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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ambrose Dudley

(1528? - 1590)

Third son of the Duke of Northumberland; Earl of Warwick (1561–90) (DNB)

Put in the Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Anne Seymour

(1497 - 1587)

Wife of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset (DNB, sub 'Seymour, Edward'; Complete Peerage)

Released from the Tower on 10 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1474 - 1559) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1522 - 1530). Bishop of Durham (1530 - 1551, 1553 - 1559). (DNB)

On 5 August 1553 Cuthbert Tunstall was released from the Tower. Foxe calls him, 'doctor Tonstal' (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554; cited as bishop of Durham (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was one of John Rogers's examiners on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86). He examined Rowland Taylor on the same day (1563, pp. 1071-73;1570, pp. 1696-97; 1576, p. 1640; 1583, pp. 1521-22).

He was one of the commissioners who presided over the deprivation of Hooper. 1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1505.

He was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylorto death (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp.1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54).

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Tunstall was present at the next examination of Bradford that took place after Bradford's imprisonment in the Tower, August 1553-22 January 1555. 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M. Ridley'. He acknolwedged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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The bishop of Durham asked Bradford when the Lord appeared in the giving of the sacrament, to which Bradford replied by quoting Chrysostom. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Robert Farrer was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Cuthbert Tunstall died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

[Also referred to as 'doctor Tonstal']

 
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Edmond Browne

Of Essex

The Privy Council sent a letter to him, Anthony Browne and Sir Henry Tyrrell instructing them to imprison all who 'contemne' the Queen's religious orders on (according to Foxe) 19 Auust 1553 (1583, p. 1465). [Foxe took this from the Privy Council Register but he misdated it. APC V, p. 63, gives the date of this letter as 19 August 1554.]

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Edward Underhill

(fl. 1539-61) (DNB)

Placed in the Tower on 5 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Underhill's account of his presecution in Mary's reign (after authoring a ballad attacking the Queen) is in Foxe's papers but was never printed by the martyrologist. (See Nichols, Narratives, pp. 134-76; BL Harley 425, fols. 85v - 98v).

 
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Edwin Sandys

(1519? - 1588)

Bishop of Worcester (1559 - 1570); London. Elizabethan archbishop of York (DNB)

Supporter of Northumberland and Lady Jane Grey. Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge rather than Chancellor as Foxe has him.

Edwin Sandys was put in the Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Bland was schoolmaster to Sandys, bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

Northumberland sent for Sandys, Parker, Bill and Leaver to have supper with him. 1583, p. 2086.

Parker and Sandys were made bishops. 1583, p. 2086.

John Gates was made a deacon. Sandys was expected to preach. Foxe records Sandys' actions the night before he preached. 1583, p. 2086.

During Sandys' sermon, he was handed a mass book and grail, which Sir George Haward had taken in Master Hurlestone's house, where Lady Grey had previously attended mass. 1583, p. 2086.

As Sandys was delivering his sermon, Adams, one of the beadles, came weeping to Leaver to tell him that Mary had been proclaimed queen and the duke's plans thwarted. 1583, p. 2086.

Northumberland and others requested Sandys to put his sermon in writing and appointed Leaver to take it to London to have it printed. 1583, p. 2086.

Sandys required a day and a half to write out his sermon. 1583, p. 2086.

Sandys gave the written copy of his sermon to Layfield. 1583, p. 2087.

Leaver went to dinner at the house of More (a beadle and a great friend of his). 1583, p. 2087.

Mistress More toasted Sandys at dinner, saying that it was the last time she would see him. She died before Sandys returned from Germany. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland retired to Cambridge and asked Sandys to go to the market place with him to proclaim Mary. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland wept at the proclamation. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland was arrested. 1583, p. 2087.

John Gates sharply rebuked the guards who looked to take Sandys. 1583, p. 2087.

Gates advised Sandys to walk in the fields. 1583, p. 2087.

University officials organised the taking of the statute book, keys and various things from Sandys' lodgings by Mouse and Hatcher. 1583, p. 2087.

As Sandys took his seat in the university, Mitch conspired to have him seized from his chair but Sandys began his oration to justify his sermon. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitch and twenty followers came to drag Sandys from his seat. 1583, p. 2087.

Dr Bill and Dr Blith persuaded Sandys not to use his dagger against his attackers. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys was able to finish his oration. 1583, p. 2087.

Master Jerningham and Thomas Mildmay took Sandys to prison. 1583, p. 2087.

Mildmay said that he marvelled at what Sandys had said the day before his arrest. 1583, p. 2087.

Huddlestone took one of Sandys' geldings. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys was taken in procession to the Tower. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys, having spent three weeks in a bad prison, was imprisoned in the nun's bower with John Bradford. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitchell spoke with Sandys in prison. 1583, p. 2087.

John Bowler was keeper to Sandys, Bradford and Saunders. 1583, p. 2087.

Bowler was kind to Sandys and received the sacrament from him with Bradford. 1583, p. 2087.

Norfolk sent arms against Wyatt. 1583, p. 2087.

Bradford was imprisoned with Cranmer and Ridley, while Sandys and others were removed to the Marshalsea. 1583, p. 2087.

Thomas Way, the keeper of the Marshalsea, appointed a man to every prisoner he moved. He conversed with Sandys as he was being transferred. 1583, p. 2088.

Way trusted Sandys to meet with Bradford in the fields and later return to prison. 1583, p. 2088.

Thomas Way would not let Sir Thomas Holcroft's servant put fetters on Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Way allowed Saunder in to see Sandys, and Sandys' daughter also. 1583, p. 2088.

When Wyatt came to Southwark he sent two men to speak with Sandys in the Marshalsea, and they offered to open the gates of the prison for him. Sandys said he would not be assisted unless it was God's will. 1583, p. 2088.

After nine weeks' imprisonment in the Marshalsea, Holcroft allowed Sandys to be set free. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft petitioned Gardiner for Sandys' release. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft attended the queen with Sandys' remission. 1583, p. 2088.

Mary, Winchester and Holcroft signed Sandys' release papers. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft met with two gentleman friends of Sandys and offered to be bound in surety for him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys said that he wished to go abroad, which did not please Holcroft. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft told Sandys that his cousin, Sir Edward Bray, would receive him and his wife and that he must be patient. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys bade farewell to Saunders and his other fellow prisoners, and later talked with Bradford and Ferrar. 1583, p. 2088.

Watson and Christopherson told Winchester that he had set a heretic free. Winchester then sent men to apprehend Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys went to the house of Master Bartley (a stranger who had been imprisoned with Sandys for some time). 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys went to the home of Hurlestone (a skinner) in Cornhill. Hurlestone had his man Quinting provide two geldings for Sandys to ride to his father-in-law's house in Essex, where his wife was. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin (a tailor and constable of the town) and Mrs. Hurlstone told Sandys not to be afraid of those who were looking for him. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin told Sandys that the constable who arrested Sandys would receive £5. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin told Sandys of his plot to help him escape, as his persecutors knew of his plans. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys removed to the house of a farmer, near the sea, and then on to that of James Mower, a shipbuilder, who lived in Milton Shore. He spent two nights there and gave an exhortation to 40-50 mariners there. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys met with Master Isaac of Kent, who sent his eldest son with Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys and Coxe made their escape on board Cockrel's ship. 1583, p. 2088.

