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1455 [1431]

Queene Mary. Disputations of Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury in Oxford.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Aprill.Ched. Christ, when he spake these woordes: This is my body, spake of the substaunce, but not of the effect.

Cran. I graunt he spake of the substaunce, and not of the effect after a sorte: and yet it is most true that the bodye of Christ is effectually in the sacrament. MarginaliaChristes body effectually, not substantially in the Sacrament. But I denye that he is there truly presēt in bread, or that vnder the bread in his organicall body. And because it should be to tedious (hee sayd) to make discourse of the whole, he deliuered vp there his opinion therof to D. Weston writtē at large, with answeres to euery one of theyr 3. propositions: which he disired D. Weston, sitting there on high. to read openly to the people: which he promised to doe. MarginaliaPapistes false of promise.But it was not the first promise that such Papistes haue broken.

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The copye of this writing although it were not there read, yet the contentes therof here we haue drawne out as foloweth.

¶ An explication of Cranmer vpon the foresayd Conclusions exhibited in writing.

MarginaliaThe contents of Cranmers explication geuen vp in writing.CRan. In the assertions of the Church and of religion, trifling and new fangled nouelties of wordes, so much as may be, are to be eschewed, whereof riseth nothing but contention and brawling about wordes and we must follow so much as we may, the maner of speaking of the scripture.

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MarginaliaHow Christ is really present.In the first conclusion if ye vnderstand by thys worde [really] reipsa i. in very deede and effectuallye, so Christe by the grace and efficacy of his Passion is in deed and truely present to all his true and holy members.

But if ye vnderstand by this word [really] Corporaliter. i. Corporally, so that by the body of Christ is vnderstanded a natural body and organicall: MarginaliaOrganicall is called that which is a perfect body, hauing all the members and partes complete belonging vnto the the first proposition doth vary, not onely from vsuall speach and the phrase of scripture, but also is cleane contrary to the holy word of God & christian profession: when as both the scripture doth testify by these wordes, and also the Catholicke church hath professed from the beginning, Christ to haue left the world and to sit at the right hand of the father till he come vnto iudgement.

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MarginaliaAnswere to the 2. Conclusion.And likewise I aunswere to the second questiō: that is that it swerueth from the accustomed maner and speach of Scripture.

MarginaliaAnswere to the 3. Conclusion.The thyrd conclusion, as it is intricate and wrapped in all doubtful and ambiguous wordes, & diffring also much from the true speach of þe Scripture, so as the wordes therof seeme to import in open sense: MarginaliaThe 3. Conclusion contumelious agaynst is most contumelious agaynst our onely Lord and Sauiour Christ Iesus, and a violating of his precious bloud, which vpon the aultar of the Crosse is the onely sacrifice and oblation for the sinnes of all mankinde.

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Ched. By this your interpretation which you haue made vpon the first conclusion, this I vnderstand, the bodye of Christ to be in the Sacramente onely by the way of participation: in so much as we communicating therof: do participate the grace of Christ: so that you meane hereby only the effect therof. But our conclusiō standeth vpon the substance, and not the efficacye onely, which shall appeare by the testimony both of Scriptures, and of all the fathers a thousand yeare after Christ.

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And first to begin with the Scripture, let vs consider what is written in Math. 26. Mark. 14. Luke 22. fyrste to the Corinthiās. 11. Mathew sayth: As they sat at supper Iesus tooke bread. &c. MarginaliaMath. 26.In Marke there is the same sense although not the same wordes: who also for one part of the Sacrament speaketh more playnely, Iesus taking breade. &c. MarginaliaMath. 14.After the same sense also writeth Luke. 22. And when Iesus had taken bread. &c. MarginaliaLuke. 22.In the mouth of two or three witnesses sayth the Scripture, standeth all truth. Here we haue three wytnesses together, that Christ sayd that to be his body which was geuē for many: and that to be his bloud which should be shed for many: wherby is declared the substance and not onely the efficacy alone therof.

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Ergo it is not true that you say there to be, not the substance of his body, but the efficacy alone therof.

Cran. MarginaliaSubstance and efficacie both graunted in the Sacrament.Thus you gather vpon mine aunswere, as though I did meane of the efficacy, and not of the substance of the body: but I meane of them both, as well of the efficacye as the substance. And for so much as all things come not readily to memory, to a man that shal speake ex tempore, therfore for the more ample and fuller aunswere in the matter, this writing here I do exhibite.

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¶ An explication exhibited by Cranmer.

MarginaliaAn other explication for aunswere exhibited in writing. by the Archb.OVr Lord and Sauior Iesus Christ, at the time of his Maundy, preparing himselfe to die for our cause, that he might redeeme vs from eternall death, to forgeue vs all

our sinnes, and to cancell out the handwriting that was agaynst vs: þt we through ingratefull obliuion should not forget his death: MarginaliaThe finall cause why the supper was ordeyned.therfore he at þe time of his holy supper did institute a perpetuall memory of this his death, to be celebrated amōg christians in bread & wine, according as it is sayd: Do this in remembraunce of me. And so often as you shall eat this bread & drinke this cup, you shall shew forth the Lordes death till he come. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 446, fn 3

1 Cor. xi.

And this remembraunce or sacrament of his holy passion, that is, of his body slayne & bloud shed, he would all christians to frequent & celebrate in bread and wine, according as he sayd: Take eate: and drinke ye all of this. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 446, fn 4

Matt. xxvi.

