Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Claude d'Annebault

(1495 - 1552) French admiral; ambassador of France; governor of Normandy

When Claude d'Annebault went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

[Back to Top]

Henry VIII expressed his intention to Thomas Cranmer and Claude d'Annebault to complete the reform of religion in England. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1254; 1583, p. 1291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Colyman

Friar; doctor of divinity of Orleans

Steven of Arras and Colyman, friars and doctors of divinity at Orleans, recruited a novice to hide and pretend to be the spirit of the mayor's deceased wife and signal that she was damned because of Luther's heresy. The mayor complained to the king, and the two friars were tried by the parlament of Paris and found guilty when the novice confessed. They were returned to Orleans and imprisoned, but were eventually released because of popular feeling. 1570, p. 1479; 1576, pp. 1254-55; 1583, p. 1292.

[Back to Top]
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

[Back to Top]

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

[Back to Top]

Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

[Back to Top]

The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

[Back to Top]

Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hans Bruno

(fl. 1546-47) [Lacey Baldwin Smith, 'Henry VIII and the Protestant Triumph', The American Historical Review, vol. 71, no. 4 (July, 1966) pp. 1254-64]

of Metz; doctor; German protestant; ambassador of John Frederick I of Saxony

Shortly before his death, Henry VIII told Hans Bruno that he would take the side of the duke of Saxony against the emperor in a quarrel of religion. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1254; 1583, p. 1291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Dudley

(1504 - 1553) [ODNB]

Viscount Lisle (1542 - 47); earl of Warwick (1547 - 51), lord great chamberlain

Duke of Northumberland 1551; lord president of the privy council (1550 - 52); led support for Lady Jane Grey; executed

Dudley, Lord Lisle, was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Dudley was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

Following the taking of the city of Norwich by the Norfolk rebels, John Dudley, earl of Warwick, was sent with an army. The rebels were defeated and their leaders executed. 1570, p. 1500; 1576, p. 1271; 1583, p. 1308.

After Dudley's return from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. 1570, p. 1545; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

Dudley was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

Seymour was imprisoned for the second time in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. 1570, p. 1549; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

After Stephen Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Dudley was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 822-24

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Frederick I (the Magnanimous)

(1503 - 1554) [C. Scott Dixon and M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Eldest son of Elector Johann 'The Constant' and nephew of Elector Friedrich 'the Wise'

Elector of Saxony (1532 - 54); early, strong supporter of Luther

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Æpinus, the duke (elector) of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

When Martin Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy, John Frederick pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

The duke of Saxony was married to the sister of Anne of Cleves. He was thought not to approve of the proposed marriage between Anne and Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Russell

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

Courtier, diplomat. MP Buckinghamshire 1529; JP Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonsshire, Northamptonshire 1533; MP Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Somerset 1539

Henry VIII's controller of the royal household 1536; lord privy seal (1542 - 55); lord high admiral 1540

Baron Russell 1539; earl of Bedford (1550 - 55)

John Russell had been saved from danger while abroad by Thomas Cromwell and later commended him to the king. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1179.

John Russell was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

John Russell was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

Sir John was appointed lieutenant-general of the king's troops in the west at the time of the Western Rising. Although outnumbered, his forces defeated the rebels and captured their leaders. 1570, pp. 1499-1500; 1576, pp. 1271-72; 1583, pp. 1307-08.

George Blage had been condemned to be burnt for heresy. John Russell made suit to the king on Blage's behalf and he was pardoned. 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

John Russell was present at Anne Askew's burning. 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

Russell was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814, 824-25.

John Russell was a witness in 1551 to the sentence against Stephen Gardiner and his appellation. 1563, p. 867.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ralph Morice

(fl. 1522 - 1570) [ODNB]

Principal secretary to Thomas Cranmer c. 1531; protestant reformer; BA Cambridge 1523; MA 1526; imprisoned for a time under Mary; source on martyrs for Foxe

Archbishop Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a book of Cranmer's arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king. Ralph Morice took the book with him when he went by boat to the city. He was caught up in bear-baiting on the river, and the book fell into the water. It was recovered by the bearward, who refused to return it. Morice went to Thomas Cromwell, who recovered the book from the bearward. 1570, p. 1355-56; 1576, p. 1157-58; 1583, p. 1185-86.

