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Fisher

On 16 August 1553, the Privy Council sent a letter to the sheriff of Bedford and Buckingham for the apprehension of Fisher, the parson of Amersham (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 22 August 1553, Fisher appeared before the Privy Council and was ordered to provide notes of a sermon he had given (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

[This may be a person of the same name who fled into exile; see Garrett, Marian Exiles.]

 
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Gilbert Bourne

(d. 1569)

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (1531). Prebend of Worcester (1541). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1554 - 1560) [DNB]

Bourne preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This so enraged his auditors that a dagger was thrown at him. At the request of Bourne's brother, Bradford quieted the mob; Bradford and John Rogers later escorted Bourne to safety. (Rerum, pp. 464 - 65; 1563, pp. 904 - 5; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 (recte 1409)).

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Bourne's sermon is briefly mentioned later by Foxe (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was created bishop of Bath and Wells (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He visited Walter Mantell repeatedly before his execution and unsuccessfully attempted to convert him to catholic teachings on confession and the Sacrament (1570, p. 1638; 1576, pp. 1397-98; 1583, p. 1468).

Together with Edmund Bonner and Henry Morgan, Gilbert Bourne condemned Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. Before condemning Tomkins, Bourne exhorted him to recant. (1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535).

On 17 February 1555 Bonner, Bourne and others urged Thomas Higbed and Thomas Causton to recant. (1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539).

On 13 August 1553 John Bradford saved Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1604.

During Bourne's sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, he had a dagger thrown at him from the crowd. 1563, p. 1173. The dagger touched Bradford's sleeve. 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610. John Bradford took over from him in the pulpit and the crowd's wrath subsided. Bradford then protected him when they left the pulpit. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

John Philpot's final examination, on 16 December 1555, was before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

The certificate for Richard Lush's condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Robert Farrer's examination was before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Bourne was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2063.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hugh Latimer

(1485 - 1555)

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 1539). Martyr. Of Thirkeson, Leicester. [DNB]

Foxe relates Latimer's formative years. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Hugh Latimer, the martyr, was the son of Hugh Latimer of Thirkeson, Leicestershire. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Latimer declaimed the work of Melancthon. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1734.

Foxe records a sermon Latimer preached at Cambridge in 1529. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-35.

Foxe records another of Latimer's sermons, the subject of which was Turks. 1563, pp. 1304-07, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe records Latimer's sermon on how to play with certain cards. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-34.

Buckenham, prior of the Black friars or Lady friars, attempted to show Latimer why scripture should not be in English by use of his cards. 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Dr Venetus, a Grey friar, berated Latimer in his sermons. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College), Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College), Dr Norton (Master of Clare), Dr Philo (Master of Michael House), Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John), Dr Blith (of the King's Hall), Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College), Dr Palmes (Master of St. Nicholas hostel), Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's, Brikenden of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1563, p. 1307, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

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Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Dr West preached against Latimer at Barwell Abbey. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, licensed Latimer to preach to the friars. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Articles were gathered out of Barnes' sermon against Master Tyrell, fellow of King's Hall, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer would walk and talk on 'Heretykes hyll' with Bilney. 1563, pp. 1307-08, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer went with Bilney to visit prisoners in the Tower in Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney spoke to a woman in prison who was accused of killing her own child. Latimer spoke to Henry VIII after a sermon he gave at Windsor and tried to get the woman pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

The woman gave birth to another child and Latimer became godfather, Mistress Cheek godmother. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney gave the woman spiritual counselling and eventually she was pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Dr Redman was an enemy of Latimer at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe includes a copy in English and in Latin of a letter Latimer received from Dr Redman, who revoked him for the doctrine he taught, along with Latimer's brief response. 1563, p. 1308, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632 [English only], 1583, p. 1736.

Latimer subscribed to articles after three years' teaching and preaching at Cambridge. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1737.

