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Browne

[Probably Christopher Browne, of St Johns (Venn)]

Browne was one of those gathered together by the vice-chancellor of Cambridge University to bear witness against the dead Bucer and Phagius in order to have them declared heretics. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

 
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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1474 - 1559) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1522 - 1530). Bishop of Durham (1530 - 1551, 1553 - 1559). (DNB)

On 5 August 1553 Cuthbert Tunstall was released from the Tower. Foxe calls him, 'doctor Tonstal' (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554; cited as bishop of Durham (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was one of John Rogers's examiners on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86). He examined Rowland Taylor on the same day (1563, pp. 1071-73;1570, pp. 1696-97; 1576, p. 1640; 1583, pp. 1521-22).

He was one of the commissioners who presided over the deprivation of Hooper. 1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1505.

He was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylorto death (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp.1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54).

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Tunstall was present at the next examination of Bradford that took place after Bradford's imprisonment in the Tower, August 1553-22 January 1555. 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M. Ridley'. He acknolwedged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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The bishop of Durham asked Bradford when the Lord appeared in the giving of the sacrament, to which Bradford replied by quoting Chrysostom. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Robert Farrer was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Cuthbert Tunstall died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

[Also referred to as 'doctor Tonstal']

 
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Emmanuel Lucar

Merchant Taylor

Sent to the Tower on 25 April 1554 as one of the jurors who refused to find against Sir Nicholas Throgmorton (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

He and Thomas Whetstone were the leaders of the eight members of the Throckmorton jury that refused to admit wrong doing for failing to convice Throckmorton. All of these jurors were called before Star Chamber, where Lucar insisted that they should be released. The jurors were ordered to pay 1000 marks each and returned to prison (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Ordered to pay £2,000, on 10 November 1554, within a fortnight as a fine for acquitting Throckmorton (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Lucar's name is given as 'Lucar' (not Lucas) and he is stated to be a Merchant Taylor in C. L. Kingsford, Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (Cambridge, 1910), p. 35.

He was elected Master of the Merchant Taylors in 1560 (J. G. Nichols, ed, The Diary of Henry Machyn (London, 1878) Camden Society, original series 42, p. 380).

One of the three Throgmorton jurors released from prison on 21 December 1554, after declaring that they could not pay their fines of £220 and paying £40 instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; cf. C. L. Kingsford, ed. Two London Chronicles from the Collection of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (London, 1910), p. 41).

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Also referred to as 'Emmanuel Lucas'.

 
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Francis Englefield

(1521/22 - 1596)

Catholic exile. High sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire at the death of Henry VIII. Privy councillor, Master of the Rolls and Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries under Mary [DNB; Bindoff, Commons]

Englefield was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Sir Francis Englefield was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Learning of the madness of John Bolton, Sir Francis ordered him released from Reading goal (1563, pp. 1017-18). [NB: Englefield was also the keeper of Reading goal; see Bindoff, Commons.]

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Englefield and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1467; 1583, p. 1559.

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered that Englefield apprehend John Dee and that he search the papers of Dee and Thomas Benger. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555, the privy council ordered Englefield to examine Cary, Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger about their having practiced conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

[Went into exile under Elizabeth and retired to Valladolid. (DNB)]

 
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Henry Fitzalan

(1512 - 1580)

Earl of Arundel (DNB)

Henry Fitzalan was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, stating that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-07).

Fitzalan escorted Henry Dudley, the duke of Northumberland, to the Tower (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Fitzalan was one of the leaders of the troops sent against Sir Thomas Wyatt (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1467).

He was chief judge at the condemnation of Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He greeted Philip on his arrival at Southampton on 20 July 1554 (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

He was present at Stephen Gardiner?s Paul?s Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Fitzalan bore a cap of maintenance before Queen Mary at the opening of parliament on 12 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He was signatory to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, from the privy council to Bonner, informing him that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

Henry Fitzalan was patron of Lexden parish. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

He was involved in the questioning of Elizabeth after her removal from Ashridge. He apologized to her for the questioning she had been subjected to. 1563, p. 1712.