[Back to Top]

Cranmer told his secretary, Ralph Morice, that the letters he had written for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church had never been signed. Gardiner had convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

[Back to Top]

Morice witnessed Sir Anthony Denny report to Thomas Cranmer of the the attempt by Sir Anthony Browne to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1254; 1583, p. 1291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Anthony Browne

(c. 1500 - 1548) [ODNB]

Courtier, diplomat; grew up in Henry VIII's court; surveyor and master of hunting, Yorkshire; gentleman of the privy chamber 1519; lieutenant of the Isle of Man 1525; ambassador to France 1527; JP Surrey 1532; contributed to Anne Boleyn's downfall; privy councillor, master of horse 1539; guardian of young Edward VI

[Back to Top]

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

Sir Anthony Browne was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Henry Neville

(c. 1520 - 1593) [ODNB sub Henry VIII, privy chamber of]

Groom of Henry VIII's privy chamber; godson of the king; witnessed the king's will

Sir Henry Neville and Sir Anthony Denny testified to hearing King Henry tell the lord chancellor, Thomas Wriothesley, that Stephen Gardiner was not to come into the king's sight. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Steven of Arras

Friar; doctor of divinity at Orleans

Steven of Arras and Colyman, friars and doctors of divinity at Orleans, recruited a novice to hide and pretend to be the spirit of the mayor's deceased wife and signal that she was damned because of Luther's heresy. The mayor complained to the king, and the two friars were tried by the parlament of Paris and found guilty when the novice confessed. They were returned to Orleans and imprisoned, but were eventually released because of popular feeling. 1570, p. 1479; 1576, pp. 1254-55; 1583, p. 1292.

[Back to Top]
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wriothesley

(1505 - 1550) [ODNB]

Administrator; Cromwell's private secretary; engraver of the Tower mint 1536; MP Hampshire (1539, 1542); JP Hampshire (1538 - 46)

Principal secretary to the king (1540 - 44); clerk of the crown and king's attorney (1542 - 50); privy councillor (1540 - 47, 1548 - 50); lord chancellor (1544 - 47)

Baron Wriothesley 1544; 1st earl of Southampton (1547 - 50)

Stephen Gardiner had Wriothesley and other privy councillors on his side when he reported Windsor heretics to the king. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1214.

Wriothesley took part in the examination of John Marbeck. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

[Back to Top]

When Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Wriothesley was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

The Sunday before Anne Askew was executed, Thomas Wriothesley had George Blage sent to Newgate and then to the Guild Hall, where he was condemned to be burnt. 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1245.

Wriothesley was present at Anne Askew's burning. He brought her letters offering the king's pardon if she recanted, but she refused. 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

Thomas Wriothesley was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paget

(1505/6 - 1563) [ODNB]

Diplomat and administrator; JP Middlesex (1537 - death), MP Buckinghamshire (1547 - death), MP Derbyshire 1547, MP Staffordshire (1547 - death); MP Middlesex 1545, MP Staffordshire 1547; privy councillor (1543 - death); clerk to the privy council 1540; clerk of the parliament (1541 - 49)

1st Lord Paget of Beaudesert (1549 - 63); lord privy seal (1556 - 58)

William Paget was one of the learned men at Cambridge supported by the Boleyns. He supported Barnes and other protestants at that time, supplying books and helping monks leave their orders. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Paget was present at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

William Paget was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Paget was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Paget was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector had knowledge of the letter before it arrived, possibly through Lord Paget, who was then with the king and Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

[Back to Top]

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Arras (Atrecht: Dutch)

Nord-Pas de Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 17' 23" N, 2° 46' 51" E

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ashford
Ashford, Ashforde
NGR: TR 010 428

A parish in the hundred of Chart and Longbridge, lathe of Scray, county of Kent. 20 miles south-east by east from Maidstone. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Canterbury.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

[Back to Top]
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Boulogne-sur-Mer (Bonen: Flemish)

[Bullen; Boleyne; Bollayn; Bullenburgh]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 43' 28" N, 1° 36' 43" E

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Orléans

[Orleance; Orleans]

France

Coordinates: 47° 54' 11" N, 1° 54' 18" E

Cathedral city; university town

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Paris

Coordinates: 48° 52' 0" N, 2° 19' 59" E

Capital of France; cathedral city; university town

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Windsor
NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

[Back to Top]

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

[Back to Top]
1315 [1291]

K. Hen. 8. The maner of king Henries death. A tragicall story of certaine Friers in Fraunce.

heere is to be noted by the testification as well of mayster Deny, as also of Sir Henry Neuell, who were there present witnesses of the matter, whose record is this, 

Commentary  *  Close

Historians have questioned the degree to which Henry's religious policies were shifting in the closing months of his reign. For a discussion of this point and the argument that they were indeed moving in a direction favourable to the evangelicals see Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (New Haven, CT, 1996), pp. 356-60.

