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1422 [1398]

Queene Mary. The Rubricke of the fiue woundes. The Canon of the Masse.
¶ For the confirmation of the premisses, marke heere (Reader) I beseech thee, the Rubrike heere following, written before the Masse of the fiue woundes in the Masse booke.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 359, fn 1

This service, with its prefixed story, may be seen in the "Missale ad usum ecclesiæ Sarum" (Paris, 1515), fol. xxvii.; and also in the "Missale Romanum cum multis missis ac benedictionibus noviter additis" (Venetiis, 1515), fol. ccxxiv. - ED.

BOniface Bishop of Rome lay sicke, and was like to die, to whome our Lord sent the Archangell Raphael with the office of the Masse, of the fiue woundes, saying: Rise and write this office, and say it fiue times, and thou shalt be restored to thy health immediately: and what Priest soeuer shall say this office for himselfe, or for any other that is sicke, fiue times, the person for whome it is sayde, shall obteine health and grace, and in the world to come, (if he continue in vertue) life euerlasting. And in whatsoeuer tribulation a man shall be in this life, if he procure this office to be said fiue times for him, of a Priest, without doubt he shall be deliuered. And if it be saide for the soule of the dead, anone as it shall be saide and ended fiue times, hys soule shall be rid from paines. This hearing the Byshop, he did erect himselfe vp in his bed, coniuring the Aungell, by the name of almighty God, to tell him what he was, and wherefore he came, and that he should depart without doing him harme: who aunswered, that he was Raphaell the Archangell, sent vnto him of God: and that all the premisses were vndoubtedly true. Then the sayde Boniface confirmed the said office of the fiue woundes, by the Apostolike authoritie.

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MarginaliaThe Masse is an hinderance to the true seruise of God, and to the Godly life of men.An other Argument against the Masse, for that it is an hinderance to the true seruice of God, and to the godly life of men: the declaration whereof is more at large by the saide Authour set out: but briefly in fourme of Argument may thus be contracted.

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Another Argument.

MarginaliaMaior. Da-
Whatsoeuer causeth or occasioneth a man to rest in
outward seruing of God, whose seruice should be all
inward in spirit and veritie, that hindreth the true ser-
uice of God.
MarginaliaMinor. ti-
The Masse occasioneth a man to rest in outward ser-
uing, (as in hearing, seeing, and saying Masse, which
be but outward senses of a man, and as they say meri-
torious ex opere operato, etiam sine bono motu intētionis.)
MarginaliaConclusio. si. Ergo, the Masse hindreth þe right & true seruice of God.

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Another Argument, proouing that Masse hindreth good life.

MarginaliaMaior. Di-
Vpon the Masse riseth false hope: and false remedie is
promised to wicked liuers. For euill men hearing
Masse in the morning, vpō hope therof take more secu-
ritie in doing al day what they list. And such as haue in
bibbing, brauling, tauerning, swearing, whoring, di-
cing, carding, committed wickednes, to them the masse
is set vp, promising sufficient propitiation sacrifice, re-
medy of body and soule, for man and beast, a pœna &
culpa, pro viuis & mortuis: MarginaliaThe Masse hindereth good lyfe.Though they neuer hearde
preaching, neuer vsed praying, neuer repented, or how
wicked so euer they haue bene: yet if they come to the
Church, take holy bread and holy water, and heare a
Masse, or finde a soule Priest vpon the remedie thereof,
then they thinke themselues discharged, and good Ca-
tholicke men.
MarginaliaMinor. sa-
Vpon what cause soeuer riseth false hope and false re-
medy is promised to wicked liuers, that hindreth good
life.
MarginaliaConclusio. mis. Ergo, the Masse hindreth good life.

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Another Argument.

MarginaliaMaior. Da-
Where one thing is sufficient and serueth alone, there
all other helpes be neadeles thereunto, wherein it ser-
ueth.
MarginaliaMinor. ti-
The Masse, as they say, hath all, serueth for all: for by
it commeth pardon for sinnes, by it commeth deliue-
rance from Hell and Purgatory, by it commeth health
for man and beast. In summa, the Masse is Mare bono-
rum, &c.
MarginaliaConclusio. si.
Ergo, all other helpes else be needelesse: hearing of
Gods word, faith, praying in spirit, repenting, prea-
ching, pietie, and other helps to good life, &c.