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer refuted Dr Powell's articles. 1563, pp. 1309-11, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Enemies of Latimer were Powell of Salisbury, Wilson of Cambridge, Hubberdin and Sherwood. 1563, p. 1311, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was called to appear before William Wareham (archbishop of Canterbury) and John Stokesley (bishop of London) on 29 January 1531. 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

The wording in Tonstall's register seems to suggest that Latimer did subscribe. 1563, p. 1334, 1570, p.1907 , 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer was advanced to the post of bishop by Buttes and Cromwell. 1563, p. 1349, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1633., 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer told Morrice that the mayor had appointed him to preach at Easter. 1563, p. 1314, 1570, p. 1910, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer prayed for Dr Wilson and his countrymen who disliked Latimer. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

A friend of Latimer's told him that Wilson had gone to Beverley in Holdernesse and then on progress. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer resigned his bishopric at the same time as Bishop Shaxton of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1634, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were brought against Latimer. 1570, pp. 1926-28, 1576, pp. 1652-53, 1583, p. 1732.

Latimer was injured by a falling tree. He went to London for a remedy but was imprisoned in the Tower by the bishops in Edward's reign. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1738.

A justice in the diocese of Worcester bought land for his brother or for himself and and tried to have a poor man in the diocese damned. This man appealed to Latimer, who wrote to the gentleman about this. The gentleman later mended his ways and died prior to 1563. 1563, p .1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, pp. 1634-35, 1583, p. 1739.

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Latimer preached in Stamford before the duchess of Suffolk in London in convocation and in the garden before King Edward at court. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1739.

He prophecied that plagues would come in Queen Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

He believed that preaching the gospel would cost him his life and that was why Winchester was imprisoned. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were imputed to Latimer by Powell of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1654, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

On 4 September 1553, the privy council ordered Latimer to appear before them (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 340).

On 13 September, Latimer appeared before the privy council and was committed to the Tower as a 'close prisoner' (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1704] - 1410]; APC IV, p. 345-46). [NB: Foxe did not reprint the description in the privy council register of Latimer's 'sedycious demeanour'].

Latimer was committed to the Tower on 17 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1635). [Note that Foxe never corrected these inconsistent dates].

He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 933 and 938; 1570, pp. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, p. 1430).

[There is a summary of Latimer's disputation on Wednesday 18 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 934-35.]

Latimer disputed with Weston, Smith and the other catholic doctors on 18 April 1554 (1563, pp. 978-85; 1570, pp. 1622-27; 1576, pp. 1384-89; 1583, pp. 1454-59).

Latimer was summoned, together with Cranmer and Ridley, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken in custody by the bailiffs (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, pp. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-67).

He was brought out of the bailiff's house where he was being held, on 21 April 1554, to observe a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston. Latimer, however, thought he was about to be taken to execution and urged one Augustine Cooper to make a fire that would burn quickly. When he came to Carfax and understood that he was being taken to view the procession, Latimer refused to look at it and ran 'to one Spensers shop' (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

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Foxe mentions Latimer's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea(1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

The examination of Latimer and Ridley before White and Brookes took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

Latimer appeared at a second session with Brookes and White on 1 October 1555. 1570, pp. 1930-33, 1576, pp. 1758-59.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

There was a conference between Ridley and Latimer in prison upon the objection of Antoman. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe relates the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which Ridley makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1314-17, 1321-25, 1333-34, 1344-48, 1349-53, 1570, pp. , 1576, pp. , 1583, pp. 1736-37, 1741-42, 1745-56.

Hugh Latimer presented a new year's gift to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1734.

Foxe includes one of Latimer's card sermons. 1583, p. 2142.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hugh Symonds

Of Worcester (see APC IV, p. 333)

Hugh Symonds is noted as recently installed vicar of St. Michael's in Coventry and remitted from paying arrears due from his predecessor to the Crown on 6 March 1552 (APC IV, pp. 230-31).

On 26 August 1553, the Privy Council sent a letter to the Mayor of Coventry ordering that Symonds, the vicar of St. Michael's in Coventry, be sent to them with his examinations and ordered that anyone who had, because of his preaching, spoken against the Queen's proceedings be punished (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; cf. APC IV, p. 333). [NB: Foxe did not print the Privy Council's description of those who spoke against the Queen's proceedings as 'slanderous talkers' inspired by Symond's 'lewde preaching' (APC IV, p. 333)].

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On 2 September, Symonds (Foxe says Saunders; this must be a mistake) was called before the Privy Council and commanded to appear again the following Monday (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; cf. APC IV, p. 338).

