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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

 
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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Jerome Cardan

(1501 - 1576)

Italian doctor of medicine, mathematician, astrologer

Cardan gave written testimony of Edward VI's knowledge of the liberal sciences. 1563, p. 885; 1570, p. 1485; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

 
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Martin Bucer

(1491 - 1551) [ODNB]

b. Alsace; theologian; Dominican friar 1508; MA, BTh Heidelberg; present at Luther's disputation

Released from monastic vows in 1521; led reform in Strasbourg; went to England with Fagius; professor at Cambridge (1549 - 51)

Martin Bucer was brought to Cambridge by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Catholics defamed Bucer, claiming that on his deathbed he denied that Christ was the messiah. John Redman and other Englishmen knew this to be false. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

 
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Paul Fagius

(c. 1504 - 1549) [ODNB]

b. Rheinzabern; protestant reformer, Hebraist; MA Heidelberg 1522; principal minister at Isny (1538 - 43); went to England with Bucer in 1549

Paul Fagius was brought to Cambridge by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Pietro Matire Vermigli (Peter Martyr)

(1499 - 1562) [ODNB]

b. Florence; Augustinian friar; Greek and Hebrew scholar; evangelical reformer

DTh Padua 1525; abbot in Naples; prior at Lucca

From 1542 in exile: Strasbourg (1542-47); regius professor of divinity at Oxford (1548-49); Strasbourg (1553-56); Zurich (1556-death)

Peter Martyr was brought to Oxford by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Peter Martyr disputed with William Chedsey and others at Oxford over transubstantiation in 1549. 1570, p. 1519; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1330.

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

 
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Marshalsea

[Marshalsey]

Prison on the south bank of the Thames in Southwark, London

 
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Oxford

OS grid ref: SP 515 065

County town of Oxfordshire; university town

1320 [1296]

King Edward 6. The lyfe and commendation of king Edward. Cardanus in prayse of K. Edward.

He had moreouer great respect to iustice, and to the dispatch of poore mens sutes, would appoynt hours & tymes with maister Coxe, then maister of his Requestes 

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Foxe is slightly confused here. Cox was Edward's almoner (in charge of distributing the prince's alms or money for charity) while Edward was Prince of Wales, and not the Master of Requests (in charge of receiving petitions to the king). This reference is another indication, however, that Cox was the source for this material.

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, how & by what order they might be sped in their causes without long delayes and attendaūce, and so also debate with him, that theyr matters might be heard and iudged with equity accordingly.

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What Hieronimus Cardanus sayth of him cōcerning his knowledge in liberal sciēces, I thought here to expres in his owne words 

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What follows, including the poem on Edward VI, is from Girolamo Cardano's Genitarum exempla. (I have consulted the version printed in Girolamo Cardano, Cl. Ptolemaei pelusiensis IIII de Astorum Iudiciis (Basel, 1554), pp.403 and 409-10). It is from a horoscope Cardano cast for Edward VI. It is an indication of the value Foxe placed on this testimony from an internationally respected figure, that he was able to overcome his distaste for astrology. (Note, however that Foxe does not mention that Cardano was an astrologer and that this description comes from a horoscope).

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, both in latin and english, so much the rather, because he speaketh of his owne experiment, & vpon the present talke which he had with the king himselfe. The wordes of Cardanus first in latine be these.

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Heir Card. de Genituris.

MarginaliaEx Hieronym. Cardano in lib. De Genituris.ADerāt enim illi gratiæ. Linguas enim multas adhuc puer callebat: Anglicam natalem, Latinam, Gallicam, non expers (vt audio) Græcæ, Italicæ, & hispanicæ, & forsan aliarum. Propriā, Gallicam & Latinmū exactè tenebat, & ad omnia docilis erat. Non illi dialectica deerat, non naturalis Philosophiæ principia, non Musica. Humanitas mortalitatis nostræ imago, grauitas Regiæ maiestatis, indoles tāto principe digna In vniuersum magno miraculo humanarum rerum, tanti ingenij & tantæ expectationis puer educabatur. Non hæc Rhetoricè exornata veritatem exedunt, sed sunt minora.

