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Edmund Laurence

Edmund Laurence was examined together with Thomas Mountain on a charge of publishing seditious pamphlets against Philip and Mary (Narratives of the Days of Reformation, pp. 187-88; printed in Harley MS 425, fol. 109r).

He was a signatory of the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation in Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-03; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

[The information on Laurence in Garrett, Marian Exiles, pp. 216-17, particularly the identification of this Edmund Laurence as the preacher of Brampton, Suffolk, is open to question, although he certainly was an exile].

When Laurence returned from exile, the Mercers' Company appointed him to their perpetual curacy of St Mary Colechurch. On 22 March 1560 Laurence was granted £10 by the company's court because of 'his extreme povertie and necessitie considered in his sickness'. By 18 December 1562, Laurence was no longer curate of St Mary Colechurch; he had probably died in the interval. [London, Mercers' Company, Acts of Court 1527-60, fol. 320v and Acts of Courts 1560-95, fol. 41r].

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Edward Crome

(d. 1562)

Rector of St Mary, Aldermary, London. [DNB]

Edward Crome was sent to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 by the privy council for preaching without a licence (1583, p. 1418; APC IV, p.384).

Another notice that Crome was committed to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

Crome was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Ridley praised the piety, integrity and constancy of 'D.C.' in a letter he wrote to Hooper, probably in 1554. 1563, pp. 1051-52; 1570, p. 1677; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5. [NB: Only the initials 'D.C.' are given in Foxe's version of the letter, but the name 'Doctor Crome' is given in the version of the letter printed in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 46.]

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Crome was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 30 January 1555. He asked for two months to consider whether he would or would not recant and this was granted to him (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483). [Taken from BL Harley MS 421, fols. 43r and 45r].

A copy of one of Crome's recantations was given to George Marsh in an attempt to persuade Marsh to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that had done Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

Foxe refers to Edward Crome's first recantation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Master Tracy secretly took a letter to William Plane and asked him to take it to Crome. Someone read the letter while Plane was out of the house and believed Plane to be the author of its defamatory contents. Plane was sent to the Tower. 1583, p. 2128.

[Also referred to as 'D. C.']

 
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Elizabeth

(1533 - 1603) (DNB)

Elizabeth was suspected of involvement in Wyatt's rebellion, and together with Edward Courtenay, the Earl of Devon, who was also suspected of the same crime, she was committed to the Tower on 15 March 1554 [this is Foxe's error; it was actually 18 March 1554] (1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425).

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Foxe repeats his statement that Elizabeth was taken to the Tower, but this time he gives the correct date of 18 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

It was reported to Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, that Wyatt, on the day of his execution, asked the Lieutenant of the Tower, Lord Chandos, for an interview with Edward Courtenay and begged his forgiveness for having falsely accused Elizabeth and him of complicity in his treason (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). Sir Martin Bowes, the recorder for London, told White that he had heard that Wyatt begged Courtenay to confess the truth (1570, p. 1587-88; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Foxe gives another version of the story in which Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and the Earl of Devon of involvement in his rebellion. In this version, Hugh Weston told Wyatt that he had said the opposite to the Privy Council. Wyatt retorted that what he now said was the truth (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

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t the trial in the Star Chamber of an apprentice named Cut, who was charged with sedition for stating that Wyatt had cleared Elizabeth, Stephen Gardiner accused Elizabeth (who was not present) of treason and disloyalty to her sister Mary, who had favored her, and declared that Wyatt's confession implicated her (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). On this occasion, Lord Chandos, the Lieutenant of the Tower, declared that he was present at Wyatt's interview with Courtenay and that Wyatt had urged the Earl to confess (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425-26).

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Elizabeth was released from the Tower and placed in the custody of Sir John Williams. Later she was sent to Woodstock and placed in the stricter custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, pp. 1400-1; 1583, p. 1471). In the 1563 edition, this account is followed by passages praising Elizabeth's mercy in not punishing Bedingfield when she became queen (1563, p. 1004). These passages were never reprinted.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Fitzalan

(1512 - 1580)

Earl of Arundel (DNB)

Henry Fitzalan was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-07).

Fitzalan escorted Henry Dudley, the duke of Northumberland, to the Tower (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Fitzalan was one of the leaders of the troops sent against Sir Thomas Wyatt (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1467).

He was chief judge at the condemnation of Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He greeted Philip on his arrival at Southampton on 20 July 1554 (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

He was present at Stephen Gardiner?s Paul?s Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Fitzalan bore a cap of maintenance before Queen Mary at the opening of parliament on 12 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He was signatory to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, from the privy council to Bonner, informing him that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

Henry Fitzalan was patron of Lexden parish. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

He was involved in the questioning of Elizabeth after her removal from Ashridge. He apologized to her for the questioning she had been subjected to. 1563, p. 1712.

