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Edward Underhill

(1512 - in or after 1576) [ODNB]

Courtier; religious radical; gentleman pensioner to Henry VIII 1539, continued at least until 1566; active in Edward VI's court; continued his evangelical activities under Mary while serving in her court

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Edward VI

(1537 - 1553) [ODNB]

King of England and Ireland (1547 - 53); Henry VIII's only son

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Edward VI agreed with Sir John Cheke that clemency should be shown towards heretics and was opposed to the burning of Joan Bocher. Cranmer had great difficulty in getting Edward to sign her death warrant. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Edward VI to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Jerome Cardan gave written testimony of Edward VI's knowledge of the liberal sciences. 1563, p. 885; 1570, p. 1485; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Edward issued a set of injunctions to further the reformation of the church in the realm. He called a parliament to repeal earlier statutes relating to religion, including the Six Articles. 1563, pp. 685-91; 1570, pp. 1486-90; 1576, pp. 1260-63; 1583, pp. 1297-1301.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

Edward replied to the articles raised by the rebels of Devonshire. 1570, pp. 1497-99; 1576, pp. 1268-70; 1583, pp. 1305-07.

The king and privy council sent out letters to bishops and clergy in late 1549 and 1550, directing that books of Latin service be withdrawn, that altars be removed and communion tables installed. 1563, pp. 726-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-90; 1583, pp. 1330-31.

Edward wrote letters to his sister, Lady Mary, urging her to obey the new laws concerning religion, and she replied. 1576, pp. 1290-96; 1583, pp. 1333-39.

He sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

King Edward said a private prayer on his deathbed which was overheard by his physician, George Owen. In his will, Edward excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1563, p. 900; 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

 
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George Owen

(c. 1499 - 1558) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1521; BM 1525; DM 1528; physician to Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary

King Edward said a private prayer on his deathbed which was overheard by his physician, George Owen. Owen was present at his death. 1563, p. 900; 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Henry Harston

Man-at-arms at the court of Henry VIII

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. Among others who overheard was Henry Harston. 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Lady Mary (Mary Tudor)

(1516 - 1558) [ODNB]

Mary Tudor, later Mary I, queen of England and Ireland (1553 - 58)

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

A marriage was proposed between the duke of Orleans and Princess Mary. The French raised questions of the validity of the marriage of her parents, and the proposed marriage did not take place. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Thomas Wolsey set up a household for Princess Mary. 1563, p. 435; 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. Mary wrote to her father and to the lords he sent to her, complaining of the denial of her title and legitimacy. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

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When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Mary exchanged letters with the Lord Protector and privy council, relating to her inability to adhere to the king's new laws concerning religion. The king also sent a letter to his sister, urging her to comply with the laws, to which she replied. 1576, pp. 1289-97; 1583, pp. 1332-39.

The king sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

In his will, Edward VI excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, pp. 1395.

 
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Mr Stafforton

Man-at-arms at the court of Henry VIII

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. Among others who overheard was Stafforton. 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Robert Hall

Man-at-arms at the court of Henry VIII

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. Among others who overheard was Robert Hall. 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Sir Henry Gates

(ante 1523 - 1589) [ODNB]

of London, Havering-atte-Bower, Essex; MP New Shoreham 1545; MP Bridport 1547; MP Bramber 1559; MP Scarborough 1563, 1572; MP Yorkshire 1571, 1586; gentleman pensioner 1546; JP Suffolk 1547, JP Yorks (East and North Ridings)

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. Among others who overheard was Sir Henry Gates. 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Greenwich [Grenwich]
NGR: TQ 388 775

Market Town and parish in the hundred of Blackheath, Lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, County of Kent. 6 miles east-south-east of London. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Rochester. A royal residence was established here by Edward I, and was in use throughout the Tudor period. The palace having become decayed was demolished by Charles II, who intended to replace it.

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Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

The reason for the use of this work of reference is that it presents the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take this reference as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1419 [1397]

King Edw. 6. King Edwardes letter to the Archb. The death of K Edward with his prayer at the same.
MarginaliaAnno 1552.The ende and deceasse of king Edward the sixt.