They arrived in Antwerp and went to dine with Master Locke. 1583, p. 2088.

While Sandys was at dinner, his kinsman George Gilpin, secretary to the English House, came in and warned Sandys that he was under instruction from King Philip to find and seize him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys and his retinue fled to Ausburg and then on to Strasburg. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys was in Strasbourg for one year before his wife joined him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys' wife was with him for nine months and then was taken ill and died of a consumption. 1583, p. 2088.

After the death of Sandys' wife, Master Sampson, a man skillful in Hebrew, went to Emanuel College, Cambridge. Grindal went into the country to learn Dutch. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys remained in Strasbourg, sustained by Master Isaac, who gave him many gifts and 100 marks, which Sandys was later able to return to him. 1583, p. 2088.

After the death of his wife, Sandys went to stay with Peter Martyr in Zurich for five weeks. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys was at dinner with Martyr when they learned of the news of Mary's death. 1583, p. 2088.

Martyr and Jarret rejoiced at the news of Mary's death. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys ate with Bullinger and others before returning to Strasburg. 1583, p. 2088.

Grindal and Sandys arrived in London on the day of Elizabeth's coronation. 1583, p. 2088.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of Worcester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

[He is also referred to by Foxe as 'Sanders' and 'D. Sandes'.]

 
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Francis Hastings

(1514? - 1561)

2nd earl of Huntingdon (DNB)

Francis Hastings supported Northumberland against Mary; he was arrested at Cambridge together with Northumberland (1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; 1583, p. 1407).

He was committed to the Tower with Northumberland (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower on 10 October 1553 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

Francis Hastings was sent to apprehend the duke of Suffolk who had fled into Warwickshire. Hastings reached Coventry before Suffolk and thwarted Suffolk?s rising. Suffolk was betrayed by a servant and captured (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

Francis Hastings was sent to Leicestershire in late January 1554 to apprehend Henry Grey, the duke of Suffolk; he proclaimed Suffolk a traitor (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

 
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Francis Russell

(1527? - 1585)

Son of John Russell; Earl of Bedford (1555–85) (DNB)

Committed to the custody of the Sheriff of London, 30 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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George Day

(1501? - 1556)

Bishop of Chichester (1543 - 1551, 1553 - 1556) [DNB]

George Day was delivered from the Fleet 4 August 1553; he preached at Edward VI's funeral, 8 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1456).

He preached at Mary's coronation, 1 October 1553 (1570; p. 1635, 1576; p. 1395; 1583; p. 1466).

He was one of the commissioners who presided over the deprivation of John Hooper. 1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1506.

Hooper wrote a letter to Day which Foxe mentions, but did not print. 1563, p. 1063; 1570, p. 1686; 1576, p. 1439; 1583, p. 1512.

Day sought to persuade Sir James Hales to submit to Gardiner and abjure his actions, if not his religious convictions. 1563, p. 1116; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p.1458; 1583, p. 1532.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with John Bradford. They talked for three hours. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

John Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that had done Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

Day visited Gardiner in prison. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York, Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, p. 1824-26.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York, Chichester, Bath, John Harpsfield, Chadsey, Bonner, into which entered William Garret, knight, the lord mayor and the sheriff (Thomas Leigh) of London, Sir Martin Bowes, knight,. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

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George Day died before Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

[No relation to John Day the printer or Richard Day the martyr.]

 
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George Ferrers

(1500 - 1579) (DNB)

Put in Tower, 5 August 1553. Foxe calls him 'Lord Feries', (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Accompanied Queen to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553. Foxe calls him 'Lord Ferris', (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

 
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Gilbert Bourne

(d. 1569)

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (1531). Prebend of Worcester (1541). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1554 - 1560) [DNB]

Bourne preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This so enraged his auditors that a dagger was thrown at him. At the request of Bourne's brother, Bradford quieted the mob; Bradford and John Rogers later escorted Bourne to safety. (Rerum, pp. 464 - 65; 1563, pp. 904 - 5; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 (recte 1409)).

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Bourne's sermon is briefly mentioned later by Foxe (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was created bishop of Bath and Wells (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He visited Walter Mantell repeatedly before his execution and unsuccessfully attempted to convert him to catholic teachings on confession and the Sacrament (1570, p. 1638; 1576, pp. 1397-98; 1583, p. 1468).

Together with Edmund Bonner and Henry Morgan, Gilbert Bourne condemned Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. Before condemning Tomkins, Bourne exhorted him to recant. (1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535).

On 17 February 1555 Bonner, Bourne and others urged Thomas Higbed and Thomas Causton to recant. (1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539).

On 13 August 1553 John Bradford saved Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1604.

During Bourne's sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, he had a dagger thrown at him from the crowd. 1563, p. 1173. The dagger touched Bradford's sleeve. 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610. John Bradford took over from him in the pulpit and the crowd's wrath subsided. Bradford then protected him when they left the pulpit. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

John Philpot's final examination, on 16 December 1555, was before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

The certificate for Richard Lush's condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Robert Farrer's examination was before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Bourne was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2063.

 
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Henry Dudley

(d. 1555) [See DNB under Dudley, John] Second son of the Duke of Northumberland

Put in Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Henry Elsing

Baker of St Dunstan-in-the West, London. He stood surety for Thomas Sampson's first fruits as rector of All Hallows Bread Street in 1552. (See Brett Usher, Backing Protestantism, pp. 110 and 134)

John Bradford arrested in his house in Fleet Street on 16 August 1553. Thomas Sampson was also expected by the authorities to be there but was not present and eluded arrest (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1415).

 
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Henry Fitzalan

(1512 - 1580)

Earl of Arundel (DNB)

Henry Fitzalan was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-07).

Fitzalan escorted Henry Dudley, the duke of Northumberland, to the Tower (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Fitzalan was one of the leaders of the troops sent against Sir Thomas Wyatt (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1467).

He was chief judge at the condemnation of Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He greeted Philip on his arrival at Southampton on 20 July 1554 (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

He was present at Stephen Gardiner?s Paul?s Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Fitzalan bore a cap of maintenance before Queen Mary at the opening of parliament on 12 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He was signatory to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, from the privy council to Bonner, informing him that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

Henry Fitzalan was patron of Lexden parish. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

He was involved in the questioning of Elizabeth after her removal from Ashridge. He apologized to her for the questioning she had been subjected to. 1563, p. 1712.