He was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton Court. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
I. P.

Signatory of the letter of 8 May 1554 concerning the proposed disputation at Cambridge (1563, p. 1003; 1570, p. 1641; 1576, p. 1400; 1583, p. 1471.)

 
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John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
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John Parkhurst

(1512? - 1575)

DD (1566). Bishop of Norwich. (DNB)

Parkhurst was the author of Latin verses in response to John White's Latin verses praising the marriage of Philip and Mary (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

Foxe refers to his installation after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Philpot

(1516 - 1555)

Archdeacon of Winchester and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe records Philpot's formative years and character. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688 , 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Philpot was also one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for an opportunity to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Philpot's account of the debate over transubstantiation was reprinted by Foxe [cf. John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XXVIII daye of Octobre MDLIIII (Emden, 1554). STC 19890, with 1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; 1583, pp. 1410-17). In Philpot's version of events, he plays the lead role among the six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, Richard Cheyney, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - in refuting the catholic arguments.

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John Philpot was made archdeacon of Winchester under Ponet. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688, 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Bonner sent Johnson the registrar to speak to Philpot when he was imprisoned in the coal house. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Thomas Whittle was imprisoned in the coal house with Philpot. Bonner was so violent with Whittle's beard that he plucked much of it away and made his face black and blue. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Philpot met with Bonner the second night of his imprisonment in the coal house (his third examination). 1563, pp. 1392-93, 1570, pp. 1964-65, 1576, pp. 1691-92, 1583, pp. 1798-99.

Philpot spoke briefly with Cosin, Bonner's chaplain, before returning to his imprisonment in Bonner's coal house. 1563, p. 1393, 1570, p. 1965, 1576, p. 1692, 1583, p. 1799.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

During Philpot's fourth examination, John Harpsfield brought a book by Irenaeus to Philpot's examiners, who then discussed the Roman church with Philpot. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

During his fifth examination, Philpot asked his examiners which of them could answer Calvin's Institutions, to which Saverson replied that the Genevan church had fragmented and that Calvin had fled. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Philpot's sixth examination was before the lord chamberlain to Queen Mary, Ferrars, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Lord Shandoys, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

During his sixth examination, Philpot stated that Joan of Kent was a heretic. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot stated that Cheyney and Rochester could testify to what he had said under his examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Chamberlain was present during Philpot's sixth examination and questioned him on the real presence. 1563, pp. 1405-1412, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

In Philpot's seventh examination, John Dee is referred to as Master Dee in 1563 and 1570 and then as Doctor Dee in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Johnson the registrar was present during Philpot's seventh examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Three private conferences took place between Philpot and Bonner. (The first involved his keeper; the second, his fellow prisoners and his keeper; and the third only Bonner and Philpot.) 1563, pp. 1416-19, 1570, pp. 1980-82, 1576, pp. 1706-07, 1583, pp. 1812-14.

Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

Johnson the registrar was present at Philpot's eighth examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Philpot's ninth examintion was before Bonner and his chaplains, including Cosin. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had, however, left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's tenth examination was before Bonner, Johnson and others. 1563, pp. 1424-25, 1570, pp. 1985-86, 1576, pp. 1709-10, 1583, pp. 1816-17.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

In Philpot's eleventh examination, John Dee is referred to as a 'great conjurer' in 1563 and 1570. The reference is removed in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

The bishop of Coventry and Lichfield spoke with Philpot about the nature of the true church. 1563, p. 1444, 1583, p. 1818.

Philpot's twelfth examination on 4 December 1555 was before Bonner, Worcester and Bangor. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

One of Bonner's chaplains (probably Cosin) was present during Philpot's twelfth examination. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day as his twelfth examination. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, pp. 1717, 1583, p. 1823-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York, Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, p. 1824-26.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

The judgement of Philpot took place in the consistory court of St Paul's on 13 and 14 of December, at which Bonner and others were present. 1570, p. 1997, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1826.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield.. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

Foxe includes Bonner's exhortation to Philpot. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 1998, 1576, p. 1710, 1583, pp. 1827-28.

A letter was exhibited by Bonner, concerning the handling of Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference is made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Philpot was mentioned in letter sent by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Lady Fane wrote a letter to Bonner. 1563, p. 1445, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1828-29.

