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View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Stanley

(1508 - 1572)

3rd earl of Derby [DNB]

Edward Stanley accompanied Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466.)

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Bonner, dated 27 November 1554, informing him that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76.)

Stanley summoned George Marsh to Lathom House, his residence, and examined him there. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

He detained Marsh at Lathom House, in harsh conditions, but after examining Marsh a second time he believed that Marsh would recant and ordered that he be well treated. 1570, p. 1734; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

Stanley interrogated Marsh formally in Lancaster Castle. During the session, the earl told Marsh that he had never consented to the laws of Edward VI concerning religion. 1570, p. 1734; 1576, p. 1481; 1583, p. 1564.

Bishop Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with his letters, as had been reported by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Gardiner, on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referred to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

It was intended that Bradford be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

 
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John Bourchier

(d. 1561)

Earl of Bath [Complete Peerage]; privy councillor

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Bonner, dated 27 November 1554, informing the bishop that Queen Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

[Also referred to as John Bathon]

 
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Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

 
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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir John Huddleston

(1517 - 1557)

Privy Councillor (1553 ? 1557) (Bindoff, Commons)

Sir John Huddleston was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the privy council to Bishop Bonner, informing him that Queen Mary was pregnant and ordering Bonner to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

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Foxe calls him 'John Huddilstone'.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Richard Southwell

(1504 - 1564)

Master of the Ordinance; elder brother of Sir Robert Southwell. Courtier and official. (DNB)

Sir Richard Southwell was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Bishop Bonner, dated 27 November 1554, informing him that Queen Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-75).

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Southwell was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was present at John Rogers' execution on 4 February 1555. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, p. 1493.

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

Richard Southwell was one of the privy councillors who signed a letter to Bishop Bonner, dated 28 April 1555, ordering the bishop to proceed posthumously against John Tooley in ecclesiastical court. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. He mentioned two letters, one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsbury, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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He sent a letter to Bishop Bonner about William Andrew. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

Robert Farrer's examination took place before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

After Wyatt's rebellion, Southwell went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wharton

(1520 - 1572)

2nd Lord Wharton [DNB sub Thomas, 1st Lord Wharton]. Privy councillor (1553 - 1558) [Bindoff, Commons]

Thomas Wharton was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Bishop Bonner, dated 27 November 1554, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

A letter was sent about Green's treason to Bonner by the privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. He mentioned two letters, one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsberye, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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1500 [1476]

Queene Mary. Cardinall Pooles Oration to the Parliament house.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Nouember. MarginaliaThe Councels letter to B. Boner of the Queenes conceauing of childe.finite benefites of late most graciouslye poured vpon vs and thys whole Realme, to extend his benediction vpon the Queenes maiesty in such sort, as she is conceiued and MarginaliaIf Queene Mary were quicke with childe in the 28. of the moneth of Nouember and afterward did labour in the moneth of Iune, thē went she almost 7. monethes quicke with childe.* quicke of childe. Wher by (her maiesty being our natural liege Lady, queene & vndoubted inheritor of this imperiall crowne) good hope of certayn succession in the crowne is geuen vnto vs, & consequētly the great calamities, which (for want of such succession might otherwise haue fallen vpon vs, & our posterity) shall by Gods grace be well auoyded, if we thankefully acknowledge this benefite of almighty God, endeuoring our selues with earnest repentance to thanke honor and serue him, as we be most bounden: These be not onely to aduertise you of these good newes, to be by you published in all places within your Dioces, but also to pray and require you, that both your selfe do geue God thankes with vs for this his especial grace, and also geue order that thankes may be openly geuen by singing of MarginaliaTe Deum, for Queene Maryes childe.Te Deum in all the churches within your sayde Dioces: and that likewise all priestes and other Ecclesiasticall ministers, in theyr Masses and other diuine seruices, may continually pray to almighty God, so to extend his holy hand ouer his maiesty, the kinges highnes and this whole Realme, as this thing being by his omnipotent power graciously thus begon may by the same be well continued and brought to good effect, to the glory of his name. Whereunto, albeit we doubt not, ye woulde of your selfe haue had special regard without these our letters yet for the earnest desire we haue to haue this thing done out of hand, & diligently continued, we haue also written these our letters, to put you in remembraunce: and so bid your Lordshippe most hartily well to fare. From Westminster the 27. of Nouember 1554.

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Your assured louing frendes.


S. Winton. Chancel.
Arundell.
F. Shrewsbury.
Edward Darby,
Henry Sussex.

Iohn Bathon.
R. Rich.
Thomas Warthom.
Iohn Huddilstone.
R. Southwell.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Pole's Oration

The glosses here show Foxe refocussing his attack on Pole, as he did earlier on Bonner. The 1563 and 1570 editions have different glosses linking Pole with avarice and (in the case of 1570) other vices; these were later dropped, and the main emphasis was on Pole as a persecutor of consciences. Foxe also uses the glosses to demonstrate Pole's involvement in a nexus of papal and imperial allegiances, drawing out some amusing images of Pole as a papal messenger/housebreaker jangling the power of the keys in the lock of English law. A clearer focus on Pole in his political and persecutory role rather than on his personal failings dominates after 1570. There are several references to earlier parts of the book in response to Pole's historical arguments: in all cases 1583 fails to give a reference, unlike 1570 and 1576.