Therfore, whosoeuer for mans tradition denyeth the cup of Christes bloud to lay men, they manifestly repugne agaynst Christ, forbidding that which Christ commaundeth to be done, and be like to those Scribes and Phariseis of whom the Lord spake: Ye hipocrites, ye haue reiected the cōmaundementes of God for your traditions. MarginaliaMath. 25. Well did Esaye prophecy of you, saying: This people honoureth me with theyr lips, but theyr hart is farre from me. Without cause do they worship me, teaching the doctrines and preceptes of men. MarginaliaLuke. 7.

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The sacrament and misticall bread, being broken and distributed after the institution of Christ, and the mysticall wine likewise being taken and receiued be not onely sacramentes of the fleshe of Christ wounded for vs, MarginaliaSacraments seales of Gods promises.and of hys bloudshedding but also be most certaine sacraments to vs and (as a manne would say) seales of Gods promises and giftes, and also of that holy felowship which we haue with Christ and all his members. Moreouer they be to vs memorials of that heauenly food and nourishment wherwith we are nourished vnto eternall life, and the thyrste of our boyling conscience quenched, and finally wherby the harts of the faythfull be replenished with vnspeakeable ioy, and be corroborated and strengthened vnto all workes of godlines. We are many (sayth S. Paule) one bread and one body, all we which doe participate of one breade, and one cuppe. Marginalia1. Cor. 11.And Christ sayth, Eate ye, this is my body. And drinke ye this is my bloud. MarginaliaMath. 26.And I am the liuing breade which came downe from heauen. He that eateth me, shall also liue for me. Not as your fathers did eate Manna in the desert and are dead: He that eateth me, shall also liue for me. MarginaliaIohn. 6.

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MarginaliaBread and wine remayne still in the Eucharist, and be seales to vs annexed with Gods promises.Thus therefore true bread and true wine remayn still in the Eucharist vntill they be consumed of the faythfull to be signes & as seales vnto vs annexed vnto Gods promises making vs certayne of Gods gifts towardes vs. Also Christ remaineth in them, & they in Christ, which eate his flesh, & drinke his bloud, as Christ himselfe hath promised. They that eat my flesh & drinke my bloud abide in me, & I in them. Moreouer he abideth also in them which worthely receiueth the outward sacrament, neither doth he depart so soone as the sacramentes is consumed, but continually abideth, feeding and nourishing vs so long as we remayne bodies of that head, & mēbers of the same. I acknowledge not here the naturall body of Christ, which is only spirituall, intelligible, and vnsensible, hauing no distinctiō of mēbers & partes in it: but that body onely I acknowledge, & worship, which was borne of the virgin, which suffred for vs, which is visible, palpable, & hath all the forme & shape and partes of the true naturall body of man.

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MarginaliaChristes wordes are spoken not of an vncertaine substāce but of a certeine substance of bread, which he had in his handes.Christ spake not these wordes of any vncertayne substance, but of the certayne substance of bread, which he then held in his hands & shewed his disciples whē he sayd: Eat ye, this is my body: and likewise of the cup: when he sayd: Drinke ye, this is my bloud: meaning verely of that bread which by nature is vsuall and common with vs, which is taken of the fruit of the ground, compacted by the vniting of many graynes together made by man, & by mans hand brought to that visible shape being of a round compasse & without all sense or life, whiche nourisheth the bodye, and strengtheneth the hart of man: Of this same bread (I say) and not of any vncertaine and wandring substance the old fathers say that Christ spake these wordes: Eate ye, this is my body. And likewise also of the wine which is the creature and fruite of the vine pressed out of many clusters of grapes, & maketh mens hart mery, of the very same wine (I say) Christ spake, drinke ye, this is my bloud. MarginaliaHow the doctours doe take the speach of Christ. Tropical. Figuratiue. Anagogicall. Allegoricall.And so the olde Doctors doe call this speaking of Christ, tropicall, figuratiue, anagogicall, allegoricall, which they do interpret after this sort, that although the substance of bread & wyne doe remayne and be receiued of the faythfull, MarginaliaBread called by the name of the body.yet notwithstanding Christ chaunged the appellation thereof, & called the bread by the name of his flesh, & the wine by the name of his bloud, non rei veritate, sed significāte misterio. i. not that it is so in verye deede, but signified in a misterye. So that wee shoulde consider, not what they bee in theyr owne nature. But what they import to vs and signify, and should vnderstand the Sacrament not carnally, but spiritually, and shoulde, attend not to the visible nature of the Sacraments, neither haue respect onely to the outward bread, &

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