John Hooper sent Philpot and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor, a letter dated 6 May 1554 discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Philpot and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Green wrote a letter to John Philpot which was not delivered. According to Foxe it was either not delivered because Philpot died or because the jailor prevented its delivery. 1563, pp. 1459-60, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, pp. 1852-53.

Stokesley said a Latin prayer before the condemnation of Philpot. 1570, p. 2000, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, pp. 1827, 1829.

Philpot had a talk with his keeper, Alexander, during which Philpot refused to recant. 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, p. 1829.

The mayor (Macham) heard of the treatment of Philpot in prison and ordered Philpot's irons to be removed. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Wittrence, the steward of the house, carried the manacled Philpot. 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Foxe records Philpot's behaviour prior to his death, when the sheriffs came to collect him. 1563, p. 1447, 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1722-23, 1583, p. 1830.

A prayer was said by Philpot at the stake. He was burned on 18 December 1555. 1563, pp. 1448-49, 1570, p. 2002, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1830-31.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1444-50, 1570, pp. 2002-14,1576, pp. 1721-35, 1583, pp. 1829-43.

Philpot wrote a letter to John Careless. 1563, pp. 1535-38.

Careless replied to the letter from John Philpot. 1563, pp. 1536-37, 1570, pp. 2103-04,1576, pp. 1814-15, 1583, p. 1921.

Whittle sent a letter to John Careless in prison, in which he says he has heard reports of Philpot's stoutness in going to his death and asking for a copy of Philpot's nine examinations for a friend. 1570, p. 1457, 1570, pp. 2018-19, 1576, pp. 1739-40, 1583, pp. 1847-48.

[Also referred to as 'Fylpot'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John White

(1510? - 1560)

Bishop of Lincoln (1554 - 1556), bishop of Winchester (1556 - 1559) (Fasti; DNB)

John White was created bishop of Lincoln in 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He was the author of commendatory verses for Philip and Mary's marriage, (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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An examination of Ridley and Latimer was conducted by White (Lincoln), Brookes (Gloucester) and Holyman (Bristol) on 30 September 1555. White, Brookes and Holyman received their commission from Cardinal Pole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

White was present during the second private conference between Philpot and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1706-07, 1583, pp. 1812-13.

Thomas Benbridge was examined by John White, bishop of Winchester. 1563, p. 1667, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1940, 1583, p. 2046.

John White would not be swayed by the truth of Gratwick's argument. 1570, p. 2162, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1976.

Woodman's fourth examination took place before White (Winchester), Rochester, a certain doctor and others on 25 May 1557. 1563, pp. 1596-99, 1570, pp. 2188-90, 1576, pp. 1889-90, 1583, pp. 1997-99.

Woodman's fifth examination took place before Winchester, Nicholas Harpsfield, Langdale, a fat-headed priest, and many others at St Mary Overy's church on 15 June 1557. 1563, pp. 1599-1601, 1570, pp. 2190-92, 1576, pp. 1890-92, 1583, pp. 1999-2000.

The sixth and last examination of Woodman took place before Chichester, Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. He was condemned by Winchester and others.1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

White was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

He died after Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Williams of Thame

(1500? - 1559)

1st Baron Williams of Thame (1554 - 1559) (DNB)

Sir John Williams was ordered by the privy council to convey Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer from the Tower of London to Oxford, 10 March 1555 (1583, p. 1428).

[NB: APC IV (1552 - 1554), p. 406, has an order to the lieutenant of the Tower to deliver Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer to him (dated 8 March 1553 [1554]), but it has no order to Williams dated 10 March. Foxe's source for this, however, must have been privy council records; this particular entry must have been lost].

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Williams conveyed Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer to Oxford in his capacity as sheriff of Oxfordshire.Elizabeth was released from the Tower into his custody; he treated her gently and courteously (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

Williams greeted Philip, the son of Charles V, on his arrival at Southampton on 20 July 1554 (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Lord Williams, Lord Chandos, Sir Thomas Bridges and Sir John Browne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

After Wyatt's rebellion, Lord Williams of Thame went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

Benifield was not happy at the treatment Elizabeth received when she was at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Foxe recounts Benifield's behaviour towards Elizabeth when she stayed at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

[The fact that Williams summoned John Jewel to his deathbed in 1569 may indicate that Williams had protestant sympathies (DNB)].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Laurence Saunders

(d. 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Saunders' life and career are described. 1563; pp. 1037-38; 1570, pp. 1664-65; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, pp. 1493-94.

Laurence Saunders preached in Northampton, soon after Mary's accession, denouncing 'Antichrist's errors'. He was arrested and released. He came to London, despite warnings to the contrary. 1563, pp. 1038-39; 1570, p. 1665; 1576, pp. 1420-21; 1583, p. 1494.

On 15 October 1553, Saunders preached at Allhallows, Bread Street, denouncing the mass as an abomination. On the same day he was summoned by Bonner, interrogated, and committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466; also 1563, p. 1039; 1570, p.1665; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, pp. 1494-95.

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He was interrogated by Gardiner and imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583; p. 1495.

It was rumoured in May 1554 that he, along with Bradford and John Rogers, would participate in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Saunders was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Saunders was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters and examinations: 1563, pp. 1040-47; 1570, pp. 1666-70; 1576, pp. 1421-25; 1583, pp. 1495-98.

Saunders was excommunicated at 6am on 23 January 1555. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Saunders was examined and condemned by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555. 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

He was degraded, conveyed to Coventry and executed there. 1563, pp. 1047-48; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, p. 1495.

Saunders is contrasted with Henry Pendleton. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1671; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

Additional letters: 1570, pp. 1671-74; 1576, pp. 1426-29; 1583, pp. 1500-2.

Lawrence Saunders was imprisoned in the Marshalsea at the same time as Bradford was imprisoned [in the King's Bench] and often met with Bradford at the back of the prison. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

His martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

He received a letter from Bradford. 1563, p. 1194, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, pp. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

He received another letter from Bradford. 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Saunders was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote the letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Letter to evangelicals in Lichfield [BL, Harley 416, fos.13v-16r. Printed in LM, pp. 182-88.]

 
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Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1568)

Evangelist, Bible translator, Bishop of Exeter (1551 - 1553) (DNB)

Miles Coverdale associated with John Rogers and William Tyndale in translating the Bible (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He was ordered to attend the Privy Council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Coverdale appeared before the Privy Council and on the next day was commanded to await their pleasure (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

According to Foxe, he wrote a confutation of Weston's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 October 1553. Foxe claimed that he possessed a copy of Coverdale's confutation; it has not survived (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Coverdale was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41 [Coverdale's signature is on p. 1642]; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; and 1583, p. 1469-71.

Coverdale sent Rowland Taylor a cap to wear at his execution (1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1557).

Throughout 1554, Christian III of Denmark repeatedly requested that Mary release Coverdale from custody and send him to Denmark. Although Mary was reluctant to grant the request, eventually she agreed, sending Coverdale to Denmark in February 1555 (1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31).

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

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Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

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Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

 
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Simon Renard

Imperial ambassador at Mary's court

Announced at Philip and Mary's marriage that the Emperor has made Philip King of Naples. Foxe cites him by title, not name. (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Henry Bedingfield [or Benifield]

(1511 - 1583)

Of Oxborough, Norfolk. JP Norfolk (1538 - 1554). Lieutenant of the Tower (October 1555 - c. September 1556). Vice-chamberlain of Household and Captain of the Guard (Dec 1557- November 1558). Privy councillor. (DNB; Bindoff)

When the constable of the Tower was dismissed, he was replaced by Bedingfield in order to watch over Elizabeth who was then prisoner in the Tower. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield was involved in Elizabeth's removal from the Tower to Richmond. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield was not happy at the treatment Elizabeth received when she was at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Foxe recounts Bedingfield's behaviour towards Elizabeth when she stayed at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

When he had to leave the Tower, Bedingfield left instructions that no one should have access to Elizabeth until his return. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

He was one of Elizabeth's guards during her removal from Woodstock. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

James Basset wanted to meet with Sir Henry Bedingfield. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield guarded Elizabeth on her removal to Rycote, Oxfordshire. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

He brought Elizabeth to see Mary in her bedchamber. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987.

Elizabeth was sent to Woodstock and placed in Sir Henry Bedingfield's custody. Foxe criticizes him for his strict and severe custody of her (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p 1401; 1583, p. 1611). In the 1563 edition, this was followed by passages praising Elizabeth for her mercy in not seeking revenge on Bedingfield (1563, p. 1004); these passages were never reprinted.

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Bedingfield reported to the privy council that Stephen Appes was mad (1583, p. 1577).

Elizabeth was set free by Bedingfield and she forgave him his actions. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
T.M.

Signatory of the letter of 8 May 1554 concerning the proposed disputation at Cambridge (1563, p. 1003; 1570, p. 1641; 1576, p. 1400; 1583, p. 1471).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Oxborough [Oxburgh]
NGR: TF 745 015

A parish in the southern division of the hundred of Greenhoe, county of Norfolk. 3 miles east north east of Stoke Ferry. The living is a discharged rectory with the vicarage of Fauldon annexed, in the Archdeaconry of Norfolk and diocese of Norwich, and in the patronage of the Master and fellows of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

1495 [1471]

Queene Mary. A declaration of the Preachers in prison. K. Phillips ariuance in England. Certaine verses.