He was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton Court. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

 
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John Grey

(d. 1569)

2nd Marquis of Dorset; uncle of Lady Jane Grey

Captured with his brother, the Duke of Suffolk, on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

Arraigned and convicted of treason on 20 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

Released from the Tower on 30 October 1554 (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

 
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John Harpsfield

(1516 - 1578)

Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Archdeacon of London (1554 - 1559); dean of Norwich (1558 - 1559). Brother of Nicholas Harpsfield. [DNB; Fasti]

Harpsfield preached a sermon at the commencement of the 1553 convocation (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

He sparred with Philpot in the debates at the 1553 convocation. (See 1563, pp. 909, 912 and 914-15; 1570, pp. 1573-74 and 1576-78; 1576, pp. 1342 and 1345-46 and 1583, pp. 1412 and 1416-17).

He was one of the catholic disputants at the Oxford disputations of 1554; he debated with Cranmer and Ridley (1563, pp. 932-34, 938, 955, 967-69 and 978; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1605-6; 1576, pp. 1358-59 and 1370-71; 1583, pp. 1428, 1430 and 1440-41).

Harpsfield disputed on the eucharist for his D.D. on 19 April 1554; Cranmer disputed with him (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

He gave a Latin oration in St Paul's before King Philip (1570, p. 1643; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He witnessed Bonner's burning Tomkins' hand with a candle, and he urged Bonner to cease the torture (1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p.1534).

Together with William Chedsey and John Feckenham, Harpsfield attempted to persuade John Hooper to recant after his condemnation on 29 January 1555. The attempt was unsuccessful but it caused false rumors of Hooper's recantation to spread (1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507).

Harpsfield witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508).

He was one of those who presided over the examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555 (1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535).

Harpsfield was one of those who examined Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed on 18 February 1555 (1563, p. 1104). Bonner ordered him to deliver a rebuttal to the confession of faith of Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed (1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541).

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554, arguing the necessity of infant baptism. 1563, pp. 1151-52;1570, pp. 1760-61; 1576, p. 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1587-88

He escorted Thomas Hawkes to the Gatehouse at Westminster on 1 July 1554. 1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1765;1576, p. 1765; 1583, p. 1590

John Harpsfield conferred with the bishop of Durham about John Bradford. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

Smith was examined by Bonner and Harpsfield, among others, met with Harwood in the garden, and was re-examined. Smith was then left in the garden until Harwood was examined, after which Smith was examined again. 1563, pp. 1252-55, 1570, pp. 1870-72, 1576, pp. 1601-03, 1583, pp. 1691-92.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

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Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had however left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

John Harpsfield urged Thomas Whittle to recant and composed a bill of submission for Whittle to sign. 1563, pp. 1454-55, 1570, p. 2017, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, pp. 1845-46.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's suscription. It mentioned one of Penbroke's men who wanted license to erect a school. Harpsfield hoped for Penbroke's sake that it be requested, and he and M Johnson (Register) were working to that effect. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47. [In all editions after 1563, the heading incorrectly gives the author of the letter as Nicholas Harpsfield.]

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Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2097.

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Bonner sent Thomas Hinshaw before John Harpsfield and Henry Cole. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Bonner attended evensong with John Harpsfield prior to causing several boys to be beaten in 1558. 1563, p. 1692, 1570, p. 2264, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2061.

Bonner and Harpsfield laughed at and mocked Edward Benet for his beliefs. 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Harpsfield was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
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John Streate

Joiner

According to Foxe, Streate, a joiner of Coleman Street, London, hurrying about his business, bumped into a priest carrying the pyx during a Corpus Christi Day procession in 1554, causing the priest to drop the pyx. The priest accused Streate of assaulting him and Streate was taken to one of the Counters, and then to Newgate (1563, p. 1005; 1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Lord Edward North

(1496? - 1564)

1st baron North of Kirtling (DNB ; Bindoff, Commons) Brother of Joan Wilkinson.

North was a supporter of Lady Jane Grey who gained Mary's favor.