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An other Argument, proouing that the Masse is diuers and contrary from the institution of Christes Supper.

1. CHrist ordeined his Supper to be a memoriall of his death and passion, to be preached vntill he come.

The Masse is no memoriall thing of Christ remembred in the Sacrament: but rather they make the Sacrament to be Christ himselfe offered and sacrificed for remission of sinnes, both for the quicke and the dead.

2. Christ ordeined his Supper to be celebrate and receaued of the congregation. And therefore Paule biddeth the

Corinthians to tarry one for another. In the Masse there is no such thing, choose the people whether they will come or no, Sir Iohn is kinne to the tide, he will tarry for no man: if he haue a boy to say Amen, it is inough.

3. Christ receaued not but he distributed also the whole in euery part. Sir Iohn when he hath receaued all alone, he sheweth the people the empty chalice. And if he distribute to the people once a yeare, it is but in one kinde alone.

4. Christ ordeined the Supper to be a taking matter, an eating matter, a distributing and a remembring matter. Contrary our Masse men make it a matter not of taking, but of gazing, peeping, pixing, boxing, carying, recarying, worshipping, stouping, kneeling, knocking, with stoupe downe before, hold vp higher, I thanke God I see my maker to day, &c. Christ ordeined it a table matter. We turne it to an altar matter: he for a memorie, we for a sacrifice: he sate, our men stand: he in his common tongue, we in a forreigne tongue. Whereby it is manifest to appeare how diuers and repugnant the Masse is to the institution of the Lords Supper.

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Another Argument, proouing that the Masse is contrary to Gods Commaundementes. MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Massebooke, cōtrary to Gods commaundementes.

MarginaliaMaior. Item, where the first table of Gods blessed and sacred commaundements teacheth men to woorship and serue him, and to direct the meditations of their harts only vnto him: and that in all places, at all times, both publikely and priuately.

MarginaliaMinor.The Masse booke doth point out seruice for Saincts and for creatures, by name, to be serued, at the least 300. dayes and yeares, as appeareth by the Calenders, Masses, Collectes, martiloge, &c.

MarginaliaConclusio. Ergo, the doctrine and institution of the Masse booke, tendeth contrary to Gods holy commaundements.

Another reason against the Masse.

Item, where S. Paule in expresse woordes willeth all things to be done in an edifying tongue, the Masse is celebrate in a tongue forreigne, straunge, and vnknowne to the people, so that although the matter therein conteyned were holesome, and consonant to Scripture (as much as disagreeing from the same) yet for the straungenes of the tongue, it geueth but a sound, and worketh no edifying to the ignorant. Now both the tongue being strange to the eares of the people, and the matter also in the Masse conteined, being repugnant to Gods word, what defence can the Masse haue, but vtterly it is to be reiected?

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And for somuch therefore, as the Masse so long vsed in a forreigne language hath not hitherto come to the vnderstanding of the simple and vulgare sort, to the intente they may themselues perceiue the matter, and be theyr owne iudges, I haue heere set foorth the chiefest parte thereof (which is the Canon) in Englishe, so as I found it in a certayne written copie, by Maister Couerdale translated, adioining withall the Rubricke and circumstaunce of the same in euery point, as is in the Masse booke conteyned.

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¶ The whole Canon of the Masse, with the Rubricke thereof, as it standeth in the Massebooke, after Salisbury vse. Translated word by word out of Laten into English.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 362, fn 1

A superb copy of this Mass Book (Missale secund. usum. Eccles. Sarisburiensis, fol. 1497) is in the Royal Library of Windsor, to which place it has recently been conveyed from Kensington. Another copy bearing date 1527 is in the British Museum, and all those "Secund. usum Sarisburiensis," may be consulted for the completion of many of the directions, ceremonies, and conjurations here referred to. - ED