[Back to Top]
that king Henry before the time of his sicknes, taking his horse vppon the tarras at Windsore to ride out on hauking, sawe standing before him the Lorde Wryothesley Lord Chancelour with diuers other Counsellours, and amōgst them the Bishop of Winchester. Whereupon he called the Lorde Chancelour and sayd: MarginaliaWinchester commaunded no more to come in the kings sight.Did not I commaund you he shuld come no more amongst you (meaning the Bishop?) Wherunto the Lorde Chauncellour aunswered, that his comming was to bring his Maiestie word of a beneuolence geuen vnto him by the Cleargie. Whereat the King sayd: Ah, let him come hether, and so he did his message, and the King went straight away.

[Back to Top]

Item, another time the King immediatly after his repaire to London, fell sicke, and caused diuers times hys whole Counsell to come vnto him about his will, and other his graue affaires: MarginaliaWinchester though he wer excluded yet would seeme stil to be of the kinges Counsel.At what time, the Bishop also would come vp with them into the vtter priuie Chamber, and there remayne vntill the Counsell came from the King, and then go downe with them agayne, to the ende (as then was thought) to blind the world withall.

[Back to Top]

Furthermore, as the King grewe more in sickenes, he considering vpon his will and testament made before at his going ouer to Bullein, willed the same to be drawne out againe with leauing out and excluding the Byshop of Winchester by name from amongst his Executors. 

Commentary  *  Close

As Glyn Redworth has observed, Gardiner remained in favour with Henry well in the autumn of 1546. What led to Gardiner's exclusion from the executors of Henry's will was that the bishop with admirable courage and a deplorable sense of timing declined , at the November, to agree to an exchange of episcopal properties with Crown lands. (In theory, these exchanges were equal, in practice they always favoured the Crown). Henry was irate and Gardiner was in disfavour at the crucial time when Henry died. (See Glyn Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic: The Life of Stephen Gardiner [Oxford, 1990], pp. 237-40 and Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer [New Haven, CT, 1996], p. 359).

[Back to Top]
MarginaliaWint. excluded out of the kinges will. Which being to him no small corsey, 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., an irritant or vexation.

and a cutting off of all theyr purposes, a way was found, that MarginaliaSyr Anthony Browne a great frend to Wint.Sir Anthony Browne a principall pillar of Winchesters side, pretending vnto the King, as though by the negligence of the writer the Byshops name had bene left out of the Kings will, kneeled downe to the Kings Maiestie, lying in his bed, and sayd: My Lord of Winchester I thinke by negligence is left out of your Maiesties wil, who hath done your hignes most paynefull, long, and notable seruice, and one without whome the rest shall not be able to ouercome your greate and weighty affaires committed vnto them.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaKing Henryes opinion of the Bishop of Winchest.Hold your peace (quoth the King) I remembred hym well inough, and of good purpose haue left him out. For surely, if he were in my testamēt, and one of you, he would cumber you all, and you should neuer rule him, he is of so troublesome a nature. Mary, quoth the King, I my selfe coulde vse him, and rule him to all maner of purposes, as seemed good to me, but so shall you neuer do, and therefore talke no more of him to me in this behalfe. Syr Anthony Browne perceiuing the king somewhat stiffe heerein, gaue place to the Kings words at that time. Howbeit, seeking farther occasion vpō more perswasions put into his head, tooke in hand once againe to moue the King to haue the Byshop one of his Executors. When the King perceyued that this instant sute would not cease: haue you not yet done (quoth the King) to molest me in this matter? If you wil not cease farther to trouble me, by the faith that I owe vnto God, I will surely dispatch thee out of my will also, and therefore let vs heare no more of this matter. MarginaliaWitnes.All thys Sir Anthony Deny was heard to report to the Archbyshop of Cant. Thom. Cranmer, of the sayd Archbyshops Secretary 

Commentary  *  Close

This was Ralph Morrice and this is an important indication that he was Foxe's source for this anecedote as well as the other material on the end of Henry VIII's reign.

who is yet aliue, and witnes to the same.

[Back to Top]

And thus much touching the end of King Henry, who if he had continued a few moneths longer (all those obites and Masses, whiche appeare in his will made before hee went to Bulleyne notwithstandyng) most certayne it is, & to be signified to all posteritie, MarginaliaThe purpose of the king if he had liued, was to make a perfect reformation of religion.that his full purpose was to haue repurged the estate of the Church, & to haue gone through with the same, so that he would not haue left one masse in all England. 