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MarginaliaCardinall Poole commeth to the Parlament.Also the same day in the afternoone, Cardinall Poole came to the Parliament house, which at that present was kept in the great Chamber of the Court at Whitehall: for that the Queene was then sicke, and could not go abroad: where as (the King and Queenes Maiesties sittyng vnder þe cloth of Estate, & the Cardinall sitting on theyr right hand, with all the other Estates of the Parliament being present) the Byshop of Winchester being Lord Chauncellor, began in this maner. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 33: Pole"s oration

All editions of the Acts and Monuments contain Gardiner's short introduction of Pole in parliament on 28 November 1554 and Pole's speech celebrating the restoration of England to the catholic faith (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-07; 1583, pp. 1476-77). In the 1570 edition, however, Foxe added a few phrases to Gardiner's introduction of Pole's oration. This addition included the information that the gate to parliament was locked during Pole's oration (which somewhat detracts from the cardinal's eloquence). Gardiner's introduction and Pole's oration were reprinted from John Elder, A copie of a letter sente unto Scotland (London, 1555), STC 7552, sigs. D1r-E2r. Elder states (sig. E2r-v) that he based his version on notes taken by a friend of his, an MP, who was present.

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¶ The wordes of Winchester for receiuing of the Cardinall.

MarginaliaWinchesters words for Cardinall Poole.MY Lordes of the vpper house, & you my Maisters of the nether house, here is present the right reuerend father in God my Lord Cardinall Poole come frō the apostolicke Sea of Rome. As Ambassador 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 568, line 31

A good sketch of the policy of the Bishop of Rome, in the appointment of legates, is given by De Marca, a French Romanist, Archbishop of Paris, in his learned work, De Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii, lib. v. cap. 47, ¶ 1. "Reserato (writes he) retinendæ dominationis arcano per legationes, perpetuos in provinciis legatos ea de caussa instituendos esse censuerunt Romani Pontifices. Eam illis mentem fuisse, docet Honorii III. Epistola ad Rogerium Archiep. Pisanum, in qua verbis minime ambiguis scribit; Corsicam deferbuisse a subjectione et obedientia sedis Apostolicæ ob desuetudinem Legatorum. Corsicana vero inquit (Tom. III. Italia Sacra, p. 441) tam prolixitate spatiorum quam negligentia pastorum, dominorum insolentia, et desuetudine Legatorum Sedis Apostolicæ, a subjectione et obedientia Romanæ ecclesiæ deferbuerat. Scilicet ea prima et potior cura Legatis erat, ut populos imbuerent reverentia Pontificum Romanorum, commendata successione Apostolorum et loci auctoritate, intentatis porro pœnis adversus eos, qui majestatem Romanæ sedis minus colere viderentur."

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to the king and Queenes Maiesties, vpon one of the weightiest causes that euer happened in this Realme, & whiche perteineth to the glory of God, and your vniuersall benefite. The which Ambassage theyr Maiesties pleasure is to be signified vnto you all by his owne mouth, trusting that you will receiue and accept it in as beneuolent and thankefull wise, as their highnesses haue done, and that you will geue an attent and inclinable eare vnto him.

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When the Lord Chauncellor had thus ended his talke, the Cardinall taking the time then offered, began hys Oration, wherin he declared the causes of his comming, and what were his desires and requestes. In the which meane time, the Court gate was kept shut vntill he had made an end of his Oration. The tenour and wordes wherof here foloweth.

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¶ The tenour of Cardinall Pooles Oration. made in the Parliament house.

MarginaliaNouember. 28. Cardinall Pooles Oration in the Parliament house.MY Lordes all, and you that are the Commons of thys present Parliament assembled, which in effecte is nothing els but the state and body of the whole realm, as the cause of my repayre hither hath bene most wisely & grauely declared by my Lord Chancellor, so before that I enter to the particularities of my Commission, I haue somewhat 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 568, line 6 from the bottom

{Cattley/Pratt inserts 'to say' in the text}: The words "to say" are supplied from Elder's Letter, appended to the Chronicle of Queen Jane and Q. Mary.

touching my selfe, and to geue most humble and harty thankes to the king and Queenes Maiesties, and after them to you all, which of a man exiled and banished from this Cōmon wealth, hath restored me to be a mēber of the same, & of a man hauing no place, neither here, or els wher within this Realme, haue admitted me in place, where to speake and to be heard. This I protest vnto you all, that though I was exiled my natiue coūtry without iust cause as God knoweth, yet the ingratitude could not pull from me the affection and desire that I had to profite & doe you good. If the offer of my seruice might haue bene receiued, it

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was neuer to seek, and where that could not be taken, you neuer fayled of my prayer, nor neuer shall.

But leauing the rehearsall thereof, and comming more neare to the matter of my Commission, I signify vnto you all that my principall trauell is, for the restitution of thys noble realme to the auncient nobility, and to declare vnto you, that the Sea Apostolicke from whence I come, hath a speciall MarginaliaMore for the vauntage that was hoped by it then for any great loue.* respect to this realme aboue all other, & not without cause seing that God himselfe, as it were by prouidēce hath geuen this realme, prerogatiue of Nobility aboue other, which to make more playne vnto you, it is to be considered that MarginaliaEngland of all Ilandes, receaued first the faith of Christ.this Iland, first of all Ilandes receyued the light of Christes religion. For as stories testifye, it was prima prouinciarum quæ amplexa est fidem Christi.

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For the Britaines being first inhabitauntes of thys Realme (notwithstanding the subiection of Emperours and heathen Princes) did receiue Christes fayth from the Apostolicke Sea vniuersally, and not in partes as other Countryes nor by one and one, as Clockes increase theyr houres by distinction of times, but altogether at once, as it were in a moment. But after that theyr ill merites or forgetfulnes of God had deserued expulsion, and that Straūgers being Infidels had possessed this land, yet God of his goodnes not leauing where he once loued, so illuminated the hartes of the Saxons being Heathen menne, that they forsooke the darckenes of heathen errors and embraced the light of Christes religion. So that within small space, idolatry and Heathen superstition was vtterly abandoned in this Iland.

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This was a great prerogatiue of Nobilitye, whereof though the benefite therof be to be ascribed to God, yet the meane occasion of the same came frō the Marginalia* That the fayth of the Britaines came first from Rome, neyther doth it stand with the circūstaunce of our storyes: neyther if it so did yet that faith and doctrine of the Romanistes was not such then as it is now. Read before.* church of Rome. In the faith of which Church, we haue euer since continued and consented with the rest of the world in vnity of religion. And to shew further the feruent deuotion of the inhabitantes of this Iland towards the Church of Rome, we read that diuers princes in the Saxons time wt great trauel & expenses went personally to Rome, as MarginaliaOf this Offa read before.Offa & Adulphus which thought it not enough to shew themselues obedient to the said Sea, vnlesse that in theyr owne persons they had gone to that same place from whence they had receiued so great a grace and benefite.

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In this time of Carolus Magnus who first founded the Vniuersity of Paris, he sent into England for MarginaliaOf Alcuinus read before.Alcuinus a great learned man, which first broughte learning to that Vniuersity, Wherby it seemeth that the greatest part of the world fet the light of the religion from England.

Adrian the fourth being an Englishmā, cōuerted Norway from infidelity, which Adrian afterwards, vpō great affection and loue that he bare to this Realme, being hys natiue coūtry, gaue to Henry the second king of England the righte and segniory of the dominion of Ireland, which perteyned to the Sea of Rome.

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I will not rehearse the manifolde benefites that thys Realme hath receiued frō the Apostolicke Sea, nor how ready þe MarginaliaNay, rather what riches and treasures the Sea of Rome hath suckt out of England it is incredible.same hath bene to releiue vs in all our necessities. Nor I will not rehearse the manifold miseryes & calamites that this realme hath suffered by swaruing from that vnity. And euen as in this realme, so in all other coūtries which refusing the vnity of the Catholick fayth haue folowed fantastical doctrine, the like plagues haue happened. Let Asia and the Empyre of Greece be a spectacle vnto the world who by sweruing from the vnity of the Churche of Rome are brought into captiuity & subiectiō of the Turk. Marginalia* The cause of their subiectō to the Turke cannot be proued to come by swaruing from the vnitie of the church of Rome for they were neuer fully ioyned vnto it. And as touching the subiection of Asia and Grecia to the Turkes, read in the story of the Turkes before.All stories be full of like examples. And to come vnto the latter time, looke vpon our neighbours of Germany, who by swaruing from this vnity, are miserably afflicted with diuersity of sectes and diuided in factions.

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What shall I rehearse vnto you the tumultes & effusiō of bloud, þt hath happened there of late dayes? Or trouble you with the rehearsall of those plagues that haue happened since this innouation of religion, where you haue felt the bitternes, and I haue heard the report? Of all whiche matters I can say no more, but such was the misery of the time. And see how far forth this fury went. For those that liue vnder the Marginalia* And why thē do ye more cruell then the Turke persecute other for their conscience.* Turk, may freely liue after theyr consciēce, and so was it not lawfull here.

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If men examine well vpon what grounds these innouations began: they shal wel finde that the root of this as of many other mischiefes, was auarice, and that the lust & carnall affection of one man confounded al lawes both diuine and humaine. And notwithstanding all these deuises and policies practised within this realme against þe church of Rome, they needed not to haue lost you, but that they thought rather as frendes to reconcile you, then as enemies to infest you. For they wanted not great offers of the most mighty Potentates in all Europe to haue ayded the Church in that quarrell. Then marke the sequell: There

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seemed
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