Marginalia

The decease of king Edward. 6.

Anno 1553.

Thus hauing discoursed thinges done and past, vnder the raigne of king Edwarde, suche as seemed not vnfruitfull to be knowen, we will now draw to the ende and death of this blessed king, our young Iosias. Who about a yeare and a halfe after the death of the Duke of Somerset hys Vncle, in the yeare of our Lorde 1553. entring into the 17. yeare of his age, and the 7. yeare of his raigne, in the month of Iune, was takē from vs, for our sinnes no doubt. Whome if it had so pleased the good wil of the Lord to haue spared with longer life, not vnlike it was by all cōiectures probably to be esteemed by those his towarde and blessed beginnings, but proceeding so as he began he would haue reformed suche a Common wealth heere in the Realme of England, as by good cause it might haue bene sayd of hym, þt was sayd in þe olde time of the noble Emperour Augustus in reforming and aduauncing the Empire of Rome: MarginaliaEx Suetonio.Quam quum ille lateritiam (vt aiebat) accepit, marmoream reliquit. 
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Death of Edward VI

Suetonius, De vita Caesarum, 2.28.

Which Empire he receiued (he sayd) of bricke, but he left it of fine Marble. But the condition of this Realme, and the customable behauiour of English people (whose propertie is commonly to abuse the lighte of the Gospell when it is offered) deserued no suche benefite of so blessed a reformation, but rather a contrarye plague of deformation, suche as hapned after his raigne, as ye shall heare (the Lord graunting) in the nexte Queenes dayes that followed.

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Thus then this godly and vertuous Impe 

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I.e., 'scion' or royal heir.

, in the time and moneth aboue mentioned was cut from vs, of whose worthy life and vertues haue bene partly afore declared. Neuerthelesse, to haue some monument of him remaining to testifie of the good nature and gentle disposition of that Prince, we will adde heere for a remembraunce, thys little Epistle of his own hand wryting to the Archb. of Canterbury, his Godfather as followeth.

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An Epistle of yong Prince Edward to the Archb. of Canterbury his Godfather.

MarginaliaPrince Edward when he wrote this epistle seemed to be very younge not aboue seauen yeares of age, lying then at Antile.IMpertio te plurima salute colendissime Præsul, & charissime Susceptor Quia abes longè a me, vellem libenter audire te esse incolumem. Precor autem vt viuas diu, & promoueas verbum Dei. Vale. Antilæ decimo octauo Iunij.

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Tuus in Christo filius
Edwardus Princeps.
 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 350, fn 2: 'Prince Edward, when he wrote this epistle, seemed to be very young, not above seven years of age, lying then at Ampthill'.

An other Epistle of the young Prince Edward, to the Archb. his Godfather.

MarginaliaAn other Epistle of Prince Edward to his godfather.ETsi puer sum colendissime Susceptor, non tamen immemor sum vel officij erga te mei, vel humanitatis tuæ quam indies mihi exhibere studes. Nō exciderūt mihi humanissimæ tuæ litteræ pridie diui Petri ad me datæ. Quibus ante hac respondere nolui, non quòd illas neglexerim, aut non minerim, sed vt illarum diuturna meditatione fruerer, fideliue memoria reponerem, atque demum bene ruminatis pro mea virili responderem. Proinde affectum erga me tuum verè paternum, quem in illis expressisti, amplector & veneror, optoque vt multos viuas annos, tuo pio ac salubri consilio pergas esse mihi venerandus pater. Nam pietatem ante omnia mihi amplectendam & exosculandam esse duco, quoniam diuus Paulus dicit: Marginalia1. Tit. 4 

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I.e., 1 Tim. 4.

. Pietas ad omnia vtilis est 
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1 Tim. 4:8.

. Optimè valeat tua paternitas in plurimos annos. Hartefordiœ tertio decimo Ianuarij.

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Tui studiosissimus EDOVAR-
DVS Princeps.

The aunswere of the Archbishop to Prince Edwardes Epistle.