On 5 September, the Privy Council sent a letter to the Mayor of Coventry ordering that Symonds be set free if he would recant his sermon; if he would not, to detain him and notify the Council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). [Foxe's source, the Privy Council register, gives the date as 4 September; Foxe did not reprint the Council's reference to Symond's lewd words (APC IV, p. 430)].

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Articles objected against various clerics, on the grounds that they were married, by Richard Walker, commissary for Bishop Sampson of Coventry and Lichfield in 1553 are in Harley 421, fols 56r - 58r. 'Hugo Simons' is one of these.

 
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Humphrey Palden

Humphrey Palden was committed to the Compter by the Privy Council on 16 August 1553 for denouncing Gilbert Bourne's controversial Paul's Cross sermon of 13 August (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

 
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Jean Veron

(d. 1563)

French protestant divine and controversialist (DNB)

Jean Veron is misidentified as 'M. Vernon' by Foxe, who accurately reports that he was committed to the Tower, together with Bradford, by the privy council on 16 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; cf. APC IV, p. 321).

There is another mention of Veron being sent to the Tower, together with Bradford and Becon, on 16 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

 
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John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Melvin

Minister. Martyr. Of Reading.

On 24 August 1553 John Melvin, a Scotsman and a preacher, was sent to Newgate by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 330). [NB: Foxe did not reprint the privy council register's description of Melvin as 'a very sedytious preacher'].

John Melvin wrote a letter to his brethren in Reading while imprisoned in Newgate, in which he referred to John Bolton, Downer, Gately, Radley (now vicar of St Lawrence), Bowyer (a tanner) and Julins Palmer (who was indicted by Thackham). 1583, p. 2140.

[Melvin is a very shadowy figure who does not appear to have held any preferment in London diocese.]

 
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John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1568)

Evangelist, Bible translator, Bishop of Exeter (1551 - 1553) (DNB)

Miles Coverdale associated with John Rogers and William Tyndale in translating the Bible (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He was ordered to attend the Privy Council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Coverdale appeared before the Privy Council and on the next day was commanded to await their pleasure (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

According to Foxe, he wrote a confutation of Weston's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 October 1553. Foxe claimed that he possessed a copy of Coverdale's confutation; it has not survived (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Coverdale was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41 [Coverdale's signature is on p. 1642]; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; and 1583, p. 1469-71.

Coverdale sent Rowland Taylor a cap to wear at his execution (1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1557).

Throughout 1554, Christian III of Denmark repeatedly requested that Mary release Coverdale from custody and send him to Denmark. Although Mary was reluctant to grant the request, eventually she agreed, sending Coverdale to Denmark in February 1555 (1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31).

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Peter Martyr Vermigli

(1500 - 1562) [DNB; Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation]

About 5 September 1553 Peter Martyr arrived in London from Oxford (where he had been held under arrest) and met with Cranmer to discuss their participating in a disputation to defend the Book of Common Prayer at Oxford. But Cranmer was arrested and Martyr deported (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

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Peter Martyr was permitted to leave the realm and returned to Strasburg (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

On 14 February 1555 at 3 o'clock Dr Harding went to see John Bradford in prison and talked of his fear for Bradford's soul after excommunication, and said that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13 .

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Foxe states that he omitted the talk Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n]s letter laid to Bradford', a discussion held on 28 March 1555. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's book of the sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Bartlet Green was converted through attending Peter Martyr's lectures at Oxford. 1563, p. 1458, 1570, p. 2021, 1576, p. 1742, 1583, p. 1850.

Peter Martyr wrote a book against Gardiner's Marcus Anthonius Constantius. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Julins Palmer borrowed Peter Martyr's Commentaries on I Corinthians, which helped to convert him. 1570, p. 2118, 1576, p. 1841 [recte 1829], 1583, p. 1935.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

[Also referred to as 'Peter Martyr']

Nicholas Carre wrote a letter to John Cheke about Martin Bucer, which was then passed on to Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

 
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Thomas Becon

(1512 - 1567) [DNB]

Thomas Becon was committed to the Tower, together with John Bradford and 'M. Vernon' (i.e., Jean Veron) by the privy council on 16 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409] and APC IV, p. 322).

Another mention of Becon being sent to the Tower, together with Bradford and Veron, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

[Also referred to as 'M. Beacon']

 
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William Rutter

William Rutter was committed by the Privy Council to the Marshalsea on 5 August 1553 for denouncing Gilbert Bourne's controversial Paul's Cross sermon of 13 August (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 320.