He was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton Court. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

 
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Henry Grey

(d. 1554)

Marquis of Dorset (1517 - 1554); duke of Suffolk (1551 - 1554). Father of Lady Jane Grey. [DNB)]

Although it was originally intended that Henry Grey should take the field against Mary in 1553, it was later decided that he should have custody of the Tower, where his daughter Jane Grey and her husband Guildford Dudley were staying (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; and 1583, p. 1407).

He was committed to the Tower on 28 July 1553; released on 31 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Suffolk fled into Warwickshire and Leicestershire 'to gather a power'. The earl of Huntingdon was sent into Warwickshire to stop the duke. Huntingdon reached Coventry before the duke and thwarted him. Suffolk was betrayed by a servant and taken to London (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1418).

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At the end of January 1554, Suffolk, together with his brother John, went into Leicestershire. Frances Hastings, the earl of Huntingdon, was ordered to bring him back to London; Hastings proclaimed the duke a traitor (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Henry was apprehended together with his brother John (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

On 17 February he was arraigned and condemned to die (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was beheaded on Tower Hill (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423).

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane Grey. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe presents a detailed account of Suffolk's fortitude and affirmation of his protestantism at his execution (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

 
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Henry Hastings

(1535-95)

Eldest son of Francis Hastings; 3rd Earl of Huntingdon (DNB)

Foxe calls Henry Hastings 'Lord Hastings'.

Put in the Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 and 'delivered againe ye same night' (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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Henry Manners

(d. 1563)

2nd Earl of Rutland (DNB)

Committed to the Fleet on 31 July 1553 (DNB, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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Jean Veron

(d. 1563)

French protestant divine and controversialist (DNB)

Jean Veron is misidentified as 'M. Vernon' by Foxe, who accurately reports that he was committed to the Tower, together with Bradford, by the privy council on 16 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; cf. APC IV, p. 321).

There is another mention of Veron being sent to the Tower, together with Bradford and Becon, on 16 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Dudley

(1502? - 1553)

Duke of Northumberland (DNB)

John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland brought about the death of the Duke of Somerset because Somerset blocked his ambitions. His execution under Mary is described as a providential punishment for this crime; as Northumberland was being led to the Tower, a woman waved a handkerchief at him which was splattered with Somerset's blood (Rerum, p. 214).

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Foxe strongly implies that Northumberland poisoned Edward VI (Rerum, p. 214).

Sir Ralph Fane executed (only) because he had angered Northumberland (Rerum, p. 214).

Foxe comments darkly that the workings of Jane Grey's marriage to Guildford Dudley and of Edward VI's death were mysterious (Rerum, p. 232).

[NB: All of the above references to Dudley, quoted from the Rerum, were never printed in the Actes and Monuments.]

Northumberland sent a letter to Thomas Cranmer, dated 23 July 1550, asking that John Hooper be consecrated without having to swear the customary oath (1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430], 1583, p. 1504).

He was sent by the Privy Council to take the field against Princess Mary (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; and 1583, p. 1407; cf. Rerum, p. 233).

He was a signatory to a letter from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He fatally delayed in attacking Mary, allowing her to gather support (1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1407).

Northumberland, abandoned by his supporters, was captured at Cambridge (1563, p. 902: 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1407).

Foxe repeats his statement that Northumberland was apprehended and brought to the Tower by Henry Fitzalan, the Earl of Arundel, on 15 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was arraigned and condemned of treason on 18 August 1553, the Duke of Norfolk presiding over the trial (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He heard Mass within the Tower and received the Sacrament there in one kind (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He was condemned to death and recanted and attended Mass in the hope of a pardon; his recantation was documented widely by the Catholics (1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1407-8).

[NB: Foxe ameliorates this slightly in 1570 et seq. by stating that Dudley was definitely offered a pardon. In 1563, Foxe was uncertain about this.]

Northumberland executed (1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; 1583, p. 1408).

Northumberland was beheaded on 22 August 1553 on Tower Hill (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1464).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Dudley

Earl of Warwick; eldest son of the Duke of Northumberland (Complete Peerage)

Committed to the Tower with his father (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Arraigned and condemned for treason on 18 August 1553 along with his father and the Marques of Northampton (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Russell

(1485? - 1555)

1st earl of Bedford. Lord Privy Seal (1542 - 1555). [DNB

John Russell attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Lord Russell received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, p. 1816, 1576, p. 1552, 1583, p. 1634.

When Cranmer appeared with the king's ring in council, the earl of Bedford said he had warned against the council's actions. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866. [John Russell was not yet earl of Bedford, but this is the title by which Foxe knew him.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Cox

(1500 - 1581)

Chaplain to Henry VIII, Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Goodricke. Bishop of Ely (1559-1581). Exile during Mary's reign.[DNB]

Richard Cox was committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1465.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

During Careless' first examination, Martin claimed that Cox had refuted some of Careless' arguments. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02.

Julins Palmer's first examination was by the mayor, with charges brought by Thomas Thackham (who had been in the teaching post that Palmer had taken). False witnesses against him were Cox, Cately and Downer. Foxe records the articles against him. 1570, pp. 2120-21, 1570, pp. 1842-43, 1583, pp. 1937-38.

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Richard Cox was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

[Also referred to as 'D. Cockes']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Dudley

(1532? - 1588)

Fifth son of the Duke of Northumberland. Earl of Leicester (1564–88). (DNB)

Put in Tower 26 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Andrew Dudley

(d. 1559)

Younger brother of the Duke of Northumberland (DNB)

Put in Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Arraigned and condemned at Westminster 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Heard Mass in Tower 21 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Released on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir Edward Montagu

(d. 1557)

Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (DNB)

Put in the Tower, 27 July 1553; called 'Lord Mountacute, chief Justice of the common place' by Foxe. (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

'Montacute' delivered from the Tower, 7 September 1553, (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

 
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Sir Henry Dudley

(d. 1565?) (DNB suppl.)

Captain of the Guard of Guisnes; cousin of Northumberland

Sent to the Tower on 7 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465.)

[NB: Do not confuse Sir Henry Dudley with Henry Dudley, the eldest son of Northumberland.]

 
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Sir Henry Gates

(c. 1523 - 1589)

Brother of Sir John Gates (Bindoff, Commons)

Imprisoned with Northumberland in the Tower 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Arraigned and condemned at Westminster 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Pardoned and released in October 1553 (Bindoff, Commons).

 
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Sir Henry Tyrell

JP in Essex (1555) [PRO, SP11/5, no. 6]

The privy council sent a letter to Sir Henry Tyrell, Anthony Browne and Edmond Browne, instructing that they imprison all those who ?contemne? the queen?s religious order on (according to Foxe) 19 August 1553 (1583, p. 1465). [Foxe took this material from the privy council register but he misdated it. APC V, p. 63 shows that the date of the letter was 19 August 1554.]