Commentary  *  Close

Historians have questioned the degree to which Henry's religious policies were shifting in the closing months of his reign. For a discussion of this point and the argument that they were indeed moving in a direction favourable to the evangelicals see Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (New Haven, CT, 1996), pp. 356-60.

[Back to Top]
For the more certayne intelligence whereof, two things I haue to leade me. MarginaliaCredite of this narration that it is true.The one is, the assured report and testimonie of Tho. Cranmer, Archbyshop of Caunterbury, hearing the King declare the same out of his owne mouth, both to himselfe, & to Mounsieur de Annebault Lord Admirall the French Ambassadour, in the moneth of August a little before his death, as aboue may appeare more at large, 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1570, pp. 1425-6; 1576, pp. 1215-16 and 1583, pp. 1244-5.

page. 1240. The other cause which leadeth me thereunto, is also of equall credite, groūded vpon the declaration of the Kings owne mouth after that time, more neare to his death, vnto Bruno Ambassadour of Iohn Fridericke, Duke of Saxonie. MarginaliaThe kinges aunswere to the Duke of Saxonies Ambassadour, a little before his death.Vnto the which Ambassadour of Saxony, the King gaue this aunswere openly, that if the quarrell of the Duke of Saxony were nothing else against the Emperour but for religion, he should stand to it strongly, and he would take his part, willing him not to doubt nor feare, and so with this aunswere dimissed the Ambassadour vnto the Duke openly in the hearing of these foure sufficient witnesses, the L. Seymer Earle of Harforde, Lorde Lisley then Admirall, the Earle of Bedford Lorde Priuy Seale, and Lorde Paget.But the secret working of Gods holy prouidence, whyche disposeth all things after his own wisedome and purpose, thought it good rather by taking the King away, to reserue the accomplishmēt of this reformation of his church, to the peaceable time of his sonne Edward, and Elizabeth his daughter, whose handes were yet vndefiled wyth any bloud, and life vnspotted with any violence, or crueltie.

[Back to Top]

And thus to finish this booke, I thought heere to close vp King Henries raigne. But because a little vacant space of empty paper remayneth behinde needefull to be filled vp 

Commentary  *  Close
Persecution in Orleans in 1534

Foxe states here that he was adding the account of the fraudulent friars simply to fill up surplus sheets of paper. Yet we know that later in the 1570 edition, Day ran out of paper. (See Elizabeth Evenden and Thomas S. Freeman, 'John Foxe, John Day and the Printing of the "Book of Martyrs"' in Lives in Print: Biography and the Book Trade from the Middle Ages to the 21st Century [London and New Castle, DE, 2002], pp. 37-40). Why then was Foxe wasting paper here? The 'little vacant space of emptie paper' that Foxe said that he had to fill was actually the last two pages of a four page gathering. This was an extra gathering which was added because of a miscalculation: the printing of Exsurge Domini ran over its assigned gathering and it occupied almost half a column on the first page of the added gathering. The unusual length of the added gathering - almost invariably gatherings in the 1570 edition were eight pages long - is itself an indication that John Day wanted to keep it as brief as possble (a two page gathering would have been too fragile to be practical). At the same time, in order not to lose time, while these decisions were being made, printing on Book Nine had probably already started. As a result Day and Foxe now had eight pages which had to be filled or else there would be unsightly blank pages in the middle of the book, which would have been a bad reflection on Day's skill.

[Back to Top]

Foxe and Day continued this extra gathering by adding Luther's appeal from Exsurge Domini to a general Council; a document that they probably did not originally to print. This was followed by an account of the death of Henry VIII and the king's putative plans to reform the Church, which Foxe had almost certainly intended to include and which he probably originally intended as the conclusion to Book Eight. Unfortunately Luther's appeal and the account of Henry's death only filled four of the eight pages that had to be filled. So Foxe went on to include a story taken from John Daus's translation of Johann Sleidan's Commentaries of a pious fraud committed by Franciscans in Orleans in 1534. (Johann Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries…, trans. John Daus [London, 1560], STC 19848, fos. 114v-115v). This translation had been printed by Day and it was almost certainly scoured for a suitable anecdote, even one that had occurred back in 1534, because it was readily available in Day's printing house. Next Foxe included an account of of the martyrdom of John Browne, a Lollard who had been executed in Ashford in 1511. This was another transparent expedient as Foxe had already written an account of Browne's martyrdom and it eventually caused confusion (Foxe printed this account at the end of his account of the reign of Henry VIII, almost certainly because the account reached him while the 1570 edition was being printed. In the 1583 edition, Foxe moved this account to its proper chronological position in the volume, although through someone's negligence, this account was also reprinted, in its old position, at the end of Henry VIII's reign and as a result, this account was printed twice in the 1583 edition, and in all subsequent editions). However, it filled another page and with the addition of a pointless document - a letter from Bonner to his summoner written back in 1541 - the necessary pages were just filled. (For a detailed explanation of the technical problems which led to the awkward ending of Book Eight, see Elizabeth Evenden, 'Disorderly gatherings: an examination of the second edition of John Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"').

