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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
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Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Edward VI

(1537 - 1553) [ODNB]

King of England and Ireland (1547 - 53); Henry VIII's only son

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Edward VI agreed with Sir John Cheke that clemency should be shown towards heretics and was opposed to the burning of Joan Bocher. Cranmer had great difficulty in getting Edward to sign her death warrant. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Edward VI to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Jerome Cardan gave written testimony of Edward VI's knowledge of the liberal sciences. 1563, p. 885; 1570, p. 1485; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Edward issued a set of injunctions to further the reformation of the church in the realm. He called a parliament to repeal earlier statutes relating to religion, including the Six Articles. 1563, pp. 685-91; 1570, pp. 1486-90; 1576, pp. 1260-63; 1583, pp. 1297-1301.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

Edward replied to the articles raised by the rebels of Devonshire. 1570, pp. 1497-99; 1576, pp. 1268-70; 1583, pp. 1305-07.

The king and privy council sent out letters to bishops and clergy in late 1549 and 1550, directing that books of Latin service be withdrawn, that altars be removed and communion tables installed. 1563, pp. 726-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-90; 1583, pp. 1330-31.

Edward wrote letters to his sister, Lady Mary, urging her to obey the new laws concerning religion, and she replied. 1576, pp. 1290-96; 1583, pp. 1333-39.

He sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

King Edward said a private prayer on his deathbed which was overheard by his physician, George Owen. In his will, Edward excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1563, p. 900; 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Sir Edward Waldegrave

(1516/17 - 1561) [ODNB]

Courtier, administrator; member of Princess Mary's household 1549; within the inner circle of Mary's servants (1551 - 53); privy councillor (1553 - 58); JP Essex (1554 - 58/9); JP Suffolk 1554

Chancellor 1558; MP Wiltshire 1553; MP Somerset 1554; MP Essex 1558

The king sent his own councillors to his sister, Lady Mary, after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
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Fleet

Prison on the east bank of the River Fleet, London

1363 [1339]

King Eward 6. The kinges Letter to the Lady Mary. The story of Steuen Gardiner.

MarginaliaAnno 1550.euen with the consent and aduise of the whole state of his priuy Counsayle, and diuers others of the nobility of his Realme, whose names ye may repeate, if you thinke conuenient, his Maiestie did resolutely determine it iust, necessary, and expedient, that her grace should not in any wise vse or maintaine the priuate Masse, or any other manner of seruice, then suche as by the lawe of the Realme is authorised and allowed: and to participate this his maiesties determination to her grace, it was thought in respect of a fauorable proceeding with her selfe, to haue the same, not only to be manifested by her owne officers and seruaunts, being most esteemed with her, but also to be executed by them in her house, as well for the more quiet proceeding in the very matter, as for the lesse molesting of her grace with any message by straungers, in that time of her solitarines, wherein her grace then was by the reason of the late sicknesse. For which purpose her three seruants, Rochester, Eglefield, and Walgraue were sent in message in thys manner. First, to deliuer his Maiesties letter to her, next to discharge the complaintes of saying Masse, and prohibiting all the houshold from hearing any. Wherein the Kings Maiestie perceiueth vpon their owne report, being returned to the Court, how negligently, and in deede how falsly they haue execured theyr commaundement and charge contrary to the duety of good subiectes, and to the manifest contempt of his maiesty. Insomuch as manifestly they haue before his Maiesties Counsayle refused to do that which pertayneth to euery true faithfull subiecte, to the offence so farre of his maiesty, and derogation of his authority, that in no wise the punishment of them could be forborne, and yet in the maner of the punishment of them, his Maiestie and his Counsayle hath such consideration, and respect of her person being his sister, that without doubt his Maiestie could not with honour haue had the like consideration or fauour in the punishmente of the dearest Counsailour he hath, if any of them had so offended, and therefore his Maiesty hath sent you three not only to declare to her grace the causes of their sending thither of late his officers in message, but also the causes of their absence now presentlye. And further, in the default of the sayde officers to take order, as well with hir Chaplaynes, as with the whole housholde, that hys Maiesties lawes may be there obserued. And in the communication with her, you shall take occasion to answere in his Maiesties name certayne pointes of her letter, sent now lately to his Maiestie. The copy of which letter is now also sent to you to peruse, for your better instruction how to proceede in. First, her allegation of the promise made to the Emperour, must be so aunswered, as the trueth of the matter serueth, whereof euery of you haue heard sufficient testimony diuers times in the counsaile for her offering of her body at the Kings will, rather then to chaunge her conscience. It greeueth his Maiestie much, that her conscience is so setled in errour, and yet no such thing is ment of his Maiestie, nor of any one of his counsayle once to hurt, or will euill to her body, but euen from the bottome of their hart wisheth to her mentem sanam in corpore sano. And therefore yee shall do very well to perswade her grace that this proceeding commeth onely of the conscience the King hath to auoyde the offence of God, and of necessary counsaile and wisedome to see his lawes in so weighty causes executed. Item, because it is thought that Rochester had the care and consideration of her graces prouision of houshold, and by his absence the same might be either disordered or disfurnished: his Maiestie hath sent a trusty skilfull man of hys owne houshold, to serue her grace for the time. Who also is sufficiently instructed of Rochester, of the state of her things of houshold. And if there shall be any thing lacking in the same, his Maiesties pleasure is, that his seruant shall aduertise his owne chiefe officers of houshold, to the intent if the same may be supplyed of any store heere, or otherwhere helped conueniently, her grace shall not lacke.