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Decimum quintum adhuc agebat annum. Interrogabat (Latinè non minus quam ego politè & promptè loquebatur) quid continent libri tui de rerum varietate? hos enim nomini Maiestatis suæ dedicaueram. Tum ego Cometarum primùm causam diu frustra, quæsitam. in primo capite ostendo. Quænam inquit ille? Concursus, ego aio, luminis erraticorum syderum. At Rex, quomodo, cùm diuersis motibus astra moueantur, nō statim dissipatur aut mouetur eorum motu. At ego, mouetur quidem, sed lōgè celerius illis ob diuersitatem aspectus, velut in Christallo & sole cùm iris in pariete relucet. Parua enim mutatio magnam facit loci differentiā. At Rex, & quonam pacto absque subiecto illud fieri potestiridi enim paries subiectū est? Tum ego, velut in lactea via, & luminum reflectione, cùm plures candelæ propè accensæ medium quoddam lucidum & candidum efficiūt. Ita ex vngue Leonem vt dici solet. Fuit hic in maxima omnium aut bonorum aut eruditorum expectatione ob ingenultatem atque suauitatem morum. Priùs cæperat fauere artibus quàm nosceret, & noscere antequam vti posset. Conatus quidam humanæ conditionis, què non solum Anglia, sed orbis ereptum immaturè deflere debet. O quam benè dixerat ille.

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Immodicis breuis est ætas & rara senectus.

Specimen virtutis exhibere potuit, non exemplum. Vbi gravitas. Regia requirebatur, senem vidisses: vt blandus erat & comis, ætatem referebat. Chell pulsabat, publicis negotijs admouebatur, leberalis animo, atque in his patrem emulabatur. &c. Hæc Cardanus.

¶ The same in English.

MarginaliaThe wordes of Cardanus in the commendation of king Edward.THere was in him a towardly disposition & pregnancy apt to all humain literature: as who being yet a childe had the knowledge of diuers tongs, first of the english his owne naturall toung, of þe latin also & of the french, neither was he ignorant (as I heare) of the greeke, Italian, & spanish tongues, and of other languages peraduenture moe. In his owne, in the French & in the Latine toung singularly perfect, and with the like facility apt to receiue all other. Neither was he ignorant in logike, in the principles of naturall Philosophy, or in Musicke. There was in him lacking neither humanity the Image of our mortality, a Princely grauity and maiesty, nor any kind of towardnes beseming a noble king. Briefly, it might seme a myracle of natture, to behold the excellent wit & forwardnesse that appeared in him being yet but a child. This I speake not rethorically, to amplifye thinges or to make them more then truth is, yea the truth is more then I do vtter.

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Being yet but 15. yeares of age he asked of me in Latin (in which toung he vttered his minde no lesse readely and eloquently thē I could do my selfe) what my books which I had dedicated to him, De varletate rerum, did contayne? MarginaliaThe cause of Comets.I sayd that in the first chapter was shewed the cause of Comets, or blasing stars, which hath bene long sought for, & yet hitherto scarce fully found. What cause (said he) is that: The concourse or meeting (sayd I) of the light of the wandering Planets and Stars. To this the king thus replied agayne: Forsomuch (sayd he) as the motion of the stars kepeth not one course but is diuers and variable by continual alteration, how is it then that the cause of these Comets either doth not quickely vade & vanish, or that the Comet doth not keep one certayne and vniforme course & motion with the sayd Starres and Plaents? Whereunto I aunswered that the Comet hath his course and mouing, but much more swifter then they, because of the diuersity of a-spect, as we see in Christall, and in the Sunne when the forme of the Raynbow reboūdeth on the wall. For a litle mutation maketh a great difference of place. Then sayde þe king and how can that be, hauing no subiect: For of þt rainbow the wall is the subiect? Like (sayd I) as in Lactea via, MarginaliaLactea via is a white and a brighte parte of the firmament, like a long white causie or way appearing in the night amōg the thicke starres. or in reflection of lightes, as where many candles be lighted and set nere together, in the middle they cause a certain bright and white lightsomnes to appeare. &c.