He was one of the signatories of a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

North was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was ordered by the privy council to examine Cary, John Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger. 1583, p. 1581

Isabel Malt claimed that Lord North and another nobleman offered her money in exchange for her infant son, hoping to pass the baby off as Mary?s son. 1570, p. 1772; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1597

Lord Edward North was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Ralph Allerton was examined on 24 April 1557 before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

 
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Master Beston

Imprisoned in connection with illicit books in October 1554, (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1473). Foxe describes him as a merchant. He may be Cuthbert Beeston, the girdler, who stood surety for the former Protestant exile Richard Laughern on 6 September 1560 (Brett Usher, 'Backing Protestantism: The London Godly, the Exchequer and the Foxe Circle' in David Loades, et al., John Foxe: An Historical Perspective (Aldershot, 1999), p. 133).

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Master Sparke

Draper

Imprisoned in connection with illicit books October 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1576; 1583, p. 1473).

 
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Randall Tirer

Stationer

Imprisoned in connection with illicit books, October 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

 
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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

 
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Sir Anthony Browne

(1526-92)

Viscount Mountague 1554-92 (DNB)

Present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross Sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Sent as an ambassador to the Pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands to the Church (1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1529).

[NB: Do not confuse this Sir Anthony Browne with the Sir Anthony Browne of Essex; they are two different people.]

Foxe occasionally refers to him as 'Lord Montacute'.

 
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Sir Edward Hastings

(by 1519 - 1573)

Lord Hastings of Loughborough. MP for Leicester (1547, 1552), Leicestshire (1547, 1553), Middlesex (1533, 1554, 1555). Sheriff of Leicestershire and Middlesex (1550), town clerk of Leicester (1553), bailiff (1553 - 1554). JP Middlesex (1554 - 1558/9), Leicestershire (1558/9). (DNB; Bindoff; Cockayne) Master of the Horse (DNB)

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Sir Edward Hastings was sent to bring Princess Elizabeth to London on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was sent as an ambassador, 'I knowe not wither', but it was believed to escort Cardinal Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, pp. 1473-74).

After Wyatt's rebellion, Hastings went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Sentence against six martyred at Brentford was read by Darbyshire in the presence of Edward Hastings and Thomas Cornwallis. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

[Confined to Baynard Castle in 1561 and later sent to the Tower for hearing mass. Recanted and took the oath of supremacy and was released. Retired to Buckinghamshire.]

 
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Sir Edward Waldegrave

(1517? - 1561) (DNB)

Member of Princess Mary's household from 1551. Master of the Queen's Wardrobe; privy councillor. MP (1553, 1554, 1557 - 1558). Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1557 - 1558). Commissioner for inquiry into heresies. (DNB; Bindoff, Commons)

Sir Edward Waldegrave was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

He was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554. Foxe calls him 'Walgraue'. (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Walgrave was a member of a commission set up by Philip and Mary to seek out heretics. 1563, pp. 1561 [recte 1573]-1563 [recte 1575].

James Ashley was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

John Cooke was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Alexander Lane was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Robert Miles was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

[Imprisoned in the Tower for permitting mass to be said in his house. Died there in 1561. (DNB)]

[Foxe refers to him as Walgrave.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton

(1515 - 1571)

[DNB] [Also Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons]

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was sent to the Tower on 22 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 and arraigned for treason. He defended himself so well, challenging the legality of the laws under which he was being prosecuted as well as arguing his innocence of any wrong doing, that the jury cleared him (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1649).

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Eight members of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton refused to admit wrong doing and were sentenced by Star Chamber to pay 1000 marks apiece and were imprisoned (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Three members of the jury that acquitted him, Whetstone, Lucar and Kightely, were ordered to pay fines of £2,000 each, another five were ordered to pay fines of a thousand marks each and four others, who confessed their fault and asked pardon, were exempted from any fines (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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On 12 December 1554, five of the eight defiant jurors were released from prison after paying fines of £220 each. On 21 December the remaining three jurors were released from prison after declaring that they could not pay the fines and paid £40 each instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480).

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Throckmorton was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Also referred to as 'Sir Nicholas Throgmorton' or 'Throgmerton']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Robert Rochester

(1494? - 1557) [DNB]

Mary's Controller of the Household; privy councillor

Sir Robert Rochester was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was present at the burning of John Rogers, 4 February 1555. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, p. 1493.

Rochester was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

On 28 March, Mary announced to Rochester and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

Rochester stated that he did not know that Bradford had been in prison, but that he now knew that he was to be kept in prison 'without a cause'. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir William Paget

(by 1506 - 1563 )

Lord Paget of Beaudesert (1549). Lord Privy Seal (1556 - 1558). MP (unknown constituency - 1529), Middlesex (1545), Staffordshire (1547). Secretary to Jane Seymour and Anne of Cleves (1537 and 1540). High Steward of Cambridge University (1547 - 1553). [Bindoff; DNB]

William Paget accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments (1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504).

On 7 November 1554, he was sent as an ambassador 'I know not whither, but it was thought to be to escort Pole to England', (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, pp. 1473-74).

He was one of John Roger's examiners on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59;1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86).

Lord Paget delivered Stephen Gardiner to Bonner. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

Cheke had safe passage from King Philip, with Lord Paget and Sir John Mas securing their safety. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Having seen Paget safely off to England, Carew and Cheke were taken en route between Brussels and Antwerp. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

John Mason warned Richard Bertie and his wife Katherine that Lord Paget was on his way under a false pretence and that the duke of Brunswick was nearby in the service of the house of Austria against the French king. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir William Petre

(1505? - 1572)

Mary's principal secretary until 1557 (DNB).

Sir William Petre was one of the signatories of a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554. Foxe spells his name 'Peter', (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Petre and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church (1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559).

William Peter was one of the privy councillors who signed a letter to Bishop Bonner, dated 28 April 1555, ordering the bishop to proceed posthumously against John Tooley in ecclesiastical court. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. He mentioned two letters: one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsbury, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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Sir William Petre was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton court. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

[Also referred to as 'Secretary Peter']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Radcliffe

(1526? - 1583)

Lord Fitzwalter ['Fitzwaters'] and, from 1557, earl of Sussex. Diplomat, Courtier, and Lord Deputy of Ireland (DNB).

Thomas Radcliffe was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554. Called 'Lord Fitzwaters' by Foxe (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

During John Careless' first examination, Martin pretended, according to Foxe, to desire to help Careless survive. He asked Careless if he would like to go to Ireland with Lord Fitzwalter to do the queen's service, to which Careless replied that he was willing to do the queen service as long as he was alive. 1563, p. 1534, 1570, pp. 2101-02, 1576, pp. 1813-14, 1583, pp. 1919-20.

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Thomas Rose had a talk with the earl of Sussex, Sir William Woodhouse and other chaplains. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1979-80, 1583, p. 2085.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton, with the earl of Sussex in attendance. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Thirlby

(1506? - 1570) (DNB)

Bishop of Westminster (1540 - 1550). Bishop of Norwich (1550 - 1554). Bishop of Ely (1554 - 1559). [Fasti; DNB]

Thomas Thirlby was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Thomas Thirlby was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

He was sent as an ambassador to the pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1559.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by the privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1563, pp. 1489-92; 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 1775-76, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Thirlby examined and condemned John Hullier. 1563, p. 1515, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

John Hullier was examined and sent to Cambridge Castle by Thirlby. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Thirlby was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Whetstone

Haberdasher

Sent to the Tower on 25 April 1554 as one of the jurors who refused to find against Sir Nicholas Thorckmorton (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

He and Emmanuel Lucar were the leaders of the eight members of the Throckmorton jury that refused to admit wrong-doing for failing to convict Throckmorton. All of these jurors were called before Star Chamber and ordered to pay 1000 marks each and returned to prison (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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On 10 November 1554 he was ordered to pay a fine of £2000 within a fortnight for acquitting Throckmorton (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Foxe calls him 'Master Whetstone', but his first name, the fact that he was a haberdasher and that he was the foreman of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton are in W. D. Hamilton, A Chronicle of England ... by Charles Wriothesley, Windsor Herlad (2 Vols, London, 1875 – 1877) Camden Society First series 11 and 20, p. 115.

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Robert Whetston, harberdasher, had already sued for and received a pardon on 4 November 1553 (for complicity in Wyatt's rebellion?) (Calendar of Patent Rolls, Philip and Mary, 1553 - 1554, p. 465).

Whetstone was one of Throgmorton jurors released from the Fleet after paying a fine of £220 each (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; cf. C. L. Kingsford, ed., Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow in Camden Miscellany XII (London, 1910), p. 41).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1483? - 1572)

Marquess of Winchester (1551 - 1572) [DNB]

William Paulet signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504. [Paulet signed as 'W. Wiltshire', being earl of Wiltshire at the time].

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer on 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Paulet was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Paulet and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

On 16 May 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send Thomas Ross to John Hopton, and to commit Stephen Appes to Bedlam, if reports of his madness were true. 1583, p. 1577.

On 26 May 1555 the privy council ordered that that Paulet confer with Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs about where convicted heretics were to be executed. 1583, p. 1577.

On 28 May 1555 the Privy Council instructed Paulet to provide money for ambassadors carrying news of the (anticipated) safe delivery of Mary's child to various foreign monarchs. 1583, p. 1577.

On 12 June 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send writs for the executions of Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

Derick Carver was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, then lord treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Paulet wrote to Feckenham, the dean of St Paul's. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

[Also referred to as 'Marquis of Winchester' and 'W. Wiltshire']

1497 [1473]

Queene Mary. Winchesters Sermon at Paules Croße. John Streate imprisoned. Quest men troubled.

MarginaliaAn.no 1554. Aprill.hope yee bee but a sommers byrd, in that ye be dressed in white and greene, &c.

The Prince thus being in the Church of Paules, after Doctour Harpesfield had finished his Oration in Latine, set forwarde through Fleetestreete, and so came to White hall, where he with the Queene remayned four dayes after, and from thence remoued vnto Richmond.

After this, all the Lords had leaue to departe into theyr countreies, with straite commaundement to bring all their harnesse and artillery into the Tower of London with all speede. 

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The remainder of the material in this block - Philip and Mary retiring to Hampton Court, Bonner's visitation, and a proclamation against vagabonds and servants without masters - was added in 1570 from unidentifiable sources (1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Now remained there no English Lord at the court but the Byshop of Winchester. From Richmond they remoued to Hampton Court, where the hall doore within the Court was continually shut, so that no man might enter, vnlesse his arrand were first knowne: which seemed straunge to English men that had not bene vsed thereto.

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MarginaliaSeptemb. 3.About the eight day of September, Byshop Boner began his visitation, who charged vj. men in euery parish to inquire (according to their othes) and to present before him the day after S. Mathewes day, being the xxij. of September, all such persons as either had or should offend in any of his Articles, which he had set forth to the number of 37. Of the whiche visitation of Boner, I haue somewhat more largely to entreate, after that first I shall ouerpasse a few other things folowing in course of this present story.

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MarginaliaSeptemb. 17.The xvij. day of September, was a Proclamation in London, that all Vacabonds and masterles men, as well straungers as Englishmen, should depart the Citie within fiue dayes: & straitly charging all Inholders, Victuallers, Tauerners, and Alehousekeepers, with all other that sell victuals, that they (after the said fiue dayes) should not sell any meate, drinke, or any kind of victuall to any Seruingman whatsoeuer, vnlesse he brought a testimoniall from his Maister to declare whose seruaunt he was, and were in continuall houshold with his sayd Mayster, vpon payne to runne in daunger of the law if they offend herein.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation

As with Harpsfield's disputation, Foxe is keen to correct what he sees as popish errors: for example, the historical point about the doctrine of the natural presence. The anger follows the pattern of ostensible provocation by an attack on the godly (preachers in this case). The glosses concerned with Bonner's visitation are relatively restrained in their criticism: the reported actions of the bishop were presumably damning enough. Foxe marks the itinerary, and twice mentions his 'behauiour', priming the reader to focus on his conduct. Other glosses list his insulting and violent behaviour, making clear the rank and status of those abused to compound the sense of disorderly proceeding. The glosses suggest Bonner was both vicious and ridiculous: he goes in a 'pelting chase' which suggests a lack of self-control and is easily put down by Sir Thomas Josselin . Glosses note the discrepancies between editions that follow the usual pattern of 1583 being less accurate than earlier editions; also noted are examples of a mistake in 1570 corrected in later editions.

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MarginaliaSeptemb. 30. The B. of Winchester preacheth.Vppon the Sonday following, beeyng the xxx. daye of September, 
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Block 30: Gardiner's sermon to Bonner's visitation

Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 was mentioned, and a brief summary of it given, in 1563 (p. 1008). This was replaced in the next edition by a fuller and more detailed account (1570, p. 1644; 1576, pp. 1402-03; 1583, p. 1473). This account was based on notes taken by someone in the audience which survive in Foxe's papers (BL Harley 425, fol. 118r). The account printed by Foxe is more detailed than the material in his papers, and more hostile to Gardiner: Foxe seems to have embellished his source.

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the Bishop of Winchester Lord Chauncellour of England preached 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 559, line 19 from the bottom

There is a much tamer account of this Sermon among the Foxian MSS. (Harl. 425, p. 118).

at Paules Crosse, at whose Sermon were present all the Coūsell that were at the Court, namelye the Marques of Winchester, the Earle of Arundell, Lord North,, Sir Anthony Browne, Maister Rochester, Maister Walgraue, Maister Englefild, Lord Fitzwaters, and Secretary Peter,, & the Bishop of London, Duresme, & Ely, which iij. sate vnder the Bishops armes. The Gospell wherof he made his Sermon is writtē in the xxij. cha. of Math. Where the Phariseis came vnto Christ, & amōgst them one asked Christ which was the greatest commaundement. Christ aunswered: Thou shalt loue thy Lorde God with all thy hart, &c. and thy neighbour as thy selfe, in these two is comprehended the Lawe and the Prophetes.

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After his long declaration of these wordes, speaking very much of loue and charitie, at the last he had occasion vpon S. Iames his wordes, to speake of the true teachers, and of the false teachers, saying, MarginaliaA blasphemous mouth agaynst the true preachers of Gods word.that all the Preachers almost in King Edwards tyme, preached nothing but voluptuousnesse, and filthy and blasphemous lyes, affirming their doctrine to be that false doctrine whereof S. Iames speaketh: saying, that it was full of peruerse zeale, earthly, full of discord and discensiō, that the preachers aforenamed would report nothing truly, & that they taught that it was lawfull for a man to put awaye his wyfe for adultery, and marry another, and that if a man vowed to day, he might breake it to morrowe at hys pleasure, wyth many other thyngs which I omit. And when he spoke of the Sacrament, he sayd that all the Church from the beginning haue cōfessed Christes natural body to be in heauen, & here to be in the Sacramēt, and so concluded that matter: MarginaliaThe church neuer confessed the naturall body of Christ so to be in the Sacrament. that the substaunce of bread was taken away before the time of pope Innocent the 3. anno. 1215:& then willed al men to say with Iosephs brethren: Peccauimus in fratrem. We haue all sinned against our brother, and so (sayd he) haue I to. MarginaliaWinchester preacheth in commendation of king Phillip.Then he declared what a noble King & Queene we haue, saying that if he should go about to shew that the King came hether for no necessitie or neede, & what he had brought wt him, it should be superfluous, seing it is euidētly known that he hath x. times as much as we are in hope & possession of, affirming him to be as wise, sober, gentle & temperate a Prince as euer was in Englād, and if it were not so proued, then to take him for a false liar for his so saying: Exhorting all men to make much of him,& to wynne him whylest we had him, and so should we also winne all such as he hath brought with him, and so made an ende.

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Vpon the Tuesday following, being the seconde day of October, 

Commentary  *  Close

The treasure carts passing through London (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473) are mentioned in a number of contemporary chronicles, although Foxe included details in no other surviving source. The incident was probably taken from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s).

xx. carts came from Westminster laden (as it was noysed) with gold and siluer, 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 560, fn 2


"Twenty cartloads of gold and silver in buillion, and two more of coined money." Walter's History of England, vol. iii. p. 383. - ED.
Addenda:The Chronicle of Queen Jane and Q. Mary, p. 83, says that the twenty carts contained "iiijxx xvij lytell chestes of a yard long and iiij ynches brode, of syllver, which will mak by estymacyon 1 thousand pounde." Stowe instead of "fourscore and seventeen chests," has made 27 chests in each cart.