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Tyrell was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent Wattes to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Tyrell was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

 
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Sir John Cheke

(1514 - 1557)

Tutor to Edward VI, privy councillor under Edward VI. [DNB]

Sir John Cheke was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

Cheke was placed in the Tower on 28 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Actions were taken by Stephen Gardiner against Cheke. 1563, p. 1382, 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

When Cheke was in Germany he was greatly esteemed by the Germans. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He travelled with Sir Peter Carew from High Germany to Brussels, having checked his route by the stars. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He was famous for his knowledge of astronomy. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke had safe passage from King Philip, with Lord Paget and Sir John Mas securing their safety. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He arrived in Brussels to see the queen's ambassadors. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Having seen Paget safely off to England, Carew and Cheke were taken en route between Brussels and Antwerp. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke was shipped to the Tower of London in dreadful conditions. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke recanted but was so remorseful that he became sick and died. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Nicholas Carre wrote a letter to John Cheke about Martin Bucer which was then passed on to Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1957.

[Also referred to as 'Sir John Cheeke']

 
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Sir John Gates

(1504? - 1553) (DNB)

Sheriff of Essex; Captain of the Guard

He is described as Northumberland?s right-hand man (Bindoff, Commons).

Sir John Gates was a signatory of a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary , dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-07).

John Gates was imprisoned in the Tower with Northumberland, 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He heard mass in the Tower 21 August 1553, and was beheaded 22 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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Sir Richard Corbet

(1527 - 1560 or later)

Imprisoned under Mary.

Put in Tower on 26 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; and 1583, p. 1465). Pardoned and released from the Tower in October 1553 (Bindoff, Commons).

 
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Sir Roger Cholmley

(d. 1565)

Lord chief justice of King's and Queen's Bench (1552 - 1553), privy councillor (under Mary) and MP [Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons; DNB]. Judge, lieutenant of the Tower. Son of Sir Richard Cholmley [DNB]

Sir Roger Cholmley persuaded the royal guard to support Northumberland against Mary (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, p. 1407).

He was sent to the Tower, with Sir Edward Montagu, on 27 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower together with Sir Edward Montagu on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Sir Roger Cholmley was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Cholmley participated in a debate/dinner conversation between Nicholas Ridley and John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, on the nature of the eucharist, held while Ridley was a prisoner in the Tower (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, pp. 1357-58; and 1583, p. 1428).

Cholmley came to William Flower at the stake and urged Flower, on pain of damnation, to recant his heretical beliefs. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1577.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Cholmley was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was made to Cholmley. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857. [Foxe erroneously calls him 'Sir Richard Cholmley'.]

Cuthbert Symson was brought before Cholmley, examined and racked. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Cholmley sent to Newgate 27 prisoners who were members of an illegal conventicle in Islington. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Thomas Hinshaw was taken by the constables of Islington to appear before Master Cholmley, who sent him to Newgate. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Robert Farrer, haberdasher of London, had two daughters, one of whom was delivered to Sir Roger Cholmley for a sum of money, to be at his commandment, the other sold to Sir William Godolphin, who took her to Boulogne as his lackey, dressed in men's clothing. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

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The lord mayor of London and Chomley examined Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

Tingle was a prisoner in Newgate. His keeper realised that Edward Benet had a New Testament and sent him to Cholmley, who imprisoned him in the Compter for 25 weeks. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Benet was apprehended again in Islington and sent before Cholmley but was cut off from the rest. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[Also referred to as 'Lorde Chiefe Baron' or 'Chomley']

 
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Sir Thomas Palmer

(d. 1553) (DNB)

Sir Thomas Palmer was put in the Tower with Northumberland, 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was arraigned and condemned at Westminster, 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He heard mass in the Tower, 21 August 1553. Palmer was beheaded 22 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

 
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Sir Thomas Smith

(1513 - 1577)

Author of De republica Anglorum (DNB)

Cited to appear before the Queen's Commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Author of a prayer for the health of Queen Mary and her conceived child printed by Foxe (1563, pp. 1016-17; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1410; 1583, p. 1481). [NB: Smith is only identified as the author in the 1563 edition].

 
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Thomas Becon

(1512 - 1567) [DNB]

Thomas Becon was committed to the Tower, together with John Bradford and 'M. Vernon' (i.e., Jean Veron) by the privy council on 16 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409] and APC IV, p. 322).

Another mention of Becon being sent to the Tower, together with Bradford and Veron, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

[Also referred to as 'M. Beacon']

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Howard

(1473 - 1554)

Earl of Surrey and 3rd duke of Norfolk. [DNB]

Thomas Howard was released from the Tower on 10 August 1553 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of the duke of Northumberland, his son the earl of Warwick and the marquis of Northampton on 18 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He was sent against Wyatt but was compelled to retreat when his soldiers deserted (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

A letter from Mary to Norfolk, describing Wyatt's capture, and dated 8 February 1554, is printed in 1563, p. 1731 and 1583, p. 2128. [It was omitted from 1570 and 1576.]

The old duke of Norfolk witnessed the sudden illness of Stephen Gardiner that preceded his death. 1583, pp. 1787-88.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Mary sent a letter to him in the first year of her reign. 1583, p. 2128.

In her letter Mary told Howard that three of the Cobhams, Bret, Knevet and Rudstone, and Iseley had been arrested. [The arrest was in connection with the Wyatt rebellion, which Norfolk was sent out to suppress (and failed).] 1583, p. 2128.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Sampson

(1517? - 1589)

Dean of Chichester (1553) Fasti. Anti-vestiarian leader in Elizabeth's reign (DNB

Was supposed to be arrested at the house of Henry Elsing in Fleet Street but was not present. (John Bradford was, and was arrested). Sampson eluded arrest, much to Stephen Gardiner's fury (1570, p.1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Watson

(1513 - 1584)

Chancellor of Cambridge University (from 25 September 1553); Master of St. John's (Cambridge) (from 28 September 1553); Dean of Durham (from 18 November 1553); Bishop of Lincoln (1557 - 1559) (DNB)

In the 1553 Convocation, Thomas Watson engaged in a long debate with James Haddon on the meaning of a passage in Theodoret, regarding the Eucharist (John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XVIII day of Octobre MDLIIII, [Emden, 1554], STC 19890, sigs. C8v - D14; 1563, p. 912; 1570, p. 1576; 1576, p. 1344; 1583, p. 1414; also see Rerum, p. 227. Philpot's account, reprinted by Foxe, abridges this argument. It is given in BL Harley 422, fols. 38r - 40r, which was not printed by Foxe, but is printed in R. W. Dixon, A History of the Church of England (6 vols, London, (1884 - 1902), IV, pp. 81 - 85).

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Watson, supported by Henry Morgan and John Harpsfield, debated with Richard Cheney on the Real Presence on the fifth day of the 1553 Convocation (1563, pp. 912-17; 1570, pp. 1576-1576 [recte 1577]; 1576, pp. 1344-45; and 1583, pp. 1415-16).

Watson was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 932, 936-38, 973-76; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1618-21; 1576, p. 1358-59 and 1381-83; 1583, pp. 1428-30 and 1451-54).