Foxe mistakenly refers to Rutter as 'Rutler'.

 
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Amersham, Buckinghamshire
NGR: SU 955 975

Borough and parish in the Hundred of Burnham, Buckinghamshire. 26.75 miles west-north-west of London. A rectory in the archdeaconry of Buckingham, diocese of Lincoln.

Lewis, Samuel,A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831

 
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Coventry St Michael
NGR: SO 334 785 (Coventry)

A vicarage in the patronage of the Crown, in the Archdeaconry of Coventry, diocese of Coventry and Lichfield.

Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

 
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Richmond on Thames (Shene; Sheen)

Surrey

OS grid ref: TQ 185 745

1433 [1497]

Queene Mary. A dagger cast at Bourne preaching agaynst K. Edward. Preachers inhibited.

MarginaliaAnno 1553.to the order of her highnes lawes.

Neuertheles, as her highnesse myndeth not hereby to restraine and discourage any of her louyng subiectes, to geue from tyme to time true information against any such offenders in the causes aboue sayd, vnto her grace or her Counsaile, for the punishment of euery such offender, according to the effect of her highnes lawes prouided in that part: so her sayde highnes exhorteth and straitly chargeth her sayd subiects to obserue her commaundement & pleasure in euery part aforesayd, as they will auoyd her highnes sayd indignation and most grieuous displeasure. The seueritie and rigor whereof, as her highnes shall bee most sory to haue cause to put the same in execution: so doth she vtterly determine not to permit such vnlawfull and rebellious doyngs of her subiects, wherof may ensue the daunger of her royall estate to remayne vnpunished, but to see her sayd lawes touching these points, to be throughly executed, which extremities, she trusteth all her sayd louyng subiects will foresee, dread, and auoyde accordingly: her sayd highnes straightly charging and commaundyng all Mayors, Shiriffes, Iustices of Peace, Bailiffes, Constables, and all other publike Officers and Ministers, diligently to see to the obseruyng and executyng of her sayde commaundementes and pleasure, and to apprehende all such as shall wilfully offend in this part, committyng the same to the next Gaole, there to remayne without bayle or maineprise, till vpon certificate made to her highnes or her priuy Counsaile, of their names and doyngs, and vpō examination had of their offences, some further order shall be taken for their punishment to the example of others, according to the effect and tenour of the lawes aforesayd. Yeuen at our Manor of Richmond, the 18. day of August, in the 1. yeare of our most prosperous raigne.

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M. Bourne preaching at Paules Crosse. 
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Block 5: Bourne's Sermon

The story of Bradford's appeasing a mob incited by Gilbert Bourne's Paul's Cross sermon (1563, pp. 904-05; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339 and 1583, p. 1407 [recte 1409] is taken word for word from Robert Crowley's continuation of Lanquet's chronicle (see Robert Crowley, An epitome of cronicles ... to the reigne of our soveraigne Ladye Queene Elizabeth [London, 1559], STC 15217.5, sigs. Eeee4v-Ffff1r). This is Foxe's first extract from Crowley's chronicle, which will be his basic source for the political history of Mary's reign in the 1563 edition.

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The violence at Bourne's sermon, however, was known to Foxe when he wrote the Rerum. He will repeat an account of the incident, with different wording, in 1563, p. 1173; 1570, p. 1780; 1576, p. 1339 and 1583, p. 1604; this second account is an exact translation of the Rerum.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Bourne's Sermon

Unsurprisingly, the margin points up the story of Bourne being rescued from an ugly crowd by Bradford and Rogers ('M. Iohn Bradford appeaseth the people' and 'Bradford, and Rogers garded the preacher'). The variation in terminology at the glosses 'Cranmer offereth to defend the doctrine of the boke of cōmōpraier' (1563) and 'Cranmer offereth to defend the doctrine of the seruice booke in english' (1570 and 1576) is possibly suggestive of changing views on the part of Foxe and his contemporaries about Cranmer's liturgy.

