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Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

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John Hooper

(1495x1500 - 1555) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1519; monk at Cleeve, Somerset (after 1519 - 37); became reformer; in exile 1544 - 49; preacher and lecturer in London

Bishop of Gloucester (1551 - 52) and Worcester (1552 - 54); Protestant martyr

John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Edmund Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

John Hooper and William Latymer appeared at Bonner's third appearance before the king's commissioners in order to purge themselves of Bonner's slanders against them. 1563, p. 706; 1570, p. 1509; 1576, p. 1279; 1583, p. 1318.

Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor and aldermen of the city of London, complaining of the preaching of John Hooper. 1563, p. 718; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, p. 1327.

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William Latymer (Latimer)

(1498/9 - 1583) [ODNB]

MA Cambridge 1536; chaplain to Anne Boleyn; master of the college of St Laurence Pountney (1538 - 47); dean of Peterborough 1559, archdeacon of Westminster; biographer of Anne Boleyn

John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Edmund Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

John Hooper and William Latymer appeared at Bonner's third appearance before the king's commissioners in order to purge themselves of Bonner's slanders against them. 1563, p. 706; 1570, p. 1509; 1576, p. 1279; 1583, p. 1318.

At his fourth appearance before the commissioners, Bonner accused William Latymer of having led the crowd at the previous session. He later accused him of treason. 1563, pp. 710, 712; 1570, pp. 1511, 1512; 1576, pp. 1281, 1282; 1583, pp. 1322, 1323.

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Paul's Cross

Open-air pulpit by the south wall of St Paul's Cathedral, London

1335 [1311]

King Edward 6. The Disobedience of Boner to the King. Latimer and Hooper against Boner.

wer, resist the ordinaunces of God, and he that dieth therfore in rebellion, by the woorde of God is vtterly damned, and so looseth bothe bodye and soule. And therefore those Rebelles in Deuonshire and Cornewall, in Northfolke, or els where, who taking vpon them to assemble a power & force against their king and Prince, against þe lawes and statutes of the Realme, and goe about to subuerte the state and order of the commō wealth, not onely do deserue therfore death, as traytors & rebels, but do accumulate to them selues eternal damnation, euen to be in the burning fire of hell, with Lucifer the father and first authour of pride, disobedience, and rebellion, what pretence so euer they haue, and what Masses or holye water so euer they pretende; or goe about to make among themselues, as Chore, Dathan, and Abiron, for rebellion against Moses, were swalowed downe aliue into hell, although they pretended to sacrifice vnto God.

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MarginaliaWhat thinges be necessary to be ioyned in all Gods seruice.2 Likewise in the order of the Churche and externe rites and ceremonies of diuine seruice, for so muche as God requireth humility of heart, innocencie of liuing, knowledge of him, charity and loue to our neighbours, and obedience to hys woorde, and to his Ministers and superioure powers, these we must bring to all our prayers, to all our seruice, & this is the sacrifice that Christe requireth, and these be those that make all thynges pleasaunt vnto God. MarginaliaExterne rites & ceremonyes how farre they serue.The externe rites and ceremonies be but exercises of our religion, & appointable by superior powers, in chosing wherof we must obey the magistrates: the whyche thinges also we do see euer hath bene and shalbe (as the time and place is) diuers, and yet al hath pleased God so long as these before spoken inwarde things be there. If any man shall vse the olde rites, and thereby disobey the superior power, the deuotion of his ceremonies is made nought by his disobedience: MarginaliaCeremonyes made naught by disobedience. so that, which els (so longe as þe lawe did so stand) myghte be good, by pride and disobedience nowe is made noughte: as Saules sacrifice, Chore, Dathan, and Abiron, and Aarons 2. children were. But who that ioyneth to deuotion obedience, hee winneth the garland. For else it is a zeale, sed non secundum scientiam, a wil, desire, zeale, and deuotion, but not after wisedome, MarginaliaFoolish deuotion.that is a foolishe deuotion which can require no thankes or praise. And yet agayne, where ye obey, yee must haue deuotion, for God requireth the heart more then the outward doings, MarginaliaThe hart maketh true deuotion. and therfore who that taketh the Communion or sayth or heareth the seruice appoynted by the kings maiestie, must bring deuotion and inward prayer with hym, or els his praiers are but vaine, lacking that whyche God requireth, that is, the heart and minde to pray to him.

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3 Further, yee shal for example on sonday come seuenth night after the aforesayd date, celebrate the Communion at Paules Church.

4 Ye shal also setfoorth in your sermon, that our authoritie of royal power, is (as of truth it is) of no lesse authoritie and force in this our yōg age, then is, or was of any of our predecessors, though the same were much elder, as may appeare by example of Iosias, and other yong kings in scripture: and therfore all our subiectes to be no lesse bound to the obedience of our preceptes, lawes, and statutes, then if we were of 30. or 40. yeares of age.

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MarginaliaBoners preaching much looked for of the people.The deliuery of these Iniunctions & articles vnto the Byshop (with the time of hys appoynted preaching) was soone after knowen abroad amongst the citizens and other the Cōmons within the citie of London, so that euery man expecteth þe time therof, wishing to heare the same. Whych being once come, the B. according to the tenour of the Iniunctiōs, publikely preached at the Crosse of Paules, the 1. day of September. Howbeit as hipocrisie neuer lurketh so secretely in the hearts of the wicked, but that at one time or other, God in hys moste righteous iudgemente maketh it open vnto the world: so at this present was the long colored peruerse obstinacie, and infestred hatred of this double faced dissembler, against the kings godly procedings, most plainely manifested by hys disobedient demeanor in thys his sermon.

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MarginaliaThe disobedient stubbernes of Boner in his Sermon at Paules Crosse.For where as he was only commanded to entreat vpon such speciall poynts as were mentioned in his articles: he yet, both besides the counsailes commaundement, to the withdrawing of the mindes of the common people, in as much as in him lay, from the right and true vnderstāding of the holy Sacrament ministred in the holy Communion then set foorth by the authoritye of the kinges maiestie, (according to the true sence of the holy scripture) did spēd most part of his sermon about the grosse, carnall, and papisticall presence of Christes body and bloud in the sacrament of the aultar, and also contrary therunto, did not onely slenderly touch the rest of his articles, but of a rebellious and wilfulcarelesnes, did vtterly leaue oute vnspoken the whole laste article, concerning the as effectuall and as lawful authority of the kings highnes during his yong age, as if he were 30. or 40. yeares old: notwithstanding the same (because it was the traiterous opinion of the popishe rebels) was by special commaundement chiefly appoynted hym to entreat vppon.

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MarginaliaW. Latimer and Iohn Hooper against Boner.This contemptuous & disobedient dealing, as it greatly offended most of the kings faithfull and louing subiects there present, so did it muche mislike the mindes, and was farre from the good expectation, as well of that faithful and godly preacher master Iohn Hooper, afterwards bishop of Worcester & Glocester, and lastly a moste constant martyr for the Gospell of Christe: as also of M. William Latimer, Bacheler of Diuinitie, and therefore they well weying the fulnes of the fact, and their bounden alegeances vnto their Prince, did therupon exhibite vnto the kings highnes vnder both their names, a bill of complaint or denunciation against the sayd bishop in forme folowing.

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The denuntiation of Iohn Hooper and William Latimer against Boner, to the kings maiestie, for leauing vndone the poyntes afore mentioned, which he was charged to preache vppon.

MarginaliaThe denuntiation of W. Latimer and Iohn Hooper denouncers agaynst Boner.IN most humble wise sheweth vnto your Maiestie, William Latimer and Iohn Hooper, that where of late, as we be certainely infourmed frō your maiestie, by the hande of the right highe and noble Prince Edwarde Duke of Somerset, Gouernour of your Royal person, and Protectour of al your highnes realmes, dominions and subiects, and the rest of your priuie Counsaile, there was certaine Iniunctions geuen to the Byshop of London that nowe is, with Articles to be insinuated and preached vnto youre subiectes at a certaine daye limitted, the whyche Iniunctions and articles did onely tende to the honour of GOD, and the better instructions of your hignes people, to obedience and hatred of rebellion and mutinie, wherewith of late this your Maiesties Realmes hath bene marueilously vexed, to the daunger of your highnes person, and the state of the whole Realme, and therefore a thinge at thys time most necessary to be taught vnto þe people, that they myght knowe their duetie vnto your maiestie, and vnto almighty God, and especially to acknowledge your Maiestie in these yeares & age to be a perfect, high, and soueraigne Lord and king, and supreme head, whose lawes, proclamations, and commaundementes we are bounde to obey, as wel as any princes subiects are bounde to obey the lawes, proclamations, and commaundementes of their naturall and soueraigne Lord, notwithstanding that nature hath not yet giuen vnto your person suche age as we trust he shall, nor so many yeares, which we wish to be so many as any Prince euer hadde, MarginaliaYeares and age doe not make a king but the right of succession.the whych yeares doe not make you Kynge or Prince, but the righte of your birthe, and lawfull succession what soeuer it be, so that we all must as well acknowledge your maiestie to be our Kinge and Prince, at these yeares, as if you were of the age of 30. or 40. yeares, and your lawes and statutes no lesse to befeared & obeyed, thē if your highnes were 50. or 100. yeres olde, (the whyche thing not onely is most certainely true, but also at this time most necessarily to be taught, especially when diuers rebelles haue openly declared, that they woulde not obey your highnesse lawes, nor acknowledge the Statutes made by your Maiestie to be auailable til ye come to the age of 20. yeres) and this not only being so, but the same thing being commanded by your sayd Maiestie amongst other Iniunctions & Articles geuen in wryting to the sayde Edmund Boner, MarginaliaAnno 1549, to be preached in his last sermon, as by the same Iniunctions maye appeare, of the whiche the true copie we haue when neede is to be shewed: yet al this notwithstanding, the said Boner, of what zeale or minde we cannot tell, whether fauoring the opinion of the saide rebels, or contemning your highnesse commaundement declared to him, hath not only left out to declare the sayd Article MarginaliaBoner left out of his Sermon the article of the kinges authoritye. which we most & chiefly expected and looked for, but also in all the rest of his Sermons did not so fully and apertly declare the sayd Iniunctions and Articles as to our iudgement did appeare, thay ought to haue bene declared, and was of no lyght grounde loked for, intreating of other farre distant and diuers from the Articles vppon the which he was commaunded to entreat, and such as most should moue and stirre vp the people to disorder and dissension, willingly leauing oute those things which should haue made quiet & obedience. Wherefore not mooued of any malice, grudge, enuie, or euil will to the person of the bishop, but constreined by the loue & zeale which we beare towards your highnes, & of our duty and allegeance to your maiesty, whose honour and sauety with

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