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Item, hauing thus proceeded with her grace, as for the declarations of the causes of your commoning, ye shal thē cause to be called afore you the Chaplaynes, and all the rest of the housholde there presente, and in the Kings Maiesties name most straightly forbid the Chaplaynes eyther to say or vse any Masse or kinde of seruice, other then by the lawe is authorised: and likewise yee shall forbid all the rest of the company to be present at any suche prohibited seruice, vpon paine to be most straightly punished, as worthely falling into the daunger of the Kings indignation, and a like charge to them all, that if any such offence shall be openly or secretly committed., they shall aduertise some of his Maiesties Counsayle. In the which clause ye shall vse the reasons of theyr naturall duty and allegeance that they owe as subiectes to theyr soueraigne Lord, which derogateth all other earthly dueties.

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Item, if you shall finde eyther any of the priestes, or any other person disobedient to this order, ye shall commit them forthwith to prison as ye shall thinke conuenient.

Item, for as much as yee were priuy to the determination at Richmond, and there vnderstoode how necessary it was to haue reformation heerein: his Maiesty, vpon the great confidence he hath in your wisedome and vprightnes, remitteth to your discretions the manner of the proceeding heerein, if any thing shall chaunce to arise there that in your opinions might otherwisethen according to these instructions conduce you to the execution of your charge, which in one summe is to auoyde the vse of the priuate Masse, and other vnlawfull seruice, in the house of the sayd Lady Mary.

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Item, ye shall deuise by some meanes as you may, to haue vnderstanding after your departure how the order you geue is obserued, and as you shall iudge fit, to certifie hither.

E. S. W. W. I. W. I. B. W. N.
W. H. F. H. I. G. T. D. W. C.

The story of Steuen Gardiner Bish. of Winchester, briefly collected, 
Commentary  *  Close
Stephen Gardiner's letters

Stephen Gardiner's troubles with the Council sprang from the same root as Bonner's - an unwillingness to accept the changes of direction in religion which Cranmer was trying to introduce. Edward Vaughn was Captain of Portsmouth, and in the spring of 1547 it came to the bishop's attention that there had been an outbreak of iconoclasm in the town, and that this 'containeth an enterprise to subvert religion'. Gardiner subsequently preached in the town. There are accounts of this episode in Jordan, Edward VI: the Young King (London, 1968), p.155; James Muller, Stephen Gardiner and the Tudor Reaction (London, 1926), p.150; and Glyn Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic (Oxfrod, 1990), pp.255-6. In 1547 Gardiner was regarded as the principal champion of conservative values, and was also incarcerated in the Fleet for his opposition to the Injunctions. His delaying and evasive tactics during the autumn of 1547 were masterly, but ineffective. Having been forced into a show of conformity, he was released on the 20th February 1548, and retuned to his diocese (Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic, pp.255-69). This whole exchange was drastically reduced after the 1563 edition

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

the residue whereof concerning hys actes and doings, may further appeare in the booke of Actes and Monuments in the first edition. page. 728.