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MarginaliaM. Bournes Sermon at Paules crosse. August. 13.ABout this tyme or not long before, Boner B. of London beyng restored, appoynted M. Bourne a Canon of Paules, to preach at the Crosse, who afterward was B. of Bathe, he takyng occasion of the Gospell of the day to speake somewhat largely in iustifieng of Boner beyng thē present: which Boner sayd he, vpon the same text in that place, that day foure yeares had preached before, and was vppon the same most cruelly and vniustly cast into þe most vile Dungeon of the Marshalsey, and there kept duryng the tyme of King Edward. MarginaliaNo maruell if Boner were so foule fallen away in such a vyle dungeon in the Marshalsey.Hys wordes sounded so euill in the eares of the hearers, that they could not keep silence but began to murmure and to stirre in such sort, that the Mayor and Aldermen with other estates thē present, feared much an vprore. But the truth is, that one hurled a dagger at the preacher, but who it was, it could not then be prooued, albeit afterward it was knowen.

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In fine, the sturre was such, that the Preacher pluckt in hys head, and durst no more appeare in that place. The matter of hys Sermon tended muche to the derogation and disprayse of King Edward: which thyng the people in no case could abyde. MarginaliaM. Iohn Bradford appeaseth the people.Then M. Bradford at the request of the Preachers brother, and other then beyng in the pul:pit, stoode foorth and spake so myldely, Christianly, and effectuously, that with fewe woordes he appeased all: MarginaliaBradford, and Rogers garded the preacher.and afterward he and M. Rogers conducted the Preacher betwixt them from the Pulpit to the Grammar schole doore, where they left him safe, as further in the story of Maister Bradford is declared. But shortly after they were both rewarded with long imprisonment, and last of all, with fire in Smithfield.

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By reason of this tumult at Paules Crosse, an order was taken by the Lordes of the Counsaile 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 392, line 17

The whole of the matter from hence to p. 394, ending "by the French ambassador," is evidently taken from the minutes of the Privy Council: see copious transcripts of those minutes in the Harleian MSS., No. 643, (printed in the Archæologia, vol. xviii. pp. 173 - 185), also in Haynes's Burghley State Papers, pp. 155 - 193. The Editor has consulted the original Council Book. See also a MS. history of this time compiled from contemporary Letters, Harleian MSS.No. 353.

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with the Mayor and Aldermen of London,  
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The Privy Council order, following Bourne's sermon, making householders responsible for keeping order, is inserted in the 1583 edition (see textual variant 7) and is the first example in Book 10 of Foxe's renewed research in the Privy Council records between the publication of the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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that they calling the next day followyng a common counsaile of the Citie, should therby charge euery housholder to cause their children, apprentises, and other seruaunts, to keep their owne parish Churches vpon the holydays, and not to suffer them to attempt any thyng to the violatyng of the common peace. Willyng them them also to signify the sayd assembly the Queenes determination vttered vnto them by her highnes the 12. of August in the Tower. Which was, that albeit her graces cōscience is stayed in matters of religion: yet she graciously ment not to compell or strayne other mens conscience otherwyse then God shal (as she trusted) put in their parts a perswasion of the truth that she is in, thorough the openyng of hys word vnto them, by godly vertuous, & learned preachers, &c.

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Also it was then ordered, that euery Alderman in hys Ward, should foorthwith send for the Curates of euery parish within their liberties, and to warne them not only to forbeare to preach themselues, but also not to suffer any other to preach, or make any open or solemne readyng of

scripture in their churches, vnles the sayd preachers were seuerally licensed by the Queene.

After this Sermon at Paules Crosse aforenamed, the next day after 

Commentary  *  Close

The word 'day' in 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409], is 'Sunday' in the previous three editions. This is a misprint in the 1583 edition which changes the chronology.

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 392: Appendix, ref. page 392, line 18 from the bottom

{Cattley/Pratt substitutes 'Sunday' for 'day after' in the text.} The first three editions omit the three paragraphs preceding this (from "By reason of this tumult" to "licensed by the queen"), and commence this paragraph: "The next Sunday following the queen's garde was at the Cross," &c., putting "Aug. 20" in the margin. The edition of 1583 first introduced the new paragraphs, and commenced this paragraph, "After this sermon at Paul's Cross aforenamed, the next day after it followed that," &c. This error has been corrected in the present edition, from the old editions.

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it followed, that the Queenes Gard was at the crosse with their weapons to gard the Preacher. And when men withdrew themselues from the Sermon, order was taken by the Mayor, that the Ancients of all companies should be present, least the preacher should be discouraged by hys small Auditorie.