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And so by this litle triall a great gesse may be geuen what was in this king. In whome no doubt was a great hope and expectation amongst all good & learned mē, both for the ingenious forwardnes & amiable sweetnes which in his conditions appeared. First he began to loue & fauor liberall arts & sciences, before he knew them, and to know them before he could vse them, whose mortall conditiō and soden decease and decay in those tender & vnripe yeres, not onely England, but all the world hath cause to lament. O how truely is it sayd of the Poet.

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Thinges that be exceeding excellent.

Be not commonly long permanent.

A shew or sight onely of excellency he could geue vs: example he could not geue. Where a kingly maiesty required grauity, there you should haue sene him a sage and an olde man, and yet gentle and pleasant also, according as the cōditiō of his age then required. He plaid wel vpō the Lute. He had also to doe in handling of weighty affayres of the Realme: He was liberall and bountifull in hart, & therein he imitated his father. &c.

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MarginaliaCarmen Epitaphium Cardani, in obitum Reg. Edouardi.
Flete nefas magnum, sed toto flebitis orbe

Mortales: vester corruit omnis honor.

Nam Regum decus & iuuenum flos spes bonorum.

Delitiæ secli, & gloria gentis erat.
Dignus Apollineis lachrymis doctæ Mineruæ

Flosculus heu misero concidit antè diem.
Te tumulo dabimus Musæ, suprema flentes

Munera, Melpomene tristia fata canet.

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Ex Hier. Cardano.

Thus after the godly dispositiō and properties of this king briefly in this wise declared, now (God willing) wee will intermeddle something to describe the order & proceedinges which he folowed in his administration & gouerne ment of both the states, as well politick as especially ecclesiasticke. Who 

Commentary  *  Close

The material translated from the Rerum begins here and runs down to Foxe worrying that wealth and prosperity did more harm to the godly than persecution did.

after the decease of his Father comming to the crowne, because he was of young & tender age, he was committed to 16. gouernors. MarginaliaThe Lord Edw. Semer made L. Protectour.Amongest whom especiallye the Lord Edward Semer Duke of Somerset his Vncle was assigned and adioyned to him as Protector and ouer seer of him and of the commō wealth, MarginaliaCommendation of the Lord Protectour.a man not so highly aduanced for his consanguinity, as also for his noble vertues and especially for his fauour to Gods word, worthye of his vocation and calling. Through the endeuor and industry of which man, first that monstrous Hidra with vj. heades, the sixe Articles I meane (which deuoured vp so many men before) was abolished & taken away. By reasō wherof the counsels and procedings of Winchester began to decaye, who storming at the same matter, wrote to the Lord Protectour in the cause therof, as by his letters is to be sene.

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MarginaliaReformation by K. Edward.The holy scriptures he restored to the mother toung, masses he extinguished and abolished. Furthermore, after softer beginnings, by litle& litle, greater thinges folowed in the reformation of the Churches. Then suche as before were in banishmēt for the daūger of the truth, were again receiued to theyr coūtry. To be short, a new face of things began now to appeare, as it were in a stage new players cōming in, the olde being thrust out. For þe most part þe Bishops of churches & diocesses were chaūged. Such as had bene dombe prelates before were compelled to geue place to other then that would preach and take paynes.

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MarginaliaAnno 1547.Besides other also out of forreine coūtries, mē of learning and notable knowledge were sent for and receiued, among whome was Peter Martyr, Martine Bucer, and Paulus Phagius. MarginaliaPeter Martyr., Mart. Bucer. Paulus Phagius. Of whome the first taught at Oxford: the other two professed at Cambridge, and that wt no smal commendation of the whol vniuersity. Of the old bishops some were cōmitted to one ward, some to an other MarginaliaEdm. Boner B. of London committed to the Marshalsey.Boner Bishop of London was committed to the Marshalsey, & eftsoones for his contempt and misdemeanour deposed frō his bishopricke, as in further processe foloweth to be sene, MarginaliaGardiner and Tonstall committed to the tower.Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, with Tonstal Bishop of Duresme was cast into the Tower for his disobedience, where he kept his Christmas three yeares together 

Commentary  *  Close

Stephen Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower from 30 June 1548 until 3 August 1553.

, more worthy of some other place without the Tower, if it hadde pleased god otherwise not to haue mēt a further plague to

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