[Back to Top]

Thomas S. Freeman

, to employ therefore and to replenishe the same wyth some matter or other, I thought to annexe heere vnto one story which hapned in this King Henries raigne. Which albeit it serueth not to the purpose of this our matter now in hand, yet neuerthelesse to supply the roome it may stand in some place, either to refreshe the traueiled minde of the Reader wearied with other stories, or else to disclose the detestable impietie of these counterfeite sectes of Monkes and Friers, who vnder the hipocriticall visour of pretensed Religion, haue so long seduced and deceiued the world. Although the deceitfull parts and practises of these fantasticall orders be so many, and in all places so notorious, that they are not able to be expressed yet amongest many one you shall heare that chaunced in this Kings dayes in the Citie of Orleance in Fraunce, by the Gray Friers, about the yeare of our Lord. 1534. The story is this. 
Commentary  *  Close

This is a word-for-word reprinting of A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus (London, 1560), STC 19848, fos. 114v-115v.

[Back to Top]
¶ A tragicall story of certayne Friers in Fraunce in the City of Orleance. an. 1534. MarginaliaEx Commentarijs. Ioan. Sleid. Lib. 9.

MarginaliaA story of certayne Fryers in Orleance.THe Maiors wife of the City of Orleance prouided in her will to be buried without any pompe or solemnity. For when any departeth there, in some places the Belmen are hyred to goe about the City, and in places most frequēted to assemble the people with the sound of the bel, & there to declare the names and þe titles of those parties deceased, also where and whē they shal be buried, exhorting the people to pray for them. And when the Coarse is caried forth, the most part of the begging friers go withall to þe church, with many torches and tapers caried before them, and the more pompe & solemnity is vsed, the more is þe concourse of people. But this woman (as I said) would haue none of all this geare done for her. Wherfore her husband which loued her well, followed her mind heerein, and gaue vnto these greedy cormorāts the friers, which waiting for their pray (in whose Church she was buried besides her father and her grandfather) sixe crownes for a reward: whereas they gaped for a great deale more. And afterward when he cut downe a wood and solde it, the friers crauing to haue part thereof freely and without money, he denied them, this tooke they wonderfull greeuously, and where as they loued him not before, they deuised now a way to be reuenged, saying that his wife was damned euerlastingly.

[Back to Top]

The workers of this Tragedy were Colyman, and Steuen of Arras both doctors of Diuinitie: and the first in deede was a Coniurer, and had all his trinkets and furniture concerning such matters, in a readines, and they vsed the matter thus. They set a yong man which was a Nouice aboue ouer the vaute of the Churche, and when they came to mumble vp their mattins at midnight after their accustomed maner, he made a wonderfull noyse and shriking aloft. Then went this Colyman to crossing and coniuring, but the other aboue would not speake. Beeing charged to make a signe to declare if he were a dumme spirite, he russeled and made a noyse agayne, and that was the signe and token.

[Back to Top]

When they had layd this foundation, they went to certayne of the chiefest in all the Citie, and suche as fauoured them most, and told them what an heauie case was chanced, yet did they not vtter what it was, but entreated them to take the paines to come to their seruice at nighe. When they were come, and the seruice was begon, he that was alofte, made a greate noyse. Being demaunded what he woulde, and what he was, he signified that he might not speake, then was he commaunded to answere to their interrogatories by signes and tokens. Now, was there a hole made for the purpose, where by laying to his eare, he might heare and vnderstand what the Coniurer sayd vnto them. There was also a table at hand, and when anye question was asked, he strooke and beate vpon the Table, so that he might be heard beneath. MarginaliaThe conuincer what he demaunded of the spirite.Then first the Coniurer demaunded whether he were any of them that had ben buried there. After that, reckning vp many of their names in order, whose bodies had bene buried there, at the last he named the Maiors wife. Heere he made a signe that hee was the spirit of that woman. Then he asked whether he were damned, and for what desert or offence? MarginaliaLuthers heresie a great bug among the Fryers. Whether it were for couetousnes, pride, or lechery, or not dooing the

[Back to Top]
works
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield