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Edward Courtenay

(1526? - 1556)

Earl of Devon (DNB)

As a child, Courtenay had been imprisoned in the Tower because of the treason of his father, under Henry VIII, but he was released on Mary's entry into London. She made him earl of Devon, and it was widely rumored that she would marry him. He went to Italy after his release in 1555, and died in Venice in 1556 (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p 1347; and 1583, p. 1417).

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Suspected of involvement in Wyatt's rebellion, Courtenay was committed to the Tower in March 1554, together with Elizabeth who was also suspected of the same crime (1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

It was reported to Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, that Sir Thomas Wyatt, on the day of his execution, asked the lieutenant of the Tower, Lord Chandos, for an interview with Edward Courtenay. Wyatt begged Courtenay's forgiveness for having falsely accused Elizabeth and him of complicity in his treason (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425). Sir Martin Bowes, the recorder for London, told White that he had heard that Wyatt begged Courtenay to confess the truth (1570, pp. 1587-88; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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At the trial in the Star Chamber of an apprentice named Cut who was charged with sedition for stating that Wyatt had cleared Elizabeth, Stephen Gardiner accused Elizabeth and Courtenay (neither was present) of treason. Gardiner also castigated Courtenay for his ingratitude to the monarch who had released him from prison (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p 1355; and 1583, p. 1425). On this occasion Sir John Brydges, the lieutenant of the Tower, declared that he was present at Wyatt's interview with Courtenay and that Wyatt had urged Courtenay to confess his guilt (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Courtenay accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

Foxe relates another version of the story in which Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and Courtenay of involvement in his rebellion. In this version, Hugh Weston told Wyatt that he had said the opposite to the privy council and Wyatt retorted that what he said now was the truth (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; and 1583, p. 1469).

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Edward Courteney was imprisoned in the Tower under suspicion of being involved in Wyatt's uprising. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2092.

Chandos interrogated a young boy who was believed to be carrying messages between Elizabeth and Edward Courteney during their imprisonment in the Tower. He ordered the boy not to see Elizabeth. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2092.

 
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Elizabeth

(1533 - 1603) (DNB)

Elizabeth was suspected of involvement in Wyatt's rebellion, and together with Edward Courtenay, the Earl of Devon, who was also suspected of the same crime, she was committed to the Tower on 15 March 1554 [this is Foxe's error; it was actually 18 March 1554] (1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425).

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Foxe repeats his statement that Elizabeth was taken to the Tower, but this time he gives the correct date of 18 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

It was reported to Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, that Wyatt, on the day of his execution, asked the Lieutenant of the Tower, Lord Chandos, for an interview with Edward Courtenay and begged his forgiveness for having falsely accused Elizabeth and him of complicity in his treason (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). Sir Martin Bowes, the recorder for London, told White that he had heard that Wyatt begged Courtenay to confess the truth (1570, p. 1587-88; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Foxe gives another version of the story in which Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and the Earl of Devon of involvement in his rebellion. In this version, Hugh Weston told Wyatt that he had said the opposite to the Privy Council. Wyatt retorted that what he now said was the truth (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

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t the trial in the Star Chamber of an apprentice named Cut, who was charged with sedition for stating that Wyatt had cleared Elizabeth, Stephen Gardiner accused Elizabeth (who was not present) of treason and disloyalty to her sister Mary, who had favored her, and declared that Wyatt's confession implicated her (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). On this occasion, Lord Chandos, the Lieutenant of the Tower, declared that he was present at Wyatt's interview with Courtenay and that Wyatt had urged the Earl to confess (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425-26).

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Elizabeth was released from the Tower and placed in the custody of Sir John Williams. Later she was sent to Woodstock and placed in the stricter custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, pp. 1400-1; 1583, p. 1471). In the 1563 edition, this account is followed by passages praising Elizabeth's mercy in not punishing Bedingfield when she became queen (1563, p. 1004). These passages were never reprinted.

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Emmanuel Lucar

Merchant Taylor

Sent to the Tower on 25 April 1554 as one of the jurors who refused to find against Sir Nicholas Throgmorton (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

He and Thomas Whetstone were the leaders of the eight members of the Throckmorton jury that refused to admit wrong doing for failing to convice Throckmorton. All of these jurors were called before Star Chamber, where Lucar insisted that they should be released. The jurors were ordered to pay 1000 marks each and returned to prison (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Ordered to pay £2,000, on 10 November 1554, within a fortnight as a fine for acquitting Throckmorton (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Lucar's name is given as 'Lucar' (not Lucas) and he is stated to be a Merchant Taylor in C. L. Kingsford, Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (Cambridge, 1910), p. 35.

He was elected Master of the Merchant Taylors in 1560 (J. G. Nichols, ed, The Diary of Henry Machyn (London, 1878) Camden Society, original series 42, p. 380).

One of the three Throgmorton jurors released from prison on 21 December 1554, after declaring that they could not pay their fines of £220 and paying £40 instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; cf. C. L. Kingsford, ed. Two London Chronicles from the Collection of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (London, 1910), p. 41).

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Also referred to as 'Emmanuel Lucas'.

 
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George Brooke

(Lord Cobham) (1527 - 1597)

9th Lord Cobham (Complete Peerage)

Signatory to a letter from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He accompanied Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He was committed to the Tower in February 1554 (1570, p. 1580; 1576, p. 1348; 1583, p. 1419).

He was released from the Tower on 24 March 1554 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

 
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Hugh Latimer

(1485 - 1555)

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 1539). Martyr. Of Thirkeson, Leicester. [DNB]

Foxe relates Latimer's formative years. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Hugh Latimer, the martyr, was the son of Hugh Latimer of Thirkeson, Leicestershire. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Latimer declaimed the work of Melancthon. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1734.

Foxe records a sermon Latimer preached at Cambridge in 1529. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-35.

Foxe records another of Latimer's sermons, the subject of which was Turks. 1563, pp. 1304-07, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe records Latimer's sermon on how to play with certain cards. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-34.

Buckenham, prior of the Black friars or Lady friars, attempted to show Latimer why scripture should not be in English by use of his cards. 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Dr Venetus, a Grey friar, berated Latimer in his sermons. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College), Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College), Dr Norton (Master of Clare), Dr Philo (Master of Michael House), Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John), Dr Blith (of the King's Hall), Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College), Dr Palmes (Master of St. Nicholas hostel), Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's, Brikenden of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1563, p. 1307, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

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Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Dr West preached against Latimer at Barwell Abbey. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, licensed Latimer to preach to the friars. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Articles were gathered out of Barnes' sermon against Master Tyrell, fellow of King's Hall, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer would walk and talk on 'Heretykes hyll' with Bilney. 1563, pp. 1307-08, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer went with Bilney to visit prisoners in the Tower in Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney spoke to a woman in prison who was accused of killing her own child. Latimer spoke to Henry VIII after a sermon he gave at Windsor and tried to get the woman pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

The woman gave birth to another child and Latimer became godfather, Mistress Cheek godmother. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney gave the woman spiritual counselling and eventually she was pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Dr Redman was an enemy of Latimer at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe includes a copy in English and in Latin of a letter Latimer received from Dr Redman, who revoked him for the doctrine he taught, along with Latimer's brief response. 1563, p. 1308, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632 [English only], 1583, p. 1736.

Latimer subscribed to articles after three years' teaching and preaching at Cambridge. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1737.

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer refuted Dr Powell's articles. 1563, pp. 1309-11, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Enemies of Latimer were Powell of Salisbury, Wilson of Cambridge, Hubberdin and Sherwood. 1563, p. 1311, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was called to appear before William Wareham (archbishop of Canterbury) and John Stokesley (bishop of London) on 29 January 1531. 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

The wording in Tonstall's register seems to suggest that Latimer did subscribe. 1563, p. 1334, 1570, p.1907 , 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer was advanced to the post of bishop by Buttes and Cromwell. 1563, p. 1349, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1633., 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer told Morrice that the mayor had appointed him to preach at Easter. 1563, p. 1314, 1570, p. 1910, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer prayed for Dr Wilson and his countrymen who disliked Latimer. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

A friend of Latimer's told him that Wilson had gone to Beverley in Holdernesse and then on progress. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer resigned his bishopric at the same time as Bishop Shaxton of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1634, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were brought against Latimer. 1570, pp. 1926-28, 1576, pp. 1652-53, 1583, p. 1732.

Latimer was injured by a falling tree. He went to London for a remedy but was imprisoned in the Tower by the bishops in Edward's reign. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1738.

A justice in the diocese of Worcester bought land for his brother or for himself and and tried to have a poor man in the diocese damned. This man appealed to Latimer, who wrote to the gentleman about this. The gentleman later mended his ways and died prior to 1563. 1563, p .1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, pp. 1634-35, 1583, p. 1739.

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Latimer preached in Stamford before the duchess of Suffolk in London in convocation and in the garden before King Edward at court. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1739.

He prophecied that plagues would come in Queen Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

He believed that preaching the gospel would cost him his life and that was why Winchester was imprisoned. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were imputed to Latimer by Powell of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1654, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

On 4 September 1553, the privy council ordered Latimer to appear before them (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 340).

On 13 September, Latimer appeared before the privy council and was committed to the Tower as a 'close prisoner' (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1704] - 1410]; APC IV, p. 345-46). [NB: Foxe did not reprint the description in the privy council register of Latimer's 'sedycious demeanour'].

Latimer was committed to the Tower on 17 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1635). [Note that Foxe never corrected these inconsistent dates].

He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 933 and 938; 1570, pp. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, p. 1430).

[There is a summary of Latimer's disputation on Wednesday 18 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 934-35.]

Latimer disputed with Weston, Smith and the other catholic doctors on 18 April 1554 (1563, pp. 978-85; 1570, pp. 1622-27; 1576, pp. 1384-89; 1583, pp. 1454-59).

Latimer was summoned, together with Cranmer and Ridley, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken in custody by the bailiffs (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, pp. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-67).

He was brought out of the bailiff's house where he was being held, on 21 April 1554, to observe a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston. Latimer, however, thought he was about to be taken to execution and urged one Augustine Cooper to make a fire that would burn quickly. When he came to Carfax and understood that he was being taken to view the procession, Latimer refused to look at it and ran 'to one Spensers shop' (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

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Foxe mentions Latimer's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea(1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

The examination of Latimer and Ridley before White and Brookes took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

Latimer appeared at a second session with Brookes and White on 1 October 1555. 1570, pp. 1930-33, 1576, pp. 1758-59.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

There was a conference between Ridley and Latimer in prison upon the objection of Antoman. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe relates the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which Ridley makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1314-17, 1321-25, 1333-34, 1344-48, 1349-53, 1570, pp. , 1576, pp. , 1583, pp. 1736-37, 1741-42, 1745-56.

Hugh Latimer presented a new year's gift to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1734.

Foxe includes one of Latimer's card sermons. 1583, p. 2142.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hugh Weston

(1505? - 1558)

Dean of Westminster (1553 - 1556). Archdeacon of Colchester (1554 - 1558). Dean of Windsor (1556 - 1557) [Fasti]. Prolocutor of the Lower House [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (Yale, 1996), pp. 563-68].

Hugh Weston was appointed Prolocutor of the 1553 Convocation, over which he presided and during which he disputed with Philpot and Aylmer (1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; and 1583, p. 1410-17).

According to a story related to Sir Thomas White (and printed by Foxe), Sir Thomas Wyatt declared from the scaffold that Elizabeth and Edward Courtenay were innocent of any involvement in his treason. Weston, who was on the scaffold, cried out to the crowd that Wyatt had confessed otherwise before the Privy Council. Allegedly White, on hearing a report of the incident, denounced Weston as a knave (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Weston was prolocutor (technically Weston was prolocutor of the lower house of convocation) and head of a delegation sent to dispute with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (see MacColloch, Cranmer, p. 563) at the Oxford Disputations (1563, pp. 932 and 936; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428).

He received the doctors sent from Cambridge to the disputation (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He presided over the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-85; 1570, pp. 1592-1627; 1576, pp. 1358-88; 1583, pp. 1429-59).

[NB: A brief account of the entire disputations, which mentions Weston throughout, is given on 1563, pp. 933-35; part of this brief account listing the disputants with Ridley was reprinted in 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; and 1583, p. 1441).

Weston presided over John Harpsfield's disputation for his D.D. on 19 April 1554. Weston debated with both Cranmer and Harpsfield (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

Weston presided over the commissioners at the condemnation of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer on 20 April 1554 (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

Weston received a letter from Ridley of 23 April 1554, protesting that he had broken his promise to allow Ridley to examine a copy of the record of his disputation and also protesting the conduct of the disputation and demanding that Weston show Ridley's written answers to the propositions disputed to the Upper House of Convocation. Weston refused to deliver the letter and also a letter of protest which Cranmer had written to the Privy Council over the Disputations (Ridley's letter - included as part of Ridley's account of the disputation - is printed in 1563, p. 977, but Cranmer's letter and Weston's refusal to deliver the letters are not in this edition (see 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

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Weston received Mary at Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He preached at Paul's Cross on 20 October 1553, exhorting his auditors to pray for souls in purgatory, denouncing the communion table as an oyster board and denouncing Cranmer's recent catechism (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

He attended the execution of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, (according to Foxe) against the Duke's wishes. Also (according to Foxe) Weston was heckled by the crowd (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

He participated, together with Gilbert Bourne and Frances Mallet, in an effort to persuade Walter Mantell to recant (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1468).

When Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and the Earl of Devon of involvement in his rebellion, Weston declared that this contradicted what Wyatt had earlier told the Privy Council. Wyatt retorted that what he said now was true (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

A prayer Weston made for the safe delivery of a child by Queen Mary is printed in 1563, p. 1015 (Latin and English versions); 1570, p. 1653; 1576, p. 1410; 1583, pp. 1480-81 (English only).

Foxe calls Weston a man whom 'all good and godly men worthily despise' and prints Laurence Saunders' account of Weston's attempting to persuade Nicholas Grimald and Saunders to recant. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, p. 1667; 1576, p. 1422; 1583, p. 1496.

Weston was reported by Hooper to have obtained a commission in May 1554 to establish a disputation, despite its illegality. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit via the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, Warden of Manchester had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p.1536. Bradford and Westo spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, 1799-80, 1576, pp.1536-7, 1583, pp.1619-20.

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On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-2. [In 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March].

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On 25 February (1563) or 28 March (1570 onwards) Weston told John Bradford of Grimald's recantation. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538., 1583, p. 1621.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-1, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he set for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to Bradford even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Weston was one of the audience at the re-examination of Ridley and Latimer and interjected a question. 1563, p. 1363; 1570, p. 1926, 1576, p. 1652, 1583, p. 1761.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayors and sherriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Hugh Weston displeased Pole for being willing to give up his deanery.

Weston was caught committing adultery and appealed to Rome for clemency.

He died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Laurence Saunders

(d. 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Saunders' life and career are described. 1563; pp. 1037-38; 1570, pp. 1664-65; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, pp. 1493-94.

Laurence Saunders preached in Northampton, soon after Mary's accession, denouncing 'Antichrist's errors'. He was arrested and released. He came to London, despite warnings to the contrary. 1563, pp. 1038-39; 1570, p. 1665; 1576, pp. 1420-21; 1583, p. 1494.

On 15 October 1553, Saunders preached at Allhallows, Bread Street, denouncing the mass as an abomination. On the same day he was summoned by Bonner, interrogated, and committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466; also 1563, p. 1039; 1570, p.1665; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, pp. 1494-95.

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He was interrogated by Gardiner and imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583; p. 1495.

It was rumoured in May 1554 that he, along with Bradford and John Rogers, would participate in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Saunders was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Saunders was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters and examinations: 1563, pp. 1040-47; 1570, pp. 1666-70; 1576, pp. 1421-25; 1583, pp. 1495-98.

Saunders was excommunicated at 6am on 23 January 1555. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Saunders was examined and condemned by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555. 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

He was degraded, conveyed to Coventry and executed there. 1563, pp. 1047-48; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, p. 1495.

Saunders is contrasted with Henry Pendleton. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1671; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

Additional letters: 1570, pp. 1671-74; 1576, pp. 1426-29; 1583, pp. 1500-2.

Lawrence Saunders was imprisoned in the Marshalsea at the same time as Bradford was imprisoned [in the King's Bench] and often met with Bradford at the back of the prison. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

His martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

He received a letter from Bradford. 1563, p. 1194, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, pp. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

He received another letter from Bradford. 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Saunders was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote the letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Letter to evangelicals in Lichfield [BL, Harley 416, fos.13v-16r. Printed in LM, pp. 182-88.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Thomas Grey

(d. 1554) [DNB sub Thomas, 2nd marquis of Dorset (his father>]

Younger brother to Henry Gray, the duke of Suffolk, and uncle to Lady Jane Grey

Thomas Grey was brought to London 21 February 1554 and put in the Tower (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was beheaded soon after 21 February in North Wales (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; 1583, p. 1423). [NB: This entry is contradicted by the next and is, in fact, in error.]

He was executed 27 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

[David Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies (Cambridge 1965), p. 104, has 24 April as the date.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Mrs Marsh

Wife to Richard Marsh, rector of St. Pancras Soper Lane. He was deposed for marriage and suspected, in 1554, of sacreligiously stealing the Host from the pyx. He and she were imprisoned on a charge of cohabiting together despite being officially divorced (1563, pp. 1000-01; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh was collated rector of St Pancras, Soper Lane by Archbishop Cranmer in 1539 and was deprived for marriage by 25 March 1554 [CAL, Dean and chapter of Canterbury register V1, fol. 23r].

Foxe relates that on Easter day 1554 the priest celebrating mass took the pyx from the sepulchre and found that the host was missing. One Marsh, who had been expelled from the living a little before because he was married, was suspected of being the culprit. This could not be proved, but Marsh was brought before the mayor on a charge of cohabiting with his wife, from whom he was officially divorced. Marsh protested that the queen was doing him a wrong to take both his living and his wife from him. He and his wife were imprisoned, despite his having been ill (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Winter

'Master Winter' was placed in the Tower on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

'Maister Winter' was brought to the Guildhall on 28 April 1554, but because of lack of time he was not arraigned (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

His name is given as Robert Winter in J. G. Nichols, ed., The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, (Cambridge, 1850) Camden Society Original series 48, pp. 63, 75, and 76.

[NB: His release is recorded in The Chronicle of Queen Jane, p. 76].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Gawain Carew

(c. 1503 - 1585)

Uncle to Sir Peter Carew (Hasler, Commons)

Sir Gawain Carew was sent to the Tower on 3 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

He was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir James Croft

(d. 1591) (DNB)

Sent to the Tower on 21 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; and 1583, p. 1467).

Brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; and 1583, p. 1469).

Arraigned and convicted of treason at the Guildhall on 28 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; and 1583, p. 1469).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; and 1583, p. 1482).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton

(1515 - 1571)

[DNB] [Also Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons]

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was sent to the Tower on 22 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 and arraigned for treason. He defended himself so well, challenging the legality of the laws under which he was being prosecuted as well as arguing his innocence of any wrong doing, that the jury cleared him (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1649).

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Eight members of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton refused to admit wrong doing and were sentenced by Star Chamber to pay 1000 marks apiece and were imprisoned (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Three members of the jury that acquitted him, Whetstone, Lucar and Kightely, were ordered to pay fines of £2,000 each, another five were ordered to pay fines of a thousand marks each and four others, who confessed their fault and asked pardon, were exempted from any fines (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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On 12 December 1554, five of the eight defiant jurors were released from prison after paying fines of £220 each. On 21 December the remaining three jurors were released from prison after declaring that they could not pay the fines and paid £40 each instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480).

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Throckmorton was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Also referred to as 'Sir Nicholas Throgmorton' or 'Throgmerton']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas Wyatt

(1521? - 1554) (DNB)

Sir Thomas Wyatt was the king's ambassador to the emperor before Sir Henry Knyvet. Wyatt's servant William Wolfe was taken on by Knyvet as steward of his household. 1583, p. 1786.

In 1554 Sir Thomas Wyatt led a rebellion in Kent against Mary, provoked by fear that Mary's marriage to Philip would 'bring upon this Realme most miserable and establish popish religion'. The duke of Norfolk was sent against Wyatt but Norfolk's followers deserted and he retreated.

Wyatt advanced on London in February 1554. Wyatt could not gain entry into London and was resisted and apprehended at the Temple Bar. Wyatt was executed. Foxe promises to relate a story about the removal of Wyatt's head from the spike on Hay Hill where it was displayed, but he never did (1563, pp. 916-17; 1570, pp. 1579-80; 1576, pp. 1347-48; and 1583, pp. 1418-19).

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In 1570 et seq. Foxe prints an account of Mary's oration - there is an earlier, different version of this speech in 1563, pp. 1730-31 - at the London Guildhall denouncing Wyatt. Foxe's marginal notes to this speech, in 1570 et seq., defend Wyatt against Mary's charge that Wyatt looted Southwark (1570, p. 1580; 1576, p. 1348; and 1583, p. 1418).

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Foxe states that Wyatt, at his own request, spoke with Edward Courtenay on the day of his execution and, before the Lieutenant of the Tower, got down on his knees and begged forgiveness of Courtenay for having falsely accused both him and Elizabeth of involvement in his rebellion (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). [It is reported elsewhere that Wyatt did speak with Courtenay on the day of his execution, but what they said is not known; see J. G. Nichols, (ed.), The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, (London, 1850) Camden Society Original series 48, pp. 72-73].

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Wyatt also allegedly proclaimed from the scaffold that Elizabeth and Courtenay were innocent of any complicity in his crimes, but Hugh Weston who was also standing on the scaffold cried out to the crowd that Wyatt had confessed otherwise to the Privy Council (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Sir Martin Bowes informed Sir Thomas White that he had heard a report circulating at Westminster, that Wyatt had urged Courtenay to confess the truth (1570, pp. 1587- 88; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

During the Star Chamber trial of one Cut, who was charged with sedition for claiming that Wyatt (on the scaffold) had cleared Elizabeth and Courtenay of any complicity in his rebellion, Sir John Brydges, who was present at Wyatt's interview with Courtenay, claimed that Wyatt begged Courtenay to confess the truth and seek the Queen's mercy (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, pp. 1425-26).

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Foxe declares that he will pass over Wyatt's rebellion, as it has been dealt with in more detail elsewhere (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

The execution of Wyatt on 11 April, and his statement that neither Elizabeth or Courtenay were involved in his conspiracy (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

Elizabeth was suspected of being involved in Wyatt's rebellion. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Whetstone

Haberdasher

Sent to the Tower on 25 April 1554 as one of the jurors who refused to find against Sir Nicholas Thorckmorton (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

He and Emmanuel Lucar were the leaders of the eight members of the Throckmorton jury that refused to admit wrong-doing for failing to convict Throckmorton. All of these jurors were called before Star Chamber and ordered to pay 1000 marks each and returned to prison (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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On 10 November 1554 he was ordered to pay a fine of £2000 within a fortnight for acquitting Throckmorton (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Foxe calls him 'Master Whetstone', but his first name, the fact that he was a haberdasher and that he was the foreman of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton are in W. D. Hamilton, A Chronicle of England ... by Charles Wriothesley, Windsor Herlad (2 Vols, London, 1875 – 1877) Camden Society First series 11 and 20, p. 115.

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Robert Whetston, harberdasher, had already sued for and received a pardon on 4 November 1553 (for complicity in Wyatt's rebellion?) (Calendar of Patent Rolls, Philip and Mary, 1553 - 1554, p. 465).

Whetstone was one of Throgmorton jurors released from the Fleet after paying a fine of £220 each (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; cf. C. L. Kingsford, ed., Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (London, 1910), p. 41).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Gibbes

Of Silverton, Devon

Foxe reports that Master Gibbes was taken to the Tower on 3 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

[APC IV, p. 403, confirms this and gives Gibbes's name as William. CSP Dom. Mary I, p. 75, reports him speaking strong words against Philip's imminent arrival.]

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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William Parr

(1513 - 1571)

Marquis of Northampton. Brother of Henry VIII's last queen [DNB]

William Parr signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550, permitting Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504.

Parr was committed to the Tower on 26 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was arraigned and condemned for treason on 18 August 1553, along with Northumberland and the earl of Warwick (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

On 21 August 1553, he heard mass within the Tower and received the sacrament in one kind (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower on 31 December 1553 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Parr was sent back to the Tower on 25 January 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He was released again from the Tower on 24 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Thomas

(d. 1554) (DNB)

Arraigned and condemned for conspiring the Queen's death, 17 May 1554; hanged, drawn and quartered next day. Foxe declared that he did not know if the charge was true, but that he does know that Thomas died a godly death (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

1493 [1469]

Queene Mary. Thinges done in the 2. yeare of Q Mary. Rumour of a disputation.

MarginaliaAnno. 1554. Aprill. that Antichrist, and from the assault of all his satellites. Gods indignation is knowne: he will trie and proue who be his. Amend your liues. Deny not Christ before men, least he deny you before his heauenly father. Feare not to lose your liues for him, for yee shall fynde them agayne. God hold his mercifull hand ouer thys Realme, and auert the plagues imminent, from the same. God saue the Queene, and send her knowledge in his truth. Amen, pray, pray, pray ye Christians, and comfort your selues with the Scriptures.

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Written the 2. of March. an. 1554. by me Walter
Mantell prisoner, whom both God and the world
hath forgeuen his offences. Amen.

And thus much concerning the purgation of Mayster Walter Mantell, who if he had cōsented vnto the Queene, what time she sent Doctour Bourne vnto him, to deny his fayth, it is not otherwise to be thought, but he had had his pardon, and escaped with life.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Between Mantell and the Preachers' Declaration

This section is a narrative passage, and the glosses are mainly dates and references to events of a political and judicial kind. Other glosses however suggest a surreptitious, irreverent strain to the response of London protestants to the new regime.

MarginaliaMarch 3. Sir Gawen Carew and M. Gibbes, brought to the Tower.Vpon the Saterday being the iij. of March, 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 26: Events of spring 1554

Foxe resumed following his chronicle sources for events in the spring of 1554. One of these sources was the 'Cheapside chronicle,' which first appeared in 1563; the remaining material was added in 1570.

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 548, line 10

"In the afternoone of Frydaye," according to the Chronicle of Queen Jane and Q. Mary, p. 66.

sir Gawen Carew, and maister Gibbes were brought through London to the Tower with a company of horsemen.

MarginaliaMarch 7.In Lōdon the vij. day of March, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 548, note 1

The editions of 1563, 1570, 1576, read correctly, "the 7th of March;" the subsequent editions corrupt this into "17th," evidently with a view of making the date square with the opening of the next paragraph, which (except in the first edition, where it is wanting) opens: "On the Sunday following, being the 18th of March." The Queen's precept was sent to the lord mayor on Sunday, March 4th, and the lord mayor's precept to the aldermen on Monday, March 5th: see the document itself suprà, p. 492; from which it appears that Wednesday, March 7th (correct by Nicolas's Tables) was the day appointed for the inhabitants of each Ward to appear before their alderman, not the day on which the command was issued, as this paragraph seems rather to imply.

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euery housholder was commaunded to appeare before the Alderman of their ward, and there were commaunded, that they, their wiues and seruaunts should prepare themselues to shrift, and receiue the Sacrament at Easter, and that neither they, nor any of them should depart out of the Citie, vntill Easter was past.

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MarginaliaMarch. 18. Lady Elizabeth brought to the Tower. March. 24.Vpon the Sonday following, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 548, note 2

This and the next paragraph are not in the edition of 1563. That the text should make the Sunday following the 7th of March to be the 18th (as the second and third editions do) can only be explained by supposing, that Foxe was quoting the exact words of some chronicle, and omitted some intervening dates; or that Elizabeth really went to the Tower March 11th, Passion Sunday, instead of Palm Sunday, March 18th; all the historians, however, seem to concur in saying March 18th. Among Ellis's Letters, second series, vol. ii. p. 254, is one from Elizabeth to Mary, on being ordered to the Tower, without date.

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being the xviij. daye of March, 
Commentary  *  Close

Once again the introduction of material from different sources, covering the same time period, into different editions created repetition. As an example, a brief account of Elizabeth being sent to the Tower was added in the 1570 edition (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469); this repeated the more detailed account already printed in an earlier section of the Acts and Monuments (1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425) and this episode would also be described, in great detail, at the end of all four editions. (As was all too often the case, the dates in the different versions did not correspond; the first version stated that Elizabeth was sent to the Tower on 15 March; the second version (correctly)gave the date as 18 March. As always, Foxe never corrected, or apparently noticed, the discrepancy).

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the Lady Elizabeth, of whom mention was made before, the Queenes Sister, was brought to the Tower.

Vpon Easter euen. being the xxiiij. of March, the Lorde Marques of Northampton, the Lord Cobham, and Sir William Cobham were deliuered out of the Tower.

MarginaliaMarch. 25. The Pixe risen out of the Sepulchre from all the watchmē at S. Pancrase Church.The xxv. day (being Easter day) in the morning, at S. Pancrase in Cheape, the Crucifixe with the Pixe were taken out of the Sepulchre, before the Priest rose to the resurrection: so that when after his accustomed maner he put his hande into the Sepulchre, and sayde very deuoutely: Surrexit non est hic, he found his words true, for he was not there in deede. Whereupon being halfe dismayed, they consulted amongst themselues whom they thought to be likeliest to do this thing. MarginaliaM. Marsh burthened with suspicion and with his mariage.In which debatement they remembered one Marsh, which a little before had bene put from that personage, because he was married, to whose charge they layde it. But when they coulde not proue it, beeing brought before the Maior, they then burdened him to haue kept company with his wife, since that they were by commaundement diuorsed. Whereto he aunswered, that hee thought the Queene had done him wrong to take from him both his liuing and his wife: which words were then noted, and taken very greeuously, and he and his wife were both committed to seuerall Counters, notwithstanding that he had bene very sicke.

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MarginaliaAprill. 8. A Cat hanged with a shauen crowne, vpon the gallowes in Chepeside.The viij. of Aprill, there was a Cat hanged vpon a gallowes at the Crosse in Cheape, apparelled like a Priest, ready to say Masse, with a shauen crowne. Her two forefeete were tyed ouer her head, with a rounde paper lyke a wafer cake put betweene them: whereon arose great euil will against the Citie of London. For the Queene and the Byshops were very angry withall: and therefore the same after noone, there was a Proclamation, that who soeuer could bring foorth the partie that did hang vp the Cat, should haue xx. nobles, which reward was afterwardes increased to xx. markes, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 548, line 3 from the bottom

"The xiii. day of Aprel was a proclamasyon was made that what so mever he wher that cold bryng forth hym that dyd hang the catt on the galaus, he shuld have xx marke for ys labur." - Machyn's Diary, p. 60.

but none could, or would earne it.

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MarginaliaThe number and occasion of gallowes set vp in the Citty of London.As touching the first occasion of setting vp this Gallowes in Cheapeside, heere is to be vnderstand, that after the Sermon of the Byshop of Winchester (aboue mentioned) made before the Queene for the straite execution of Wyats souldiours, immediately vppon the same the xiij. of February, were set vp a great number of Gallowes in diuers places of the Citie, namely two in Chepeside, one at Leaden hall, one at Billynges gate, one at S. Magnus Church, one in Smithfield, one in Fleetestreete, foure in Southwarke, one at Allgate, one at Byshops gate, one at Aldersgate, one at Newgate, one at Ludgate, one at Saint Iames parcke corner, one at Cripplegate: all which Gibbets & gallowes to þe number of xx. there remained for terrour of other, frō the xiij. of February, till the iiij. of Iune, & then at the cōming in of King Philip were taken downe.