MarginaliaAn.no 1554. May.the blessed for euer, or damned for euer, and therefore is either past all helpe, or else needes no helpe of any in this life. By reason wehreof we affirme Purgatory, Masses of Scala cœli, Trentals, and suche Suffrages as the Popishe Church doth obtrude as necessary, to be the doctrine of Antichrist.

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MarginaliaTwo sacramentes.Eightly, we confesse and beleeue the Sacramentes of Christ, which be Baptisme and the Lordes Supper, that they ought to be ministred according to the institution of Christ, concerning the substantiall partes of them: and that they be no longer Sacraments, then they be had in vse, and vsed to the end for the which they were instituted.

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And heere we playnly confesse that the mutilation of the Lords Supper, MarginaliaThe supper to be ministred in both kindes.and the subtraction of the one kinde from the lay people, is Antichristian.

MarginaliaAgainst transubstantiation.And so is the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Sacramentall bread and wyne after the words of consecration, as they be called.

MarginaliaAgaynst Adoration of the sacrament.Item, the adoration of the Sacrament, with honor due vnto God: the reseruation and carying about of the same.

MarginaliaThe Masse to be no propitiatory sacrifice.Item, the Masse to be a propitiatory sacrifice for the quicke and dead, or a worke that pleaseth God.

All these we confesse and beleeue to be Antichristes doctrine: as is MarginaliaInhibition of Priestes mariage Antichristian.the inhibition in Mariage as vnlawfull to any state. And we doubt not by Gods grace, but we shal be able to prooue all our confessions heere to be most true by the veritie of Gods word, and consente of the Catholicke Churche, which followeth and hath followed the gouernaunce of Gods spirit, and the iudgement of his word.

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And this thorough the Lordes helpe we will do, eyther in disputation by word before the Queenes hyghnesse and her Counsayle, eyther before the Parliament houses, of whome we doubt not but to be indifferently heard, eyther with our pennes, whensoeuer we shall be thereto by them that haue authoritie required and commaunded.

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In the meane season, as obedient Subiectes wee shall behaue our selues towardes all that be in authoritie, and not cease to pray to God for them, that he woulde gouerne them all, generally and particularly with the spirite of wisedome & grace. MarginaliaExhortation agaynst rebelliō.And so we hartily desire, & humbly pray all men to do, in no point consenting to any kinde of rebellion or sedition against our soueraigne Lady the Queenes highnes: but where they can not obey, but they must disobey God, there to submit themselues with all patience and humilitie to suffer as the will and pleasures of the higher powers shall adiudge: as we are ready thorough the goodnes of the Lord to suffer whatsoeuer they shall adiudge vs vnto, rather then we will cōsent to any doctrine contrary to this which we heere confesse, vnlesse we shall be iustly conuinced therof, either by writing or by word, before such Iudges as the Queenes hyghnes and her Counsell, or the Parlamēt houses shall appoint: For the Vniuersities and Clergy haue condemned our causes already by MarginaliaThe bigger part agaynst the better.the bigger, but not by the better part, without all disputation of the same: MarginaliaAppeale from the Vniuersitie Doctors as not indifferent iudges.and therefore most iustly we may, & do appeale from them to be our Iudges in this behalfe, except it may be in writing, that to al men the matter may appeare. The Lord of mercy endue vs all with the spirit of his truth and grace of perseuerance therein vnto the end. Amen.

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The 8. of May, Anno Dom. 1554.


MarginaliaThe names of the prisoned preachers subscribing to this declaration.Robert Menauen, aliâs
Robert Ferrar.
Rowland Taylor.
Iohn Philpot.
Iohn Bradford.
Iohn. Wigorne and
Glouc. Episcopus, aliâs

Iohn Hooper.
Edward Crome.
Iohn Rogers.
Laurence Saunders.
Edmund Laurence.
I. P.
T. M.

To these things abouesayd, do I Myles Couerdale late of
Exon, consent and agree with these my afflicted bree-
thren being prisoners with mine owne hand.

And thus much concerning this present declaration subscribed by these preachers, which was on the viij. day of May.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
May 19 to August 1

Foxe attempts to develop some points against Phillip in the margin, noting his arrival with sword drawn and the deliverance of the keys of Southampton to him which suggests conquest and (in 'deliuered') reluctance. 1563 has an unusually large number of glosses at the beginning of this section.

MarginaliaMay. 19. Lady Elizabeth. Sir Iohn Williams.Furthermore, the xix. day of the sayd moneth, 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 553, line 6 from the bottom

Foxe infrà, vol. viii. p. 614, gives the same date, "May 19th," but there adds that it was Trintity Sunday, which fell on May 20th, and this is the date assigned in Cott. MS. Vitel. F. 5: "The xx. day of May, my Lady Elizabeth came out of the Tower." But Robert Swifte tells the earl of Shrewsbury, under date of "Sunday, May xx," "Of Saturdaye at one of the cloke at after none, my Lady Elsabethe was delyverd owt of the Towre by the lord Tresorer and my lord Chamberleyn, and went to Rychemonde by water furthewter she landyd, wher she shalbe attendid upon by sundrye of garde, and sume oficers of every office in the quene's howse, bot how longe she shall continewe ther I knowe not." (Lodge, vol. i. p. 193.)

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the Lady Elizabeth, Sister to the Queene, 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 28: May 19 1554 to 1 August 1554

In the 1563 edition, this section consists of a fairly lengthy account of Elizabeth's imprisonment in the custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield and a brief account of Philip's arrival in England.

The account of Elizabeth and Bedingfield was severely truncated in 1570. Part of the deleted material was praise for Elizabeth's mercy to Bedingfield. (This includes Elizabeth's oft-quoted quip in dismissing Bedingfield: that if she needed a prisoner straitly kept she would send for him). Possibly the deletion of this praise was one sign of Foxe's growing dissatisfaction with Elizabeth. Also deleted was an anecdote that Dr. John Story argued that Elizabeth should be executed, maintaining that it was useless to lop the branches from the tree without striking at the root. This remark would, in another section of the Acts and Monuments, be attributed to Stephen Gardiner (see 1563, p. 1383).

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was brought out of the Tower, and committed to the custody of Syr Iohn Williams, after Lord Williams of Tame, of whom, her highnes was gently and curteously entreated: who afterward was had to Woodstocke, and there committed to the keeping of MarginaliaSir Henry Benefield.Sir Henry Benifield Knight of Oxeborough in Northfolke: who on the other side, both forgetting her estate, and his owne duty, (as it is reported) shewed hymselfe more hard & straight vnto her, then either cause was geuen of her part, or reason of his owne part would haue led him, if either grace or wisedome in him might haue sene before, what daunger afterward might haue ensued thereof. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 554, fn 1

{Cattley/Pratt here inserts in the text: 'But herein have we to see and note, not so much the uncivil nature and disposition of that man, as the singular lenity and gracious mansuetude of that princess, who, after coming to her crown, showed herself so far from revenge of injuries taken, that whereas other monarchs have oftentimes requited less offences with loss of life, she hath scarce impaired any piece of his liberty or estimation, save only that he was restrained from coming to the court. And whereas some, peradventure, of her estate would here have used the bloody sword, here majesty was contented with scarce a nipping word; only bidding him to repair home, and saying, "If we have any prisoner, whom we would have sharply and straitly kept, then we will send for you." This virtuous and noble lady, in what fear she was the mean time, and in what peril greater than her fear, the Lord only best doth know: and, next, it is not unknown to herself, to whose secret intelligence I leave this matter further to be considered. This I may say, which every man may see; that it was not without a singular miracle of God that she could or did escape, in such a multitude of enemies, and grudge of minds so greatly exasperated against her; especially Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, whose head and devices were chiefly bent, as a bow, against that only person, to make her away: and no doubt would have brought it by some means to pass, had not the Lord prevented him with death; to preserve her life, to the preservation of this realm. Wherefore that is false which Dr. Story said in the parliament-house, lamenting, as I heard say, "that when they went so much about the branches, they had not shot at the root herself." For why? They neither lacked their darts, or no good will, to shoot at the root, all they possibly might; but, what God's providence will have kept, it shall be kept, when all Dr. Stories have shot all their artillery in vain. But of this matter it is sufficient at this present,'.} See Ed. 1563, p. 1004 - ED.

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Whereof we haue to entreate more at large (the Lorde willing) hereafter in the story & life of Queene Elizabeth.

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MarginaliaIuly 20. K. Phillip arriueth at Southampton.Vpon the Friday following, being the xx. of Iuly, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 554, fn 2


Stow says July 19. - ED.
Appendix:Foxe himself also, in the edition of 1563, p. 1004, where we read: "The xix. of Julye did Philippe, Prynce of Spaine, and sonne and heyre unto Charles the Fifth then emperour, arrive at Southampton. And the fourth daye after, in the evenyng, he came to Wynchester, where (goynge to the churche) he was honourably receyved of the Bishoppe, and a greate number of the nobles for that purpose appoynted. The nexte daye he mette with the Queene, with whom he hadde long and familier talke.
"And the xxv. daye, being Sainct James day (the chiefe patrone of the Spanyards), maryage was honourably solemnized between them."
It is to be observed, however, that St. Margaret's-day, and the Friday in July 1554, would both fall on July 20th. (Nicolas's Tables.)