[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations of 1554 mentions Watson's debating with Ridley (1563, p. 934; 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; 1583, p. 1441).

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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On 20 August 1553, Watson preached a sermon at Paul's Cross where, to protect him from a potentially hostile crowd, he was guarded by two hundred soldiers (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Thomas Watson was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Watson was sent to examine certain scholars at St John's College, Cambridge, on 9 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

He gave answer to an oration made by a fellow of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

He thanked the fellows of Trinity College for their oration at the arrival of the commissioners. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

The reformation of the University of Cambridge commanded by the queen's commissioners in 1557 was to take place at Watson's discretion. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1958.

Scot, Watson and Christopherson discussed and agreed to the exhumation of Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1958.

Watson preached a sermon on Candlemas day. 1570, p. 2150, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1963.

Watson was present at the examination of John Rough and denounced him as a heretic. 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

Thomas Rose was imprisoned in the bishop of Lincoln's house in Holborn. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Watson was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Watson was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Chedsey

(1510 - 1574?)

Of Somersetshire. Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Archdeacon of Middlesex (1554 - 1559). President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford (1558 - 1559). [DNB; Fasti; Foster]

After the death of Edward VI Chedsey recanted and mutated his doctrine to his own purpose, as in his dispute with Peter Martyr.

Chedsey preached at Paul's Cross on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He argued with John Philpot in defence of transubstantiation in the 1553 convocation (1563, pp. 910-11; 1570, pp. 1574-75; 1576, p. 1342-3; and 1583, pp. 1413-14).

He was one of the catholic disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554. He debated with Cranmer on the morning of Monday 16 April (1563, pp. 932-33, 939-43, 946-48, 951 and 954-55; 1570, pp. 1594-96, 1599-1600, 1602 and 1604-5; 1576, pp 1360-62, 1364-65, 1367 and 1369-70; 1583, pp. 1430-32, 1435-1436, 1437 and 1439-40).

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When Chedsey addressed the lord mayor of London, he mentioned two letters- one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsberye, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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He published a declaration at Paul's Cross in May 1555. 1563, p. , 1570, p. , 1576, p. , 1583, p. .

Chedsey tried to persuade Hooper to recant after his condemnation on 29 January 1555. He was unsuccessful but false rumors circulated that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

He witnessed Bishop Bonner's burning Thomas Tomkins' hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

In late June 1554, Chedsey discussed vernacular services and the adoration of the cross with Thomas Hawkes. The next day Chedsey preached in Bonner's chapel, extolling the saving power of the eucharist. 1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1589

Philpot's sixth examination was before the Lord Chamberlain to Queen Mary, Ferrars, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Lord Shandoys, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session, to examine Philpot and Chadsey, who had however left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day as his twelfth examination. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, p. 1717, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York, Chichester, Bath, John Harpsfield, Chadsey, Bonner, into which entered William Garret, knight, the lord mayor and the sheriff (Thomas Leigh) of London and Sir Martin Bowes, knight. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

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Chedsey testified in the presence of Master Moseley and the lieutenant of the Tower that Bartlett Green had denied transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. 1563, p. 1217.

Benold was examined before Chedsey, John Kingston, John Boswell, the two bailiffs of Colchester (Robert Brown and Robert Mainard) and several others on 23 June 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

Elizabeth Folkes was examined before Chedsey, John Kingston, John Boswell, the two bailiffs of Colchester (Robert Brown and Robert Mainard) and several others on 23 June 1557. Chedsey wept when the sentence of condemnation was read against her. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

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When Alexander Wimshurst arrived at St Paul's, he saw Chedsey, his old acquaintance at Oxford, and said to him that he would rather be examined by Martin than by anyone else. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

William Wood was examined by Chedsey, Kenall and Robinson on 19 October 1554 in St Nicholas's church, Rochester. 1570, p. 2281, 1576, pp. 1969-70, 1583, p. 2077.

Chedsey was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

He sent a letter to Bonner dated 21 April 1558 [BL, Ms. Harley 416, fos.74r-v. Foxe describes the letter on 1570, p. 2301 et seq.]

[Foxe frequently refers to him as 'Chadsey'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Herbert

(1501? - 1570)

1st Earl of Pembroke (DNB)

Attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Accompanied the Queen to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Bore a sword in procession before the Queen at the opening of Parliament on 12 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Parr

(1513 - 1571)

Marquis of Northampton. Brother of Henry VIII's last queen [DNB]

William Parr signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550, permitting Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504.

Parr was committed to the Tower on 26 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was arraigned and condemned for treason on 18 August 1553, along with Northumberland and the earl of Warwick (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

On 21 August 1553, he heard mass within the Tower and received the sacrament in one kind (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower on 31 December 1553 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Parr was sent back to the Tower on 25 January 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He was released again from the Tower on 24 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1483? - 1572)

Marquess of Winchester (1551 - 1572) [DNB]

William Paulet signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504. [Paulet signed as 'W. Wiltshire', being earl of Wiltshire at the time].

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer on 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Paulet was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Paulet and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

On 16 May 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send Thomas Ross to John Hopton, and to commit Stephen Appes to Bedlam, if reports of his madness were true. 1583, p. 1577.

On 26 May 1555 the privy council ordered that that Paulet confer with Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs about where convicted heretics were to be executed. 1583, p. 1577.

On 28 May 1555 the Privy Council instructed Paulet to provide money for ambassadors carrying news of the (anticipated) safe delivery of Mary's child to various foreign monarchs. 1583, p. 1577.

On 12 June 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send writs for the executions of Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

Derick Carver was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, then lord treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Paulet wrote to Feckenham, the dean of St Paul's. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

[Also referred to as 'Marquis of Winchester' and 'W. Wiltshire']

1489 [1465]

Queene Mary. Certaine imprisoned. Others deliuered. Cranmers purgation of himselfe.

 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 536, line 15 from the bottom

Most of the incidents mentioned in the next thirty pages appear in the Council Book, Holinshead, Stowe, or Strype.

These disputations being thus discoursed and ended, which were at Oxforde in the moneth of April, as is aforesayd: nowe let vs returne againe to the prosecuting of our story, touching other things likewise þt happened in other parties of the realme, in this tumultuous time of Queene Marie. And because thinges that happened in that time, were so many and diuers, that it is hard to keepe a perfecte order in reciting them all: to the entent therefore to inserte things leaft out before, or els to prosecute the same more at full, we haue thought heere a litle to interrupt the order of time (albeit not muche)  
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 536, line 5 from the bottom

The edition of 1563, p. 1000, here says, "returning again to the month of August the year before, viz. 1553. In the whiche moneth of August Masse first seemed to be attempted in London." Then follows the passage: "The 11th day of August An. 1553 did a priest say masse at S. Barthelmews in Smithfield; but before he had half done, he was glad to take him to his legges; for as he was lifting up the bread, there were stones flong at him, and one hit him between the shoulders, as the bread was over his head; so that he would not tary, to make an end of his maske."

