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Edward North

(1496? - 1564) [ODNB; Bindoff]

1st Baron North of Kirtling (1554 - 64); brother of Joan Wilkinson

Edward North was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

Edward North was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

North was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

North was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

North was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 812

 
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Richard Rich

(1496/7 - 1567) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Solicitor-general (1533 - 36); JP Essex, Hertfordshire (1528 - death); privy councillor (1540 - 58); MP Colchester 1529, MP Essex 1536, 1539, 1542, 1545; speaker of the House of Commons 1536

Lord chancellor (1547 - 51); 1st Baron Rich 1547

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. Rich then sent her to the Tower. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

Richard Rich was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich spoke to the assembled justices of the peace, urging them to work assiduously to keep order in the realm and especially to further the king's religious reforms. 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 821-22.

Lord Rich was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

 
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Sir Edward Wotton

(1489?-1551) [ODNB]

Administrator; JP Kent 1524 onwards; sheriff of Kent 1529, 1535

Treasurer of Calais (1540 - death)

Edward Wotton was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Edward Wotton was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

 
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Sir William Petre

(1505/6 - 1572) [ODNB]

Administrator; BCL Oxford 1526, BCanL 1526, DCL 1533

Privy councillor 1544; principal secretary to Edward VI

William Petre was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Petre was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

Edward Seymour sent William Petre with a message to the lords opposing him, who kept Petre with them awaiting a reply. 1570, p. 1546; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

William Petre was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1474/5? - 1572) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Lord St John 1539; earl of Wiltshire 1550; marquess of Winchester 1551

Sheriff of Hampshire 1511, 1518, 1522; JP Hampshire (1514 - death), Wiltshire (1523 - death), Somerset (1531 - death), all counties (1547 - death); lord great master (1545 - 50); privy councillor 1542; lord president of the council (1545 - 50); lord treasurer (1550 - death)

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

Paulet was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Paulet was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Paulet was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 813

 
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Calais

[Calyce; Calice; Calis; Callis]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 56' 53" N, 1° 51' 23" E

 
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Fleet

Prison on the east bank of the River Fleet, London

1325 [1301]

King Edward 6. A vniforme order of communion set forthe. The communion booke.

Lordships knowledge in the Scriptures, and earnest good will & zeale to the settyng foorth of all things accordyng to the truth thereof, we be well assured, you will of your owne good will, and vpon respect to your duetie, diligently set forth this most godly order here agreed vpon, and commaunded to be vsed by the authoritie of the kyngs maiestie: yet remembryng the crafty pratise of the deuill, who ceaseth not by his members to worke by al wayes and meanes, the hinderance of all godlines. And consideryng furthermore, that a great number of the Curates of the Realme, eyther for lacke of knowledge can not, or for want of good mynd will not be so redy to set forth the same, as we would wish, and as the importance of the matter, and their owne bounden duties requireth, we haue thought good to pray and require your Lordship, and neuerthelesse in the kings maiesties our most dread Lordes name, to commaund you to haue an earnest diligence and carefull respect both in your owne person, and by all your officers and Ministers, also to cause these bookes to be deliuered to euery Person, Vicar, and Curate within your Diocesse, with such diligence as they may haue sufficient tyme well to instruct and aduise themselues, for the distribution of the most holy Communion, accordyng to the order of this booke, before this Easter tyme, and that they may by your good meanes be well directed to vse such good, gentle, and charitable instruction of their simple and vnlearned parishioners, as may be to all their good satisfactions as much as may be, praying you to consider, that this order is set forth, to the intent there should be in all partes of the Realme, and among all men one vniforme manner quietly vsed. The execution whereof, lyke as it shall very much in the diligence of you and others of your vocation: so doe we estsoones require you to haue a diligent respect thereunto, as ye tender the kings Maiesties pleasure, and will aunswer for the contrary. And thus we bidde your Lordship right hartily farewell. From Westminster the 13. of March. 1548.

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Your Lordships louying friends

Tho. Canterbury.
R. Rich.
W. Saint Iohn.
Iohn Russell.
Hen. Arundel.
Anth. Wingfield.
W. Peter.
Edward North.
Ed. Wootton.