MarginaliaThe story of Steuē Gardiner.ALthough the first imprisonment of Steuen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, in order of time was before the depriuation of Byshop Boner: yet for so much as hee was not deposed from his Bishopricke till the nexte or seconde yeare after, which was 1551. I haue therefore driuen off the history of the sayde Byshop of Winchester to this present place: intending neuertheles heere not to extende and prosecute the explication of that busie matter with all circumstances and particularities thereof, so amply at full as I might, partly for that being done in my first volume of Actes and Monuments, may heere suffice and content the reader being disposed there to search and further to reade touching the same, partly also considering how this present volume is growne already very large and great, I thought not to pester the same with any more superfluitie, then needes must, and therefore leauing out his idle letters, his long processe of Articles and examinations, hys tedious talke with the multitude of depositions brought in against him, and other his actes and interlocutories superfluous, I minde heere (the Lord willing) briefly and summarily to excerpe only the principall effectes, as to the story may seeme most appertinent, referring the residue to be searched (if any reader so list to do) to the booke of Monuments aforesayd, MarginaliaFor the full tractation of Steuen Gardiners story, read in the booke of Actes and Monuments of the first edition, pag. 728.beginning in the page 728.

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Briefly therefore, as touching the actes, dooings, deseruings and misdemeanours of this stoute Prelate, and Bishop of Winchester: first we will set before the reader the copy of a certayne writte or euidence against the sayd Byshop, wherein as in a briefe summe generally is described the whole order and maner of his misordred demeanour, copied out of the publike records in maner as followeth.

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¶ The copy of a writte or euidence touching the order and maner of the misdemeanour of Winchester, with declaration of the faultes where with he was iustly charged.

MarginaliaThe writte or euidence geuen out against Steuen Gardiner B. of Winchester.WHere as the Kings Maiestie by the aduise of the Lord Protector, and the rest of his highnes priuie Counsell, thinking requisite for sundry vrgent considerations to haue a generall visitation throughout the whole Realme, did about tenne monethes past addresse foorth Commissions, and by the aduise of sondry Byshopps and other the best learned men of the Realme, appointed certayne orders of Iniunctions to be generally obserued, which being such as in some part touched the reformation of many abuses, and in other parts concerned the good gouernaunce & quiet of the Realme, were (as reason would) of all men of all sorts obediently receiued, and reuerently obserued and executed, sauing only of the Bishop of Winchester, who as well by conference with other, as by open protestation and letters also, shewed such a wilfull disobedience therein, as if it had not bene quickly espied, myght haue bred much vnquietnes and trouble, vpon the knowledge whereof he being sent for, and his lewd proceedings layd to his charge, MarginaliaWynchester misusing himselfe before the Councell.he in the presence of the whole Councell so vsed himselfe (as well in denying to receiue the sayd orders and Iniunctions as otherwise) as he was thought worthy most sharpe punishmente, and yet considering the place he had bene in, MarginaliaWinchester cōmitted to the Fleete.he was only sequestred to the Fleete, where, after he had remained a certaine time, as muche at his ease as if he had bene at his owne house, vpon hys promise of conformitie he was both set at libertie againe, MarginaliaWynchester deliuered out of the Fleete & set at libertye. and also licenced to repaire and remaine in his dioces at hys pleasure, where when he was, forgetting his duety, MarginaliaWynchester forgetteth himselfe againe in his Dioces. and what promise he had made, he began forthwith to set forth such matters as bred againe more strife, variance, and contention in that one small Citie and Shire, then was almost in the whole Realme after: besides that, the Lorde Protectors grace and the Counsayle were enformed, that to withstande such as he thought to haue bene sente from their grace and Lordships into those parties, he had caused

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