MarginaliaAlludit ad verba Terentijin Comœdia. MarginaliaThe aunswere of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Cant. to the epistle of Prince Edward.NOn magis poterit ipsa me seruare salus (fili in Christo charissime) quam salus tua 

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An allusion to Terence's Adelphi 4.7, 44.

. Mea vita non dicenda est vita abs tua & salute & valitudine. Quapropter cum te incolumem ac saluum intelligo, vitam etiam mihi integram esse & incolumem sentio. Neque certe absentia mea tam est iniucunda tibi quàm sunt litteræ tuæ periucundæ mihi. Quæ arguunt tibi iuxta adesse & ingenium dignum tanto principe, & præceptorem dignum tanto ingenio. Ex quibus tuis litteris te sic litteras video colere, vt interim doctrinæ cœlestis tua nequaquam minima sit cura: quæ cuicunque sit curæ, non potest illum quæuis cura frangere. Perge igitur qua via incœpisti Princeps illustrissime, & Spartam quam nactus es hanc orna, vt quam ego per literas video in te virtutis lucem, eadem olim illuminet vniuersam tuam Angliam. Nō scribam prolixius, tum quidem vt me intelligas breuitate nonnihil affici, tum etiam quod credam te ætate quidem adhuc paruulum paruo gandere, & similem simili: tum etiam præterea ne impolita mea oratio in causa sit, quò generosa illa tua indoles barbariæ vitium contrahat.

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The report of the Princes Scholemaister, in commendation of his towardnes to the Archb.

MarginaliaThis letter seemeth to be written by D. Coxe 

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Richard Cox must have discharged a supervisory role in the education of the prince as Edward grew older, because this eminent humanistic scholar received appointment first as dean of Christ Church (1546) and then as chancellor of the University of Oxford (1548). Loach, Edward VI, pp. 11-12.

.RIght honorable and my singular good Lorde,after my most harty cōmendations: the oportunitie of this messenger forceth me to wryte at this time, hauing litle matter but onely to signify vnto your grace, that my Lords grace your godsonne is mery and in health, and of such towardnes in learning, godlinesse, gentlenesse and all honest qualities, þt both you and I, and all this realme ought to thinke him and take him for a singular gift sent of God, an Impe worthy of such a father: for whome we are bound sine intermissione, 
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'without intermission'.

to render to God most harty thankes, wyth most humble request of hys long & prosperous continuance. He hath learned almoste foure bookes of Cato to construe, to parse, and to say wythout booke 
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Cox refers King Edward's mastery of moralistic verses in the four books of Disticha Catonis. It was a set text for younger schoolboys, who then continued their study of Latin with Cato's De officiis and De copia, in addition to Erasmus's edition of Cato's works.

. And of hys owne courage nowe in the latter Booke hee will needes haue at one time 14. Verses which he konneth 
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'knows'.

pleasantly and perfectly, besides things of the Bible 
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King Edward presumably studied the Bible in Latin and possibly Greek.

, Sattellitium Viuis 
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Satellitium animi ('Escort of the Soul'), a collection of maxims gathered by Juan Luis Vives for the instruction of Princess Mary, whom he tutored and to whom he dedicated this book.

, Æsops Fables 
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The Latin text of Fabulas Aesopi was standard reading for schoolboys.

, and Latin making 
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Versification in Latin.

, wherof he hath sent your Grace a litle tast. Dominus Iesus te diutussimè seruet.

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Thus muche hetherto hauinge declared, touchinge the worthy vertues and singulare towardnesse of this godlye impe, king Edward the sixth, although I haue not, neither can insert all things due to his commendation, but am enforced to let passe many memorable matters, well worthy to be prosecuted, if they might haue come to our hands: yet this one briefe note I thought not to ouerslip (somethinge to recreate the wery reader in suche a dolfull storye) being notified to me by one M. Edward Hunderhill, who wayting þe same time, wt the rest of his felowes pensioners, and men at armes, as Syr Henry Gates, M. Robert Hal, M. Henry Harston, and M. Stafforton hearde these woordes betweene the king and his counsaile.