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returning againe to the moneth of Iulie the yeare before, videlicet. 1553.  
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Block 24: Political events up to Suffolk's death

The Oxford disputations were the last section of Book 10 that had any basis in the Rerum. All of the remaining narrative in this book was researched and composed in the period 1559 - 1570 from a medley of sources, mostly oral informants, chronicles and official documents. The very nature of these sources meant that Foxe's acquisition of them was relatively unplanned and somewhat chaotic.

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The section on events in the first year of Mary's reign provides a classic example of how the later editions (to say nothing of the Victorian editions) conceal the sources and development of the Acts and Monuments. In every edition there are a few introductory sentences in which Foxe apologises for breaking the chronological order of his narrative to include further material on the first year of Mary's reign (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465). This was because new material reached him during the printing of the 1563 edition which he inserted into the text as he acquired it.

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In the which moneth of Iuly I shewed before howe the Duke of Northumberland was apprehended by the Gard, and brought to London by the Earle of Arundell and other Lordes and Gentlemen appoynted for that purpose on S. Iames day, being the 25. day of Iuly, and so to the tower, where they remained. 
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This material was a list of events about the reimposition of catholicism in Cambridge and London (1563, pp. 1000-01). The source for this was a journal or chronicle, now lost, by a source who was well informed about events in Cambridge. The London material either came from him or was added by Foxe from other sources. (The evidence suggests, however, that there was a single source for the London material; it is noticeable that all the London events take place in the area of Cheapside).

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Almost all of this material was retained in later editions - the exception being which was very probably dropped because it depicted protestants as coming very close to sedition in their opposition to Mary - but this material was broken up and scattered (in chronological order) among new information which was added in the 1570 edition. This information was drawn largely from a London chronicle (or chronicles) now lost. Foxe printed this source en bloc, resulting in a great deal of repetition of events already discussed, irrelevancies (it was simpler to reprint than select and edit this material), inconsistencies (especially in dates) and inaccuracies. Foxe never reworked this material or tried to integrate it with the earlier political narrative in Book 10. This relative neglect, contrasted with the laborious editorial care devoted to the Oxford disputations, clearly demonstrates Foxe's editorial priorities.

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Among the many repetitions is a notice of Gilbert Bourne's Paul's Cross sermon of 13 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465). (Incidentally, the date of the sermon is given as 13 August earlier in Foxe - 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; 1583, p. 1397 - and as 11 August here. This is one of a number of cases where Foxe reprinted differing dates for events by different sources and never bothered to correct, or apparently even to check, them).

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It is also worth observing that notes in the different editions direct the reader to the account of Bourne's sermon given earlier in Foxe. But in 1583, the note directs the reader to page 1339, which is the correct page in the 1576, not the 1583, edition. (The correct page in the 1583 edition is page 1397). This failure to revise the cross-references is a recurring problem in the 1583 edition.

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Among other repetitions in this section of Book 10 are a description of Mary's proclamation against heretical books (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465) already printed in 1563, pp. 903-04; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1338; 1583, pp. 1408-09, and a new account of the executions of Northumberland, Gates and Palmer (1570, 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465) already described in 1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; 1583, p. 1408. One cause of numerous repetitions was Foxe's introduction of material from the Privy Council Register into the 1583 edition. In many cases, Foxe had already related the incident, drawing it from other sources. Thus, for example, Foxe had a notice of John Bradford, Thomas Becon and Jean Veron being sent to the Tower in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465) when he added another notice of this to 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409], based on APC IV, p. 321.

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These be the names of them which were committed to the Tower with the Duke.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Political Events up to Suffolk's Death

The glosses here are less directly adversarial than they were during the disputations. Many of them describe political events, others deal with arraignments, imprisonments and pardons. The move from the debating chamber has not stopped Foxe's willingness to criticise procedure, though now it is illegality rather than indecorum that he attacks; it is perhaps significant that shortly after the account of the repeal of Edward VI's laws, Foxe reports and highlights the case of a Canterbury priest who repented saying Mass: the implication is perhaps that beyond the law, conscience must be heard. The shift to narrative also encourages Foxe to emphasize some providential signs in the glosses, as with the strange sights preceding Phillip's arrival and the satisfactorily horrible death of the 'murtherer' Thornton. This may be contrasted with the noble and godly death of Suffolk, whose virtuous deportment is cued by a series of glosses. It is worth noting that the last gloss contains further and more accurate information than the text, yet it was not edited into the main text after 1570. Other glosses provide examples of errors.

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MarginaliaThe names of them that were committed to the Tower with the Duke of Northumberland.First the Earle of Warwike, the Earle of Huntington, Lord Ambrose, and Lord Henry Dudley, Lord Hastings, who was deliuered againe þe same night sir Iohn Gates, sir Henry Gates, sir Andrew Dudley, sir Thom. Palmer, and D. Sandes Chancelour of Cambridge.

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The 26. day the Lorde Marques of Northampton, the B. of London, Lord Robert Dudly, and sir Richard Corbet were brought and committed to the Tower.

The 27. day the Lorde chiefe Iustice of Englande, and the Lord Mountacute 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 537, fn 1

Sir Edward Montague, is meant. He had been speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Henry VIII.

chiefe Iustice of the common place, were committed to the Tower.

Vppon the Friday being the 28. of Iulye, the Duke of Suffolke, and Sir Iohn Cheeke were committed to the Tower.

The 30. of Iulye, the Lorde Russell was committed to the Sheriffe of Londons custodie.

The 31. day the Earle of Rutlande was committed to the Fleete.

MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke deliuered out of the Tower.Vppon the monday the last of Iuly, the Duke of Suffolke was deliuered out of the Tower againe.

Vpon thursday the 3. of August, the Queene entred into the citie of London at Algate, & so to the Tower, where shee remained seuen daies, and then remooued to Richmond.

Vppon friday the fourth day, doct. Day was deliuered out of the Fleete.

Vpon saterday the 5. day, the Lorde Feries was committed to the tower, and the same daye MarginaliaBoner set at libertie.D. Boner was deliuered out of the Marshalsey. The same day at nyght D. Cockes was committed to the Marshalsey, and one M. Edward Vnderhill to Newgate. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 537, fn 2

Of the sufferings of this man, a narration is given by Strype, from an account which Underhill himself drew up and sent to Foxe. See Mem. under Mary, cap. 6. - ED.

Also the same day doctor Tonstal and Ste. Gardiner were deliuered out of the Tower, and Gardiner receiued into the Quenes priuie counsaile, and made Lord Chancelor.

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Vppon Sunday the 7. day, Henry Dudley captaine of the Garde at Guynes, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 537, fn 3

A small town four miles from Calais. - ED.

whych before had beene sente to the French king by his cosin the Duke of Northumberlande, after the dispatch of his ambassage with the French kinge, returned to Guines, & so was taken, and this day brought to the Tower.

Vppon mondaye the seuenth day of August, Dirige in Latine was songe wythin the Tower, by all the Kynges Chappel, and the bishop of Winchester was chief minister, wherat was present the Queene, and the most parte of the Counsaile.

MarginaliaKing Edwardes body buryed.Vppon Tuesday the viij. day of August, the kings body was brought to Westminster, and there buryed, where D. Day Bishop of Chichester preached. The same daye a Masse of Requiem was songe within the tower, by the Byshop of Winchester, who had on his Miter, & did al things as in times past was done, at whyche Masse the Queene was present. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 537, bottom

The example thus set by the Queen in patronizing the popish ritual very much tended to the general restoration of it: the Mass does not seem to have been regularly authorized till December, see p. 542. But the first edition of Foxe, p. 1000, says, "In the whiche moneth of August Masse first seemed to be attempted in London." In a letter of John Rowe, dated London, August 24th, we read that, "As for the altares and masses [they] are in bildinge faster than ever they weare put downe." In another of William Dalby, September 1st, "All the altares at Poules are up, and all the oulde service sayd in Latin, and almoste throughe out London the same." Another letter of September 5th says, "The mase is verry riffe:" and another of September 8th says, "Heare is no newese but candelsticks, books, bells, censores, crosses, and pixes ... The highe aulter in Poules churche is up againe elevated 5 or 6 stepes above the mayne; but for makinge haste the worke fell. I hope it wilbe a token of some ill chaunce to come again, which God send quickly." (Harleian MSS. No. 353, fol. 143.)

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Vpon thursday the Duke of Northfolke came foorth of the Tower, with whom the Duches of Somerset was also deliuered this thursday. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 538, line 3

In the edition of 1563, p. 1000, occurs here the following entry, which is omitted in all sebsequent editions: "The 11th day of August An. 1553 did a priest say masse at S. Barthelmews in Smithfield; but before he had half done, he was glad to take him to his legges; for as he was lifting up the bread, there were stones flong at him, and one hit him between the shoulders, as the bread was over his head; so that he would not tary, to make an end of his maske."

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Vppon sonday the 11. of August, Doctor Bourne preached at Paules Crosse, of the whych sermone reade before, pag. 1339.

In the weeke folowing, commaundement was geuen throughout the citie, that no Prentises should come to the sermon, nor weare any knife or dagger.

MarginaliaM. Bradford with others committed to the Tower.Vppon the wednesday, being the xvi. daye of August, M. Bradford, M. Beacon, and M. Veron, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 538, line 9

Foxe, from the Council Book, prints this name "Vernon" at p. 392. But in the Episcopal Registers of London he is invariably called "Veron." He is said to have been a Frenchman, "Senonois" i.e. of Sens. He was ordained priest by Ridley August 24th, 1551 (Ridley Register, fol. 320), as "Johannes Veroneus, Senon. dioc." He was admitted rector of St. Alphage, London Wall, January 3d, 1552 ("Johannes Veroneus, clericus," Ridley Register, fol. 316): he was deprived under Mary in 1554 (his successor being appointed June 8th, "per legitimam deprivationem Johannis Veron. clerici conjugati," Bonner Reg. fol. 453.) He was presented by Elizabeth to the prebend of Mora in St. Paul's November 8th, 1559 (Newcourt), to the rectory of St. Martin Ludgate March 8th, 1560 ("Johannes Veron, sacræ Theologiæ Professor," Grindal Reg. fol. 113, 131: Newcourt misprints his name in this instance as "Heron"), and to the vicarage of St. Sepulchre's October 21st, 1560 ("Johannes Veron, clericus," Grindal Reg. fol. 117). Strype calls him "a Frenchman by birth, but a learned Protestant" (Mem. iii. chap. 5), and "one of the eminentest preachers at this time, and a writer:" he states that he preached at Paul's Cross before the mayor and aldermen September 17th, 1559, and that "he died April 9th, 1563, and was buried the next day after, being Easter Even." (Annals, i. chaps. 16, 34). See the Index to Machyn's Diary for several curious allusions to Veron. A list of his works will be found in Lowndes's Bibliographical Manual.

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were committed to the Tower: with whom also M. Sampson shoulde haue bene committed, 
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The very interesting account of Thomas Sampson eluding capture at Elsing's house (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465) almost certainly came from an oral source, very probably Sampson himself.

and was sought for the same time in M. Elsinges house in Fleetestreete (where M. Bradforde was taken) and because he was not founde, the Byshop of Winchester fumed like a prelate with the messenger.

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Vpon the Fridaye being the 18. of August, the Duke of Northumberland, the marques of Northampton, and the Earle of Warwicke were arrayned at Westminster, and there þe same day condemned, the Duke of Northfolke that day being the high Iudge.

Vpon saterday the 19. of August, sir Andrew Dudley, sir Iohn Gates, sir Henrye Gates, and sir Thomas Palmer were araigned at Westminster, & condemned the same day, the L. Marques of Winchester being hie Iudge.

 

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The Privy Council's letter ordering the imprisonment of those who did not attend mass was taken from the Privy Council Register. (It was also misdated by Foxe; the letter was sent on 19 August 1554, not 1553 (see APC V, p. 63)). The account of Suffolk's execution (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465) was taken from an eyewitness.

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Vpō which day, a letter was sent vnto sir Henry Tirrel, Anthony Browne, and Edmonde Browne Esquiers, praying them to committe to ward all suche as shall contemne the Queenes order of religion, or shall keepe them selues from church, there to remaine vntill they be conformable, and to signifie their names to the counsaile.

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MarginaliaD. Watson preached at Paules Crosse.Vpon Sonday the 20. of Austust, Doctour Watson the Byshoppe of Winchesters Chaplaine Preached at Paules Crosse, at whose Sermone was presente the Marques of Winchester, the Earle of Bedford, the Earle of Penbroke, the Lord Rich, and two hundreth of the Garde wyth their Halbardes, lest the people would haue made any sturre against the Preacher. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 538, line 28

This is the Dr. Watson who disputed at Oxford the next April. The present statement is confirmed by a contemporary. (See Harleian MSS. No. 353, fol. 141.)