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The xj. day of Aprill, was Syr Thomas Wyat beheaded and quartered at the Tower hill, where hee vttered these woordes, touching the Lady Elizabeth, and the Earle of Deuonshyre.  

Commentary  *  Close

An example of repetition concerning Elizabeth was the story of Wyatt exonerating Elizabeth and Courtenay at his execution. One version of the story was printed in 1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469; another, more detailed, version of the story, derived from Sir Thomas White, was added in the 1570 edition. It is also interesting that the shorter version of the story was printed in indirect quotation in 1563 (p. 1001) but rendered in direct quotation in subsequent editions (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 549: Appendix: ref page 549,line 14

Edward Courtenay was eldest son of Henry Courtenay, late marquis of Exeter and earl of Devonshire, who was beheaded in 1539-40. Edward Courtenay had lately been restored to his father's forfeited dignity of earl of Devonshire. The historians sometimes erroneously call him marquis of Exeter. (Lodge's Illustr. of British History, vol. i. p. 190.)

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MarginaliaM. Wiats words touching the Lady Elizabeth.Concerning (sayd he) what I haue sayd of other in my examination, to charge any other as partakers of my doings, I accuse neyther my Lady Elizabeths grace, nor my Lord of Deuonshyre. I can not accuse them, neyther am I able to say, that, to my know-

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ledge, they knew any thing of my rising. And when Doctour Weston tolde him, that his confession was otherwise before the Counsell, he aunswered: that which I said then, I sayd: but that which I say now, is true.

MarginaliaAprill. 17. Sir Iames Croft. M. Winter Sir Nicholas Throgmorton.Vppon the Tuesday beeing the xvij. of Aprill, Syr Iames Croft, and Maister Winter, were brought to the Guild hall, with whom also the same time, and to the same place was brought sir Nicholas Throgmorton, and there arraigned of treason, for that he was suspected to be of the conspiracie with the Duke of Suffolke & the rest, agaynst þe Queene, where he so learnedly and wisely behaued him selfe (as well in clearing his owne case, as also in opening such lawes of the Realme as were then alledged agaynst him) that the Quest which was charged with his matter, could not in conscience, but finde him not gilty: MarginaliaThe Quest troubled for Sir Nicholas Throgmorton.for þe which the said xij. persons of the Quest, being also substantiall mē of the Citie, were bounde in the summe of 500. poundes a peece, to appeare before þe Queenes Counsell at a day appointed, there to answere such things as should be laid against thē for his acquiting. Which Quest appeared accordingly before the Counsell in the Starre chamber vppon Wednesday, being MarginaliaAprill. 25.the xxv. of Aprill, and S. Markes daye. From whēce, after certaine questioning, they were cōmitted to prison, Emanuell Lucar,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 549, line 14 from the bottom

It is Lucar, not Lucas, in Foxe, ed. 1570, and in the above-named Chronicle, p. 75, and in Machyn's Diary.

& maister Whetstone were committed to the Tower, and the other ten to the Fleete.

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As concerning the condemnation of Thomas Archbyshop of Cant. of Doctour Ridley, and M. Latymer, which was the xx. of this moneth of Aprill, & also of their disputations, because we haue sayd enough before, it shall not neede now to bestow any further rehearsall thereof.

MarginaliaL. Thomas Gray beheaded. Aprill. 27.The Friday next following, after the condemnation of them, the xxvij. of Aprill, Lord Thomas Gray the late Duke of Suffolkes brother, was beheaded at Tower hil.

MarginaliaAprill. 28.Vpon the Saterday, beeing the xxviij. of Aprill, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 549, fn 1

So the Chronicle of Queen Jane and Mary (p. 66): Stow and Machyn say, April 29. - ED. Addenda: Machyn has it under the same date.

Syr Iames Croft, and Maister Winter were agayne brought to the Guild hall, where Sir Iames Croft was arraigned and condemned, and because the day was farre spent, Maister Winter was not arraigned.

MarginaliaW. Thomas condemned. May. 17.Vpon the Thursday, being the xvij. of May, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 550, fn 1

Stow says he was condemned on the 9th of May; Machyn places it on the 18th. - ED.

William Thomas was arraigned at the Guild Hall, and there the same day condemned, who the next day after, was hanged, drawne, and quartered. His accusation was, for cōspiring the Queenes death: which how true it was, I haue not to say. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 550, top