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and S. Margarets day, the prince of Spaine lāded at Southampton. 
Commentary  *  Close

A brief account of Philip's arrival in England in the 1563 edition was expanded in later editions, with material probably taken from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s). The date of Philip's landing at Southampton is given as 'xix July' in 1563, p. 1004, but as 'xx July' in 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471. This could be a correction but other sources also give 19 July as the date, so this was probably a typographical error.

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The Prince him selfe was the first that landed: MarginaliaKing Phillip caryeth his sword naked comming into England.who immediately as he set foote vppon the land, drew out his sword, and caried it naked in his hād a good prety way.

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MarginaliaThe keyes of Southampton deliuered to K. Phillip.Then met him without the Towne a little the Maior of Southampton, with certayne Commoners, who deliuered the keyes of the Towne vnto the Prince, who remoued his sword (naked as it was) out of his right hand, into his left hand, and so receiued the keyes of the Maior without any word speaking, or countenaunce of thankefulnes, and after a while deliuered the keyes to the Maior againe. At the Towne gate met hym the Earle of Arundell and Lord Williams, and so he was brought to his lodging.

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MarginaliaIuly. 25. Mariage betweene K. Phillip and Q. Mary.Vpon the Wednesday following, being S. Iames day, and the xxv. of Iuly, Philip Prince of Spayne, & Mary Queene of England, were maryed together solemnely in the Cathedrall Church at Winchester, by the Byshop of Winchester, in the presence of a great number of noble men of both the Realmes. At the time of this mariage the Emperours Embassadour being present, opēly pronounced, þt in cōsideration of that Mariage, the Emperour had graūted & giuen vnto his sonne, the Kingdome of Naples, &c.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
August 1 to September 3

Glosses in this section concentrate on political events detailing Phillip's progress and the forward march of the counter-reformation. Foxe uses the glosses to make relatively subtle attacks on the catholics: in contrast to the disputations, where the glosses often gave room to an adversarial voice, here narrative is used to shape events to favour a protestant interpretation. Thus glosses report the removal of English arms for Spanish at Windsor, linking this to Phillip's name, without mentioning the quick reversal of this change, or the fact that Phillip did not order the change, apparent from the text. Winchester is accused of not being able to abide 'Verbum Dei. The precision of the formulation is noteworthy: Foxe does not directly accuse him of hating scripture, but lets the ambiguity between what he reports (Winchester's anger at an image of Henry VIII holding Verbum Dei) and what he implies (Gardiner hates the Bible) go unresolved.

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A harsher note is sounded in calling the rood at St. Paul's Bonner's 'God'. The difference in tone is probably partly due to the fact that Bonner's violent temperament made him an easier target for opprobium; furthermore, it was polemically valuable to link the passionate lack of self-control Bonner later exhibits with the antichristian sensuality of idolatry. Frivolity and self-indulgence are also pointed to on the civic level with the reference to 'vayne pageants', although the Old Testament resonances of the self-indulgence of Israel are applicable.

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MarginaliaAugust. 1.Whereupon the first daye of August following, there was a Proclamation, that from that tyme foorth, the style of all maner of writings should be altered, and this following should be vsed.

Philip and Mary by the grace of God, Kyng and Queene of England, Fraunce, Naples, Ierusalem, and Ireland, defenders of the Fayth, Princes of Spayne and Cicill, Archdukes, of Austrich, Dukes of Millaine, Burgundie, and Brabant, Counties of Haspurge, Flaunders and Tyroll.

Of this Mariage, as the Papistes chiefly seemed to be very glad, so diuers of them after diuers studyes, to shew forth their inward affections, some made Interludes and Pagentes, 

Commentary  *  Close
Block 29: August 1 to September 3

In the case of Latin poems, written by John White, the marian Bishop of Lincoln, elegising the marriage of Philip and Mary as well as two sets of verses attacking the marriage and responding to White (1563, pp. 1004-05). The author of the first set of verses is identified as 'James Caufield' in the 1563 edition; this is altered to 'J. C.' in subsequent editions (cf. 1563, p. 1005, with 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1472). 'Caufield' was probably James Calfhill, the celebrated Elizabethan divine, whose name is variously given as 'Calfill,' 'Calfeld,' or 'Calfilde' (see Foster). The author of the second set of verses, identified as 'I. F.' in the 1563 edition (p. 1005) was almost certainly Foxe himself.