By meanes as well of this letter, and the godly order of the learned, as also of the statute and acte of parliament before mentioned, made for the stablishyng thereof all priuate blasphemous Masses 

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Book of Common Prayer

Reformers opposed celebration of the Masses by priests who communicated alone because of their sacrificial nature, the exclusion of laity, and the absence of the communal character of 'true' communion. Davies, Worship and Theology, vol. 1, p. 141.

John King

were now, by iust authoritie fully abolished throughout this realme of England, and the right vse of the Sacrament of the most precious body & bloud of our sauiour Iesus Christ, truely restored in stead of the same. But neuertheles, as at no tyme any thing can be so well done of the godly, but that the wicked will find some meanes subtilly to deface the same: MarginaliaPriuy hinderers of the Gospell.so likewyse at this present through the peruerse obstinacy & dissembling frowardnes of many the inferior priests and ministers of the cathedrall and other churches of this realme, MarginaliaDiuision among the Priestes about the kinges proceedinges.there did aryse a meruailous schisme and varietie of fashions in celebratyng the common seruice and administration of the Sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of þe church. For some zealously allowyng the kyngs proceedings, dyd gladly follow the order thereof, and others, though not do willingly admittyng them, did yet dissemblingly and patchingly vse some part of them: but many carlesly cōtemnyng all: would still exercise their old wonted popery.

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Wherof the kyng and his Counsell hauyng good intelligence, and fearyng the great inconueniences & daungers that might happen through this diuision, and beyng therwithall loth at the first to vse any great seuerity towards hys subiects, but rather desirous by some quiet and godly order, to bring them to some conformitie, did by theyr prudent aduises againe, appoynt the Archbishop of Caunterbury, with certaine of the best learned and discrete bishops and other learned men, diligently to consider and ponder the premisses: and thereupon hauyng as well an eye and respect vnto the most sincere and pure Christian religion taught by the holy scriptures, as also to the vsages of the primatiue church, to draw and make MarginaliaOne vniforme order of commō prayer.one conuenient and meete order, rite, and fashion of common prayer, & administration of the Sacraments, to be had and vsed within this his realme of England, and the dominions of þe same. Who after most godly and learned conferences, thorough the ayd of the holy Ghost, with one vniforme agreement, did cōclude, set forth, and deliuer vnto the kings highnes, a booke in English intituled: A booke of the common prayer and administration of the Sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the Church, after the vse of the Church of England. 

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During the five months following its issuance in March 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was published in ten editions by the King's Printer, Richard Grafton, and his associate, Edward Whitchurch. John Oswen published two more in Shrewsbury (STC 16267-76). In retaining the Mass and much of the use of Sarum (the medieval rite employed at Salisbury), this prayer book was a compromise document overseen by Thomas Cranmer to allay opposition by conservatives. It did take the radical step of completing the introducing a new church service wholly in the English language.

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The whith 
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I.e., 'which'.

his highnes receiuing with great comfort and quietnesse of mynd, did forthwith exhibite vnto the Lords and Commons of the parliament then assembled at West-minster, about the 4. of Nouember, in the second yeare of his raigne, and in the yeare of our Lord, 1548. Marginalia A Parliament assēbled the 2. yeare of K. Edward. Anno 1548. and continuyng vnto the 14. day of March, then next ensuyng.

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Whereupon the Lords spiritual and temporal, and the Commons of the sayd Parliament assembled, well, and throughly consideryng as well the most godly trauayle of the kings highnes, of the Lord Protector, and other of his maiesties Counsaile, in gatheryng together the said Archbishop, bishops, and other learned men, as the godly praiers, orders, rites, and ceremonies in the sayd booke mentioned, with the consideratiō of altering those things which were altered, and retainyng those thyngs which were retayned in the same booke: as also the honour of God, and great quietnes, which by the grace of God should ensue vpon that one and vniforme rite, and order in such common prayer, rites, and externe ceremonies to be vsed throughout England, Wales, Calice, and the marches of the same, dyd first geue vnto hys highnesse most lowly and hearty thankes for the same 

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The Act of Uniformity, 1548 (2 Edw. VI, c. 1; Statutes, 4.i.37-39).