As this instance of supposed disloyalty has been seized upon by Dr. J. Milner (see Dr. Townsend's Preliminary Dissertation, prefixed to this edition of Foxe) by way of parallel to the acts of multitudes of papally authorized traitors, it may be well to quote a few lines from Strype's Memorials (under Queen Mary, chap. 21) with reference to it.
"In May was arraigned and condemned and executed for treason William Thomas, a very wise man, clerk of the council to King Edward, and by him much valued and used; having writ several treatises of state policy for the use and exercise of the young king. The crime laid to his charge was that he designed the murder of the queen, or, as Bale writeth, of Stephen Gardiner, the lord chancellor.
"But as to Thomas' treason, I find these particulars of it; which is all that I can see alleged against him. Sir Nicholas Arnold, in trouble upon Wyat's plot, did say, that Sir Nicholas Throgmorton did shew him, that Thomas did devise, that one John Fitzwilliams should kill the queen; but, when this was charged upon Throgmorton, he utterly denied that he said any such thing, but that Arnold rather spake it to save himself, being charged with that matter, to transfer that devise upon the said Thomas. And to justify what he said, Thorgmorton urged, that Fitzwilliams, who was hard by, might be called, to depose his knowledge of the matter. And Fitzwilliams appeared. But (as though it were likely to turn to the vindication of Throgmorton or Thomas) the attorney-general prayed the court, that Fitzwilliams might not be sworn nor suffered to speak. And he was forthwith commanded by Stamford, the judge, to depart the court. Yet not to conceal one thing more: when at Sir Thomas Wyat's trial Sir Edward Hastings had asked him, whether he was privy to a device to murder the queen, in a certain place, where she should walk? he answered that it was William Thomas his invention, whom he ever after abhorred for that cause. But it must be observed that Wyat said this when he was earnestly suing for the queen's pardon, and had spoken several other things rather acceptable to the court than true; as, declaring himself then much satisfied with the Spanish match, against which he had taken up arms, and falsely accusing the Lady Elizabeth and the Lord Courtney to have been privy to his doings, which he revoked at his execution.
"Thomas was arraigned or condemned one day, and hastily executed the next. He made a right godly end; and in his imprisonment wrote many pious letters, exhortations and sonnets. He wrote a little book, 'Of the Vanity of the World,' printed, I think, 1545. He made an Italian Dictionary and Grammar at Padua, printed afterwards, 1567, by the appointment of Sir Walter Mildmay; and a Short and Methodical History of Italy, printed 1549, reprinted 1561; and translated some books out of Italian.' (Strype's Eccles. Memorials, vol. iv. pp. 288 - 290, edit. 1816.)

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This is certaine, that he made a right godly ende, and wrote many fruitefull exhortations, Letters and Sonets in the prison before his death.

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MarginaliaA certaine disputation intended to be had at Cambridge.In the moneth of May it was so giuen out, and bruited abroad, that a solemne disputation should be holden at Cambridge (as ye heard before in Maister Ridleys letter page. 1396) betwene M. Bradford, M. Saunders, mayster Rogers,  

Commentary  *  Close

In the introductory comments Foxe made to the declaration by leading protestants opposing the idea of a disputation at Cambridge, Foxe reminded his readers that Ridley had reported rumours of the proposed disputation in a letter to Cranmer. Foxe stated that John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and John Rogers were the proposed disputants (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469). But Ridley had stated in his letter that they were Bradford, Edward Crome and Rogers (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

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and other of that side, and the Doctours of both the Vniuersities on the other side, like as had bene in Oxford before, as you haue heard. Whereupon þe godly Preachers which were in prison hauing word therof, albeit they were destitute of their bookes, neither were ignorant of the purpose of the aduersaries, and how þe cause was preiudicate before, also how the disputations were cōfusedly hādled at Oxford: neuerthelesse they thought not to refuse the offer of disputatiō, so that they might be quietly and indifferently heard, and therefore wisely pondering the matter with themselues, by a publicke consent, directed out of prison a declaration of their minde by writing, the vij. day of May. Wherein first as touching the disputation, although they knew that they should do no good, wheras all things were so predetermined before, yet neuertheles, they would not deny to dispute, so that the disputation might be either before the Queene, or before the Counsaile, or before the Parlamēt houses, or else if they might dispute by writing: MarginaliaThe preachers in prison refuse not to dispute before indifferent Iudges.for else if the matter were brought to the Doctours handling in their owne scholes, they haue sufficient proofe (they sayd) by the experience of Oxford, what little good will be done at Cambridge: and so cōsequently declaring the faith and doctrine of their Religion, and exhorting the people withall to submit themselues with all patience and humilitie, either to the will or punishmēt of the higher powers, they appealed in the end from them to be theyr Iudges in this behalfe, and so ende their protestation, the copie and contents whereof I thought not vnfit here to be inserted.

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A copie of a certayne declaration drawne and sent out of prison by Mayster Bradford, Mayster Saunders, and dyuers other godly Preachers, concerning theyr disputation, and doctrine of their Religion, as followeth. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 27: The declaration of Bradford et al.

The declaration of 8 May 1554 by the leading incarcerated protestants protesting against a projected disputation in Cambridge was printed without alteration in every edition of the Acts and Monuments; unusually even the paragraph breaks were unaltered (1563, pp. 1001-03; 1570, pp. 1640-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71). The basic reason for this textual stability was that, from Foxe's perspective, this document was an answered prayer, too valuable to dream of cutting, abridging or paraphrasing. The declaration goes into detail about the unfairness of the Oxford disputations and then continues with a ringing confession of faith, defending justification by faith and attacking Latin services, the intercession of saints, purgatory, transubstantiation and clerical celibacy. It concludes with a denunciation of rebellion and an insistence of their loyalty to the queen.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Declaration of Bradford and others

Many of the glosses in the section dealing with the preachers' concerns and conditions reflect the procedural objections which emerged from the Oxford disputations. Most of the glosses in the section containing the confession of the preachers are simply guides to the points made. The emphasis that the motive for this confession was 'quiet of conscience' not 'curiositie' ties in with the obstinacy/constancy contrast in the glosses to Mantell's apology earlier. There are two glosses pointing to exhortations to obedience: Foxe was clearly anxious to distance martyrdom from resistance.

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MarginaliaA declaration of the godly preachers written and sent abroad out of prison. BEcause we heare that it is determined of the magistrats and such as be in authoritie, especially of the Clergye, to send vs speedely out of the prisons of the kings Bench, the

Fleete,
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