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White's verses celebrate the common ancestry of Philip and Mary through John of Gaunt, ancestor of both the Tudors and the monarchs of Castille. (Interestingly, White anticipated by four decades Robert Person's arguments that Philip III, not James VI, was Elizabeth's rightful heir). In an effort to counter English xenophobia, White maintained that this common ancestry meant that Philip was really English. Those who opposed this marriage were foreigners such as the French and the Scots, and traitors such as Northumberland and Wyatt, 'the Catiline of our age'.

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Calfhill's response denounced the polluting of English royal blood with Spanish and claimed that the marriage was God's punishment for the sins of the English. Northumberland was a hero and Wyatt fought valiantly against the papacy. Interestingly, Foxe in his verses said nothing about Northumberland or Wyatt and emphasised that the marriage was not God's will. Cruelly, Foxe also mocked Mary's childlessness and the failure of her marriage.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two poems by John Parkhurst. Although the poems were added to the 1570 edition, their content makes it clear that they were written at the same time as White's verses. Parkhurst denounced Philip as a foreigner, he denounced Charles V and he was lavish in praise of both Wyatt and Dudley.

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Most unusually, Foxe never provided a translation for these verses. It is not difficult to see why poems praising rebels and discussing the foreign marriage of a queen and the royal succession should remain in the relative obscurity of Latin. It was probably the very topicality of these verses, however, that led Foxe to include, and later increase, them. A Hapsburg marriage was a real possibility in the 1560s and there is some evidence that Foxe discreetly opposed this, and any other marriage of Elizabeth to a catholic. These verses allowed Foxe to attack such a marriage safely. Foxe may also have been happy to take advantage of the opportunity these verses gave him to rehabilitate Wyatt.

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some drewe foorth Genealogies, deriuing his petigrue from Edwarde the third and Iohn of Gaunte, some made Verses. Amongst all other, Mayster Whyte, then Byshop of Lincolne (his Poeticall vayne beeyng drunken with ioye of the Mariage) spued out certayne Verses: the copy whereof we haue heere inserted.

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¶ Philippi & Mariæ Genealogia, qua ambo Principes ex Iohanne de Gandauo, Edwardi tertij, Angliæ, Franciæque Regis filio descendisse ostenduntur, Whito Lincolniense Authore.


ILle parens regum Gandaua ex vrbe Iohannes
Somersetensem comitem profert Iohannem.
Somersetensis venti hoc patre dux Iohannes,
Qui Margaretam Richemundi habuit Comitissam.
Hæc dedit Henricum, qui regni septimus huius
Henrico octauo solium regale reliquit.
Hoc patre propitio, & fausto quasi sydere nate
Iure tenes sacram, teneasque Maria coronam.

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¶ Verses of M. White Byshop of Lincolne, concerning the Marriage of Philip and Mary.


NVbat vt angla anglo, regina Maria Philippo,
Inque suum fontem regia stirps redeat,
Noluit humani generis dæmon vetus hostis,
Sed Deus Anglorum prouida spes voluit.
Nollet Scotus inops, timidusque ad prælia Gallus,
Caesar, & Italia, & Flandria tota volet.
Noluit Hæreticus (stirps Caiphæ) pontificum grex,
Pontificum sed grex Catholicus voluit.
Octo vxorati Patres in dæmone nollent:
Quinque Cathenati pro pietate, volent.
Noluit Iohannes Dudley Northumbrius vrsus,
Sed fidum regni Consilium voluit.
Noluit ætatis nostræ Catelina Viatus,
Sed proceres & plebs & pia turba volet.
Nollet Graius dux, & Cantia terra rebellans:
Nos quoniam Dominus sic voluit, volumus.
Clarior effectus repetat sua limina sanguis,
Cum sit Philippo iuncta Maria viro.

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¶ Aunswere by the reuerend Byshop of Norwich 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 556, fn 1

Dr. John Parkhurst, afterward made bishop of Norwich, A.D. 1560. - ED.

to the Byshop of Lyncolne.


EXterno nubat Maria vt regina Philippo,
Vt sint pulsa suis sceptra Britanna locis:
Vult Dæmon generis nostri antiquissimus hostis,
Anglorum non vult anchora sola Deus.
Nolunt hoc Galli, nolunt Scoti armipotentes,
Vult Cæsar, Flandrus, vult Italus Golias.

Vuft
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