.

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And if any shal contemne thys my brotherly admonition, lette him knowe that I am pure and cleane from hys bloud, & excused frō the laste iudgement of Christe. For I haue left nothing vndone, whiche Christian charitie dyd binde me to doe.

Finally, if there be no other way whereby I may resist these babling and trifeling condemners, the vttermost and last which I haue, I will geue and bestow in the quarrell, that is, this life and bloude of mine. For better it were for me a thousande times to be slaine, then to reuoke one sillable of these Articles which they haue condemned. And now as they doe curse and excommunicate me for their damnable heresie, so I againe likewise doe curse and excommunicate them for the holy veritie of God. Christ which is only the Iudge of all, iudge and determine this matter betwene vs, whether of these two excommunications, hys or mine shall stande and preuaile before him. Amen.

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In storying the life of Luther, before pag. 849. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 849. it was declared, how the sayd Luther in the beginning, first being reiected of the Cardinall Caietanus, appealed from þe cardinall vnto the Pope. When that would not serue, neither could not any tollerable submission of Luther to þe pope be receiued, but that the P. with his Cardinals, contrary to all equity and conscience, wold nedes procede against him, and against the expresse truth of Gods word, thinking by meere authoritie to beare downe the veritie as he had vsed before to do. Luther folowing the iustnes of his cause, was then compelled to appeale from the Pope to the next generall couucell, and so did, as before you may read, pag. 812. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 812. Which was 2. yeares before the Popes Bull agaynst Luther came out. The tenour of which appellation before omitted, I thought here to exhibite, wherby the reader considering the great change of religion and state of the church which since hath ensued, may also perceiue þe true originall cause and occasion, howe it first began, by what order & degrees it after encreased, what humility and submission first on Luthers part was shewed, and again what insolencie,wrong, and violence on the Popes part was declared. And further, where Pope Leo in his Bull aboue prefixed, seemeth to pretend certaine conditions of fauour, charity, and money offred to Luther in the beginning, how false & vain that is, by this present appeale may appeare. The copie wherof, as it was drawen by the publike notarie and exhibited, is this as in forme here followeth.

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The tenour and forme of the Appeale of Martine Luther, from Pope Leo to the next generall Councell.

MarginaliaThe appeale of M. Luther frō the pope to the next generall councell.IN nomine Domini, Amen. Anno a natiuitate eiusdem. 1518. indictione sexta, die vero solis vigesima octaua mensis Nouemb. Pontificatus sanctissimi in Christo patris & Domini nostri, Domini Leonis, diuina prouidentia Papæ, decimi, anno sexto in mea Notarij publici testium infra scriptorum ad hoc specialiter vocatorum & rogatorum præsentia constitutus, &c.

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The effect of the sayd Appeale of Luther, in English.

MarginaliaLuthers appeale from the pope in English.THe effect of the appeale aforesayde, is this: That for somuche as the libertie of appealing is prouided for a remedie to relieue the oppressed from iniurie and violence of the superiour, it was therefore lawful for Martine Luther so to do, especially being manifold waies iniuried and molested by the See of Rome, and other the Popes confederates, as hee in the sayde appeale declareth. For at firste whereas he modestly disputing of the errors and abuses of the Popes pardons, did somwhat withstand the impudēt rauen and blasphemies of them that come about with the Popes pardons to poll and rob the people, he was therefore openly railed vpon, and defamed by them in their publike sermones to be an heretike, and consequently vppon the same accused to Pope Leo for an heretike, by Marius the Popes Proctor and others.

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Then was obteined of the Pope a commission to cite vp the sayde Luther to appeare at Rome before the Cardinalles, by Hieronymus, and Syluester Prieras, hys mortall ennemies, where as he could by no way appeare wythout manifest danger of his life, both by the way, and also in the citie of Rome.

For the consideration whereof, Duke Ih. Fridericke, Prince Electour, and the Lantgraue entreated for hym

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