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and certain of the Gard with them through the Citie to the Tower, and there it was receiued in by a Spanyard, who was the Kings Treasurer, and had custody of it within the Tower. It was matted about with mattes, and mayled in little bundels about

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two foote long, and almost halfe a foote thicke, and euery cart were sixe of those bundels. What it was in deede God knoweth, for it is to vs vncertayne.

Aboute the same time, or a little before, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 560, middle

Machyn has got it recorded under the xxiiiith day of May, Corpus Christi day, p. 63.

vppon Corpus Christi day, 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's narrative of John Street's desecration of a Corpus Christi procession in 1554 (1563, p. 1005; 1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473) is of extraordinary interest. Foxe states at the conclusion of the narrative that 'the briefe Chronicle of London in this poynt is not to be credited, which untruely reported that he [Streat] fayned himselfe in Newgate to be mad: which thing, we in writing of this history by due inquisition of that partie [Streat], have found to be contrary'. Obviously this 'brief chronicle' was Foxe's initial source for this incident, but can this chronicle be identified? Only two of the surviving London chronicles, histories or diaries which preceded the 1563 edition contained this story. One is Machyn's diary, which clearly was not Foxe's source (see J. G. Nichols (ed.), The Diary of Henry Machyn, Camden Society Original Series 42 (London, 1848), pp. 63-64).

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The other version of the story is in what is called the Grey Friars' chronicle and this was very probably Foxe's source. It has the essential details of the incident, including Streat's name, that Streate was 'put in Newgatte and then fayned him selffe madde' (J. G. Nichols (ed.), Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, Camden Society Original Series 53 (London, 1856), p. 89). This is particularly interesting since the Grey Friars' chronicle is known to have passed through the hands of John Stow. Foxe and Stow are known to have exchanged materials but not until after the 1563 edition, under the auspices of Matthew Parker. (There seems to have been a certain amount of personal tension between Foxe and Stow, and their cooperation was not entirely voluntary). Thus it appears that it was Foxe who originally acquired a copy of the Grey Friars' chronicle and passed it to Stow.

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That said, Foxe made very little use of the Grey Friars' chronicle, probably because he disliked and distrusted its anti-protestant bias. This distrust can be seen in his taking the trouble to find Streat and interview him about the incident, after he learned of it from the chronicle. (This is also an example of Foxe hunting down oral sources to confirm or deny written reports).

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the processiō being made in Smithfield, where after the manner the Priest with his boxe went vnder the Canapy, by chaunce there came by the way a certaine simple man, named MarginaliaIoh. Streat. Iohn Streate, a ioyner of Colemā streete, who hauing some hast in his busines, and finding no other way to passe through, by chaunce went vnder the Canapy by the Priest. The Priest seeing the man so to presume to come vnto the Canapy, being belike afraid, and MarginaliaThe Priest worse feared then hurt.worse feared then hurt, MarginaliaThe Priest let the Pix fall for feare.for feare let his Pixe fall downe. The poore man being straight wayes apprehended, was had to the Counter, the Priest accusing him vnto the Counsayle, as though he had come to slay him, whē as þe poore man (as he himselfe hath since declared vnto vs) had no such thought euer in his mind. MarginaliaIoh. Streat innocently cast in the Dungeon.Then from the Counter he was had vnto Newgate, where he was cast into the Dongeon, there chayned to a post, where he was cruelly & miserably handled & so extremely dealt withall, that being but simple before, he was now feared out of his wit altogether, and so vpon the same had to Bedlem. MarginaliaIoh. Streat falsly reported of.Wherupon the briefe Chronicle of London 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 560, line 4 from the bottom

This Chronicle has been put into print by the Camden Society, under the title, Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, 1852. The sentence quoted by Foxe appears on p. 89.

in this poynte is not to be credited, which vntruely reported that he fayned himselfe in Newgate to be mad: which thing, we in writing of this history by due inquisition of the partie, haue found to be contrary.