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The relation and testimonie of which persone and persons aboue named, come to this effect, that king Edw. the 6. the 4. yere of his raigne, being then but 13. yeres old and vpward, at Greenewiche vpon S. Georges day, when he was come from the sermon, into þe presence chamber, there being his vncle, the Duke of Somerset, the Duke of Northumb. with other Lordes & Knights of that order, called the order of the Garter, he said vnto them: My Lordes, I pray you, what saincte is S. George, that we here so honour hym? At which question the other Lordes being all astonied, the L. Treasurer (þt then was) perceiuing this, gaue answer, and said: If it please your Maiestie, I did neuer read in any hystorie of S. George, but only in Legenda aurea 

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Foxe joined other Protestants in disapproving of this collection of fabulous saints' lives. Gathered by Jacobus de Voragine during the thirteenth century, it is filled with stories about miraculous events and supernatural happenings that were anathema to religious reformers. William Caxton's translation was known as the Golden Legend.

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, where it is thus set downe, that S. George out with his sworde, and ran the Dragon through with his speare. The king, when he could not a greate while speake for laughing, at length saide: I pray you my Lorde, and what did he with his sworde the while? 
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This jest accords with the iconoclastic tenor of Edward VI's reign. Although St. George was the only non-biblical saint to retain acceptance during the reign of Elizabeth I, because he is the patron saint of England and its monarchs, a proposal to replace St. George with an image of a king bearing a sword and book on the badges of the Order of the Garter received serious consideration during King Edward's reign. This change would have replaced the iconography of St. George with regal blazons symbolic of the Bible and either Faith or Justice. These emblems had a distinctively Protestant cast. King, Tudor Royal Iconography, pp. 99-100.

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That I can not tell your maiesty, said he. And so an end of þe question of good s. Georg.

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MarginaliaThe order and time of the kinges departure.Now to returne againe from whence we haue digressed, which is to signifie some part of the order & manner of his godly departing: as the time approched when it pleased almighty God to call this young king from vs, whych was the 6. day of Iulye, the yeare aboue sayde, about three houres before his death, this Godly childe, his eyes being closed, speaking to himselfe, & thinking none to haue heard him, made this prayer as followeth.

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The prayer of king Edwarde before his death.

MarginaliaThe kinges prayer at his death.LOrde God, deliuer me out of this miserable & wretched life, & take me among thy chosen: how be it not my will, but thy wil be done: Lord I commit my spirit to thee. Oh Lord thou knowest howe happy it were for me to be with thee: yet for thy chosens sake send me life and health, that I may truely serue thee. Oh my Lorde God, blesse thy people, and saue thine inheritaunce. Oh Lord God, saue thy chosen people of England. Oh my Lord God, defend this Realme from papistrie, and maintaine thy true religion, that I and my people may praise thy holy name, for thy sonne Iesus Christes sake.

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Then turned he his face, & seeing who was by him, sayd vnto them: Are ye so night 

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I.e., 'nigh'.

, I thought you had bene further off? Then Doc. Owen said, We heard you speake to your selfe, but what you saide we knowe not. He then (after his fashion smilingly) said, I was praying to God. The last words of his pangs were these: I am faint, Lord haue mercy vpon me, & take my spirite. And thus he yeelded vp the ghost 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 352, fn 1: '"The witnesses hereof present were, sir Thomas Wrothe, sir Henry Sidney, two of the chief gentlemen of the privy-chamber; doctor Owen, doctor Wendy, and Christopher Salmon, groom." See Edition 1563, page 888, second set'.

, leauing a wofull kingdom behinde vnto his sister. Albeit he in his will hadde excluded his sister Marye from the succession of the crowne, because of her corrupt religion: yet þe plage which God had destinate vnto this sinfull Realme, coulde not so be voided, but that shee beinge the elder and daughter to king Henry, succeeded in possession of þe crowne. Of whose dreadfull and bloudy regiment, it remaineth nowe consequently to discourse.

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Thys
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