"22 August. 1555." "By a letter writtene in London by William Dalby is signefied one Sondaye laste was a sermone at Paules Crosse made by one doctor Watsone: theare was at his sermone the marques of Winchester the earle of Bedforde the earle of Pembrock the lord Wentworthe the lord Riche they did sitte wheare my lord mayer and the aldermen wear wonte to site my lord maiore sittinge uppermoste, thear was also in the windowe overe the mayor the ould bushope of London and diveres otheres, thear was 120 of the garde that stoode round aboute the Crosse with their halberds to gard the preacher and to apprehend them that would stuire. His sermone was no more eloquent than edefieng, I meane it was nether eloquent nor edefienge in my opinione for he medled not withe the Gospelle nor Epistle nor noe parte of Scripture. After he had red his theame he entred into a by mattere and so spente his tyme 4 or 5 of the cheefe poynts of his sermone that I cane remember I will as breefly as I can reporte unto you: vilz. he requirede the people not to believe the preacheres, but that ther faith should be firme and sure because theare is suche vanties amongeste them, and yf any mane doubte of his faithe let him goe to the Scriptures, and also to the olde interpreteres of the doctores, and interprite it not aftere their owne brayne, he wisshed the people to have no newe faithe, nor to build no newe temple, but to keepe the ould faythe, and edifye the ould Temple againe. He blamed the people in a manor for that heartofore they would have nothing that was manes tradissyone, and nowe they can be contented to have manes tradissyon, shewing that in the first yeare of the raigne of our soveraigne lorde king Edward the 6. theare was a lawe established that in the sacramente theare was the bodie and bloode of Christe not really but spiritually, and the nexte yeare aftere they established another lawe that thear was the body of Christe neither speritually nor really. Thes 2 in themselves are contraryes therarfor they cannot be bothe trewe. He shewed that we should ground our faithe uppon gods word which is scripture and scripture is the byble which we have in Hebrue Greeke and Lattine and nowe translated into Englishe: but he doubtethe the translatyon was not true. Also he said theare hathe byne inhis tyme that he hathe seene xx Catechesmeses and every one varinge from other in some points, and well he said they mighte be all false but they could not be all true, and thus persuadin the people that they had followed menes tradishyones and had gone a straye, wishin them to come home agayne and reedefy the ould Temple. Thus with many other persuasiones he spente the tyme tyll xj of the clocke and ended."

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Also from another letter (in the same MS. fol. 143) written in London by John Rowe, August 24th, we learn: "Uppon Sondaye the 20 of Auguste theare preached at Poules Crosse one named Wattes, and to keepe and preserve him from the enemyes theare weare with their holbards about 200 of the garde, the lyke was never seene; and as for altares and masses are in bildinge faster than ever they weare put downe."

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Vppon Monday the 21. of August, the Duke of Northumberlande, the Marques of Northampton, Syr Andrewe Dudley, Syr Iohn Gates, and Syr Thomas Palmer hearde a Masse wythin the Tower, and after Masse they all fiue receaued the Sacramente in one kinde onely, as in the Popishe time was vsed. On the whiche day also Queene Mary set forth a Proclamation, signifying to the people that she could not hide any longer the religiō which she from her infancy had professed. &c. inhibiting in the said Proclamation Printing & Preaching, the tenour wherof, read before pag. 1334.

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MarginaliaExecution at the Tower hill.Vppon the Tuesday, being the 22. of August, the Duke of Northumberlande, Syr Iohn Gates, and Syr Thomas Palmer, were beheaded at the Tower hil, as before is sayd, pag. 1338. The same day certaine noble personnages heard Masse wythin the Tower, and likewise after masse, receaued the Sacrament in one kinde.

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Vppon Sonday the 27. day of August, Doctour Chedsey Preached at Paules Crosse, and the same daye the Byshop of Canterbury, Syr Thomas Smith, and the deane of Paules were cited to appeare the weeke following before the Queenes Commissioners, in the Bishops Consistorie within Paules.

In this meane time it was noysed abroade by running rumours falsely and craftely deuised, 

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The most important of the items derived from non-chronicle sources in this section is Cranmer's 'purgation' of rumours that he had celebrated mass, (1570, p. 1695; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, pp. 1465-66) which is one of the first items Foxe took from Bull's LM. In the account of Cranmer's life in the 1563 edition, Foxe discussed the purgation (1563, p. 1474) and, in fact, the wording of this description of the circumstances behind the purgation is strikingly close to passages in this account. Foxe had also mentioned the purgation earlier in the 1570 edition (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1418). But when Foxe printed the actual purgation, he was simply reprinting it from the LM (pp. 17-19).

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eyther to stablish the credite of the Masse, or els to brynge Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury out of credite, that he to currye fauour with Queene Mary, should promise to say Dirige Masse after the old custome, for king Edward, and that he had already sayd Masse at Caunterburie, &c. Wherefore to stoppe the noyse and slaunder of those rumours, the sayde Thomas Archb. of Caunter. the 7. day of September sette foorth a letter, which was also printed, in purgation of him selfe, the copie of which letter heere ensueth.

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A purgation of Thomas, Archbishoppe of Caunterburie, against certaine sclaunders falsely raised vpon him. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 539, fn 1

See the Harleian MSS. in the Brit. Mus. No. 422, artic. 8, in Grindall's handwriting. - ED.

Appendix:Respecting this Purgation, see the note on p. 394, and Dr. Jenkyn's note, Cranmer's Remains, iv. p. 1. The following notice of the subject is taken in a comtemporary letter dated London September 8th, Harleian MSS. No. 353, fol. 143 b: "The bushop of Canterbury is the ould mane he was ... The bushope of Canterbury hathe made declaratione in wrytyng and sent it to be delivered abroade to the answeringe of all suche as have reported him to be the cause that masse was said in Canterbury and that he offered to saye masse before the queene him selfe, in which declaration he sayth that he was never consenting; that mass should be said in Canterbury, ne in no other place. And he proffereth to on doctor Peetor and 2 or 3 others to prove that this our laste order is more nigher to the institutione of Christe, than the masse is."

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MarginaliaThe archbishop. of Canterbury purgeth himselfe agaynst false rumours.AS the deuill, Christes auncient aduersarie, is a lier and the father of lies, euen so hath he stirred vp his seruaunts and members, to persecute Christ and his true worde and religion with lying: which hee ceasseth not to doe most earnestly at this present time. For where as the Prince of famous memorie kinge Henrie the eighte seeing the greate abuses of the Latine Masse, reformed some things therein in his life time, and after our late soueraigne Lord king Edward the 6. tooke the same whole away for the manifolde and great errours and abuses of the same, and restored in the place therof Christes holy Supper according to Christes own institution, and as the Apostles vsed the same in the primatiue Church: the deuill goeth about nowe by lying to ouerthrow the Lordes holy Supper againe, and to restore his Latine satisfactorie Masse, a thing of his owne inuention and deuise. And to bringe the same more easilye to passe, some haue abused the name of mee Thomas Archb of Canterburie, bruting abroad that I haue set vp the Masse again at Canterburie, & that I offred to say Masse at the buriall of our late soueraign prince K. Ed. 6. & that I offred also to say Masse before the Queenes highnesse and at Paules Churche, and I wot not where. And although I haue bene well exercised these xx yeres to suffer and beare euill reports and lyes, and haue not bene much greued thereat, but haue borne all things quietly, yet when vntrue reports & lyes turne to the hinderance of Gods truth, they are in no wise to be suffered. Wherefore these bee to signifie vnto the world that it was not I that dyd set vp the Masse at Caunterbury, but it was a false flatteryng, lying, and dissem-

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