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Commentary  *  Close

After relating Streat's misfortunes, Foxe added a recital of the events of October and the first third of November 1554, all drawn from lost chronicle sources (1570, pp. 1644-45; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, 1473-74).

MarginaliaOctober. 5.About the v. day of October, and within a fortnight folowing, were diuers as well housholders as seruaunts & prentises apprehended and taken, and committed to sondry prisons, for the hauing and selling of certaine bookes which were sent into England by the Preachers that fled into Germany and other Countreys, which bookes nipped a great number so neare, MarginaliaMen prisoned for bookes.that within one fortnight there were little lesse then threescore imprisoned for thys matter: among whome, was M. Browne a Goldsmith, Mayster Sparke a Draper, Randall Tirer a Stationer, M. Beston a Marchaunt, with many other.

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MarginaliaOctober. 14.Vpon the Sonday being the xiiij. daye of October, the old Byshop of Duresme preached in the shroudes.

Vpon S. Lukes day following, being the xviij. of October, the Kyngs Maiesty came from Westminster to Paules Church along the Streetes, accompanied with a great number of Noble men, and there he was receyued vnder a Canapy at the West dore, and so came into the Chauncell where he heard Masse (which a Spanishe Byshop and his owne Chappell soong) and that done, he returned to Westminster to dyner agayne.

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MarginaliaOctober 26. The trouble of the good men which were of M. Throgmortons quest:Vpon the Friday being the xxvj. of October, certayne men, whereof I spake before, which were of Mayster Throgmortons quest, being in number viij. for the other foure were deliuered out of prison, for that they submitted themselues and sayd they had offended, like weakelyngs, not considering truth to be truth but of force for feare sayd so: these viij. men I say (whereof Maister Emanuell Lucas, and M. Whetstone were chiefe) were called before the Counsaile in the Starre chamber: where they all affirmed that they had done all thyngs in that matter according to theyr knowledge and good consciences, euen as they shoulde aunswere before God at the daye of iudgemente. Where maister Lucas sayde openly before all the Lordes, that they had done in the matter lyke honest men and true and faythfull subiects, and therfore they humbly besought the Lord Chauncellor and the other Lordes, to be meanes to the King and Queenes Maiesties, that they might be discharged and set at liberty, & sayd that they were all contented humbly to submit themselues to their maiesties, sauing and reseruing theyr trueth, consciences and honesty. Some of the Lordes sayde that they were worthy to pay a thousand poundes a peece, and other some sayd that Mayster Lucas and Maister Whetstone were worthy to pay a thousand markes a peece, and the rest fiue hundreth poūds a peece. In conclusion, sentence was geuen by the Lorde Chauncellour, that they should pay a thousand Markes a peece, and that they should go to prison againe, & there remayne till further order were taken for their punishment.

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MarginaliaOctober 30.Vpon the Tuesday being the xxx. of October, the Lorde Iohn Gray was deliuered out of the Tower and set at liberty.

MarginaliaNouemb. 4.Vpon Sonday the fourth of Nouember, fyue Priestes 

Commentary  *  Close

The incident of five priests doing penance at Paul's Cross on 4 November 1554 is in the chronicle extracts in Foxe's papers (Harley MS 419, fol. 132r).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 561, fn 1


Stow says, three priests and two laymen. He adds, that during the sermon they were "displed [disciplined] on the heads, with the same rods." - ED.
Addenda:According to Machyn's Diary (p. 74) only one was a priest, Sir Thomas Lawes, otherwise called Sir Thomas Gryffyn: "iiii of them wher relegyous men, and the feyth was a temporall man that had ii wyeffes."

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did penaunce at Paules Crosse, which were contente to put away their wiues, and take vpon them agayne to minister. Euery of them had a Taper in his hand, and a rod, wherewith the Preacher did disple them.

MarginaliaNouemb. 7.Vpon Wednesday the vij. of Nouember, the Lord Paget & Syr Edward Hastings Maister of the horse, were sent as Ambassadours, I knowe not whither, but as it was adiudged, to Cardinall Poole, who lay all the sommer

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