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August. 1553. 
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More material from the Privy Council acts for August and September 1553 was inserted in the 1583 edition (see textual variant 8 and textual variant 9).

Marginalia5. of Aug. an. 1553.The 5. of August, an. 1553. was one William Rutler 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 392, line 12 from the bottom

The Council Book reads "Rutter." "August xv. 1553. - One William Rutter committed this daye to the Marshalsie for uttering certain seditious words against the Preacher, Mr. Bourne, for his sermon at Paul's Cross on Sunday last." Foxe's text reads "Rutler."

committed (by the Counsaile) to the Marshalsey, for vtteryng certayne wordes agaynst Maister Bourne Preacher, for hys Sermon at Paules Crosse on Sonday last before.

The 16. of August, was Humfrey Palden committed to the Counter for wordes agaynst the sayd Bournes sermon at Paules crosse.

MarginaliaFisher.A letter to the Shiriffe of Buckingham and Bedford, for the apprehending of one Fisher person of Ammersham a preacher.

Another letter to the B. of Norwich, not to suffer any preacher or other to preach or expound the scripture openly without speciall licence from the Queene.

The same day was M. Bradford, M. Vernon and M. Beacon preachers committed to the charge of the Lieuetenant of the Tower. 

Commentary  *  Close

It should be noted that the 'M. Vernon', sent to the Tower along with Bradford and Becon (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]), is Jean Veron, the Huguenot minister (cf. APC IV, p. 221).

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 392, last line

The Council Book says: "August xvj. 1553. Bradforde and Vernon, two sedicious preachers, committed to the charge of the lieutenant of the Tower ... Theodore Basil, alias Thomas Becon, another sediciouse preacher, committed also to the Lieutenant's charge of the Toure."

Foxe, from the Council Book, prints this name "Vernon" at p. 392. But in the Episcopal Registers of London he is invariably called "Veron." He is said to have been a Frenchman, "Senonois" i. e. of Sens. He was ordained priest by Ridley August 24th, 1551 (Ridley Register, fol. 320), as "Johannes Veroneus, Senon, dioc." He was admitted rector of St. Alphage, London Wall, January 3d, 1552 ("Johannes Veroneus, clericus, "Ridley Register, fol. 316): he was deprived under Mary in 1554 (his successor being appointed June 8th, "per legitimam deprivationem Johannis Veron. clerici conjugati," Bonner Reg. fol. 453.) He was presented by Elizabeth to the prebend of Mora in St. Paul's November 8th, 1559 (Newcourt), to the rectory of St. Martin Ludgate March 8th, 1560 ("Johannes Veron, sacræ Theologiæ Professor," Grindal Reg. fol. 113, 131: Newcourt misprints his name in this instance as "Heron"), and to the vicarage of St. Sepulchre's October 21st, 1560 ("Johannes Veron, clericus," Grindal Reg. fol. 117). Strype calls him "a Frenchman by birth, but a learned Protestant" (Mem. iii. chap. 5), and "one of the eminentest preachers at this time, and a writer:" he states that he preached at Paul's Cross before the mayor and aldermen September 17th, 1559, and that "he died April 9th, 1563, and was buried the next day after, being Easter Even." (Annals, i. chaps. 16, 34). See the Index to Machyn's Diary for several curious allusions to Veron. A list of his works will be found in Lowndes's Bibliographical Manual.

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The same day also was M. Iohn Rogers Preacher commanded to keepe himselfe prisoner in his owne house at Paules, without hauing conference with any other thē those of hys owne houshold.

The 22. of August, there was two letters directed to M. Couerdall B. of Exceter, & M. Hooper B. of Gloucester, for their indelayed repayre to the Court, and there to attend the Counsailes pleasure.

MarginaliaFisher.The same day Fisher person of Ammersham made his appearance before the Counsaile, according to their letter the 16. of August, and was appointed the next day to bring in a note of hys sermon.

The 24. of August was one Iohn Meluin a Scotte and and Preacher sente to Newgate in London by the Counsaile.

MarginaliaSymons.The 26. of August there was a letter sent to the Mayor of Couentry and his brethren, for the apprehension of one Symonds of Worcester preacher, and then Vicare of S. Michaels in Couentry, and for the sendyng of hym vp tothe counsaile with his examinations and other matters they could charge hym with. With a Commission to them to punish all such as had by meanes of his preachyng vsed any talke against the Queenes proceedings.