, and then most humbly prayed hym that it myght be ordeyned and enacte, MarginaliaStatut. an. 2. 3. Reg. Edou. cap. 1 
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Cattley/Pratt, V, 721, fn 1: 'For these Acts, see "Actes made in the session of this present parliament, holden the 4th Nov. in the second year of Edward VI. cap. 1 fol. 2. Lond. fol. 1553."'

.
by hys Maiesty wt the assent of the sayd Lords and Commons in that parliament assembled, and by the authoritie of the same, MarginaliaPetition of the Lordes & Commōs in the Parliament to the king.that not only all and singular person and persons that had thertofore offended concernyng the premisses (others then such as were then remainyng in Ward in the Tower of London, or in the Fleete) myght be pardoned thereof 
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Stephen Gardiner was among those who were denied pardon.

, but also that all and singular ministers in any Cathedrall or parish Churches or other places within the Realme of Englād, Wales, Calice, and the Marches of the same, or other the kings dominions, should from and after the feast of Pentecost next commyng, be bounden to say and vse the Mattins, Euensong, celebration of the Lords supper, and administration of ech of the Sacraments, and all other common and open prayer, in such order & forme as was mentioned in the sayd booke, and none other or otherwise 
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The Act of Uniformity ordered the new service into use on Pentecost or Whitsunday (9 June 1549) in a symbolic recreation of the advent of the Christian church at the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles (Acts 2:1-4). King, English Reformation Literature, p. 151.

. And albeit that they were so godly and good, that they gaue occasion vnto euery honest and conformable man most willyngly to embrace them, yet least any obstinate persons who willingly would disturbe so godly an order and quiete in this realme, should not go vnpunished, they further requested, that it might be ordeined and enacted by the authoritie aforesayd, that if any maner of Person, Vicar, or other what so euer minister that ought or should say or sing common prayer, mencioned in the sayd booke, or minister the Sacraments, should after the sayd feast of Pentecost then next commyng, refuse to vse the sayd common praier, or to minister the Sacraments in such cathedrall or parish churches, or other places as he shoulde vse or minister the same, in such order & fourme as they were mentioned, & set foorth in the sayd booke: or should vse wilfully & obstinately standyng in the same, any other rite, ceremonie, order, fourme, or maner of masse, openly, or priuily, or Mattinnes, Euensong, administration of the Sacraments, or other open prayer then was mentioned and set foorth in the sayd booke: or should preache, declare, or speake any thyng in the derogation or deprauyng of the sayde booke, or any thyng therein conteyned, or of any parte thereof, and should be thereof lawfully conuicted accordyng to the lawes of this Realme by verdite of twelue men, or by his owne confession, or by the notorious euidence of the fact, should loose and forfayte vnto the Kynges hyghnesse hys heyres & successours, for hys first offence one whole yeres profite of such one of his benefices or spirituall promotiōs as it should please the kings highnes to assigne & appoint and also for the same offence should suffer imprisonmēt by the space of sixe monthes, without bayle or mainprise. MarginaliaAnno 1549. Penaltye.But if any such person, after his first conuiction, should eftsones offend agayne, and be thereof in forme aforesayd lawfully cōuicted, then he should for his second offence suffer imprisonment by þe space of one whol yeare, & should also be depriued Ipso facto, of all his spirituall promotions for euer, so that it should be lawfull for the patrons & Doners therof to geue the same agayne vnto any other learned man, in like maner as if þe sayd partie so offending were dead. And if any the sayd person or persons shoulde agayne the thyrd tyme offend, and be thereof in forme aforesayd lawfully cōuicted, then he shuld for the same 3. offence suffer imprisonment during his life. If any such person or persons aforesaid, so offending, had not any benefice or spiritual promotion, þt then he shoulde for his first offence suffer imprisonment by the space of vi. monthes without bayle or maynprise, and for his second offence, imprisonment during hys life. Which request or rather actuall agreement of þe lordes and commons of the Parliament beyng once vnderstoode of the kyng, was also soone ratified and confirmed by hys regall consent and authoritie, and therupon the sayd booke of common prayer was presently imprinted, and commāded to be exercised throughout the whole Realme and do-

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