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Rubric

Foxe mounts attacks on the catholic eucharistic rite from the margin here. His attacks combine his belief that the mass at one level was nothing more than absurd playacting (and therefore to be mocked) with the recognition that as such it constituted a terrible insult to God (and was therefore to be condemned and scorned). One way in which the marginal glosses insinuate the emptiness of the mass is by comments which emphasise the contingency of various ritual actions. Thus, Foxe asks why so many as five crosses are used at this stage, the implication being that there is no good reason why fewer or more might not be used: comments such as this help to establish Foxe's view of the mass as a free-floating tradition, ungrounded in scripture and subject to the willful alterations of men. Elsewhere Foxe notes that no good reason is given for a particular ritual action. Actions divorced from their professed purpose can be characterised ironically as playacting, and Foxe exploits this possiblilty, using the term 'mumming' at one point; he also mentions 'fond trickes and iuggling gestures. One gloss points to the falseness of the emotion displayed by the priest with the sarcastic comment 'Down greate harte'. Foxe comments that the priest's actions towards the host are motivated by the fact that it would soon be 'his God'. Other glosses support the case against such actions by showing how the rite deviates from scripture and constitutes a denial of the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Thus, Foxe attacks the rite for not including prayer for one's enemies and the lack of scriptural sanction for the priest taking the sacrament alone.

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The strongest point Foxe makes against the mass is that it takes away the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Foxe describes a reference to the merits of the saints as leaving Christ 'defaced'; the word 'defaced' is used again; attacks the blessing of the host and insists on the unique nature of the sacrifice of Christ. Other types of gloss help to buttress these ideas, as with those glosses which give worldly motives for the mass, thereby confirming its base preoccupations and attacking its claims to spiritual purpose, as in the gloss 'That metall clinketh well'. Another set of glosses make clear Foxe's view that the only good religious action is one which edifies and educates Christians (called at one point 'scholers of his [God's] heauenly schoole', where God is called a 'scholemaister'), hence his comment at the point in the rite where the priest speaks inaudibly, 'Least the people be edified'.

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Much of the second half of Foxe's demolition of the mass is concerned with stressing the contingency of the various bits of the mass by describing the long historical process through which different elements were added. The margins are filled with patristic, liturgical, historical, conciliar and canonical references. These indicate that Foxe has done his research on this crucial matter and also help to convey the impression that the mass is an untidy melange of different traditions and snippets. It is doubtless for polemical effect that the very last reference refers to transubstantiation, emphasising the doctrine's relative novelty. As with the previous section, only 1563 and 1583 include this material, and it would seem that 1583 has followed 1563 closely in the glosses.

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MarginaliaThe Rubrick. AFter the Sanctus, the priest immediately ioining hys handes together, and lifting vp his eies, beginneth these wordes: Te igitur clementissime, &c. that is to saye: Therefore most gratious father, thorough Iesus Christ thy sonne our Lord, we humbly beseech thee.

Let him bowe downe his body, while he sayth:

And we desire

Heere the Priest standing vpright, must kisse the altar (a) on the right hand of the sacrifice, Marginalia(a) And why not on the left hand aswell: or why any such kissing at all?saying:

that thou accept and blesse,

Heere let the Priest make three crosses vpon the chalice and the bread, saying:

these † giftes these † (b)presentes: these † holy and vnspotted sacrifices. Marginalia(b) Precious no doubt & princypall: or els arte thou to presūptuous, that hast already offered it vp for thy sinnes & for the saluation of others.

When the signes are made vpon the chalice, let him lift vp his hands, saying thus:

Which first of al (c) we offer vnto thee for thy holy Catholike Church: Marginalia(c) Who gaue you that cōmission? will you offer bread and wine for the Church of Christ, who of very loue hath offred vp himselfe for it already? Ephes. 5.that thou vouchsafe to pacifie, keepe, vnite, and gouerne it, throughout the whole world: with thy seruaunt our Pope N. and our Bishop N.

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That is (d) his owne Byshop only. Marginalia(d) Charitye would pray for others also.

and our King N.

And they are expressed by name.

Then let there follow.

and all true beleeuers, and such as haue the Catholike and Apostolike faith in due estimation.

Heere let him pray for the liuing.

Remember Lord thy seruants & handmaides N. and N.

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