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The 29. of August, M. Hooper B. of Worcester made his personall appearance before the Counsaile, accordyng to their letters the 22. of August.

The 31. of August, M. Couerdall B. of Exceter, made hys appearaunce before the Counsaile, according to theyr letters the 22. of August.

September. 1553. 
Commentary  *  Close

More material from the Privy Council acts for August and September 1553 was inserted in the 1583 edition (see textual variant 8 and textual variant 9).

The 1. of September, M. Hooper and M. Couerdall appeared againe before the Counsaile, whence M. Hooper was committed to the Fleete, and M. Couerdall commāded to attend the Lordes pleasure. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 393, lines 6, 22, 25, 28, middle

The Council Book has: "August xxij. 1553. Two several lettres unto Miles Coverdale and John Hooper clerks for their indelayde repaire unto the Courte, where to attende upon the Lords of the Counsaill." And again: "At Richmount the xxix. of Aguuste, 1553. John Hoper, bishop of Gloucester, made this day his personal appearance." Again: "At Richmount the xxxj. of August, 1553. Miles Coverdale, bishop of Exeter, made this day his personall apperance." And again: "At Richmount the firste of September, 1553. This day appered before the Lords John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, and Miles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter. And the said Hooper, for considerations the Councell moving, was sent to the Fleete. And the said Coverdale commaunded to attende untill the Lordes Pleasure be further knowen."

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William Dalby, in a letter written at London, Sept. 1st, 1553, says that "The Bishope of Canterbury, Hooper, Levere, the bushope of Londone, and diverse other are together in disputation dayly at their owne howses, but what is done amongeste them I cannot learne." (Harleian MSS. No. 353, fol. 143.) Another letter dated September 5th, says, "At London is kepte diveres disputationes in the consistorye place in Pawles with the bushopes. Bushope Hooper must dispute on Monday nexte in the same place and upon diveres articles, but what they be I cannot as yet learne." (Ibid.)

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The 2. of September M. Hugh Saunders 

Commentary  *  Close

The 'Hugh Saunders' listed as appearing before the Privy Council on 2 September is actually Hugh Symonds, who is referred to several times in these records. [NB: the name is mistakenly given as Saunders in the Privy Council records - see APC IV, p. 338).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 393, line 32

{Cattley/Pratt alters 'Saunders' to 'Symons' in the text.} "Saunders" is the reading in Foxe's text and margin, but this is at variance with his own text in line 16 of this page, and line 6 from the bottom; moreover it is at variance with the Council Book, the authority which Foxe is evidently following.

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Vicare of S. Michaels in Couentry, was before the Counsaile for a sermon, and was commanded to appeare agayne vppon Monday next after.

The 4. of Scptember a Letter was directed from the Counsaile to M. Hugh Latimer for his appearaunce before them. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 393, line 17 from the bottom

The Council Book says: "At Richmount the iv. of September. A Lettre of Apparaunce directed to Hughe Latymere."

About the 5. day of September the same yeare, Peter Martyr came to London from Oxford, where for a tyme he had bene commaunded to kepe his house, & found there the Archbishop of Canterbury, who offered to defend the doctrine of the booke of Common prayer, both by the scriptures and Doctors, assisted by Peter Martyr and a fewe other, as hereafter ye shall heare. But whilest they were in hope to come to Disputations, the Archbishop and other were imprisoned, but Peter Martyr was suffered to returne whence he came. 

Commentary  *  Close

The entry for 5 September, concerning Peter Martyr, first appears in the 1563 edition and was taken from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff1v with 1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; 1583, p. 1397 [recte 1409]).

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 393, line 15 from the bottom

See the matters in this paragraph fully detailed in a letter from Julius Terentianus to John ab Ulmis (Zurich Letters, Parker Soc. 1846, No. 182.)

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MarginaliaSimons.The same day there was a letter sent to the Mayor of Couentry to set Hugh Symonds at liberty if he would recant his Sermon, or els to stay hym, and to signify so much to the Counsaile.

The 13. of September M. Hugh Latymer appeared before the counsaile accordyng to their letter the 4. of Sep-

tember,
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