Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Anthony Brown

(1528 - 1592)

Viscount Montague (cr. 1554). Of Sussex. MP Guildford (1545, 1554), Petersfield (1553), Surrey (1554). JP Surrey and Sussex (1554 -1592). Master of the horse to King Philip (1554). (Bindoff)

Sir Anthony Browne was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was sent as an ambassador to the pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1559.

John Kingston wrote a letter to Bonner on 30 August 1557 naming Brown as one of the commissioners who had used their commission to seize lands and goods of protestant fugitives. Brown had indicted several people under the charges of treason, as fugitives or for disobedience. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

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In his letter to Bonner, John Kingston said that Brown had commanded him to receive his prisoners on 30 August 1557. Kingston related their conversation. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

John Kingston stated that he had requested Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale and Anthony Brown to expose unlawful writings and books. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Brown was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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[Not to be confused with Anthony Brown of Essex.]

Foxe occasionally refers to him as 'Lord Montacute'.

 
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Cuthbert Symson

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Deacon of the protestant congregation in Marian London.

Foxe describes Cuthbert Symson's character. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

Rough went to Symson and they agreed to give a book containing the names of the congregation to Kate Rough. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Kate Rough dreamed she saw James Mearing's wife with a bloody banner in her hand and a fire-pan on her head. 1570, p. 2228, 1583, p. 2032.

Rough was arrested by the vice-chamberlain of the queen's house at the Saracen's Head in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and Hugh Foxe on 12 December 1557. They had pretended to be there to hear a play but were actually reading their communion books. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

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Cuthbert Symson was racked and condemned. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

He was put in stocks prior to his condemnation. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

He had a vision in the stocks which he reported to master Austen, to his wife, and to Thomas Symson. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Cluney checked on Symson in prison prior to his condemnation. Someone else also entered his cell. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Articles were brought against him and he answered. 1563, pp. 1653-64, 1570, p. 2230, 1576, pp. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Roger Sergeant gave information against Cuthbert Symson. 1563, p. 1652 [incorrectly numbered as 1632], 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Symson wrote a letter to his wife. 1563, p. 1653 [incorrectly numbered 1633], 1570, pp. 2230-31, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, pp. 2033-34.

He was burned on 28 March 1558. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2034.

 
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Francis Talbot

(1500 - 1560)

5th earl of Shrewsbury (DNB)

Francis Talbot accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He bore the cap of maintenance before Queen Mary at the opening of parliament on 12 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Francis Talbot was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton court after her release from the Tower. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

[Foxe refers to him as Shrewsbury.]

 
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Hugh Foxe

Martyr. Of London.

Hugh Foxe was arrested for heresy in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and John Rough and examined by Bonner on 19 March 1557. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

He gave answers to articles brought against him. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, pp. 1926-27, 1583, p. 2034.

He was burned at Smithfield on 28 March 1558. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2034.

 
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Hugh Latimer

(1485 - 1555)

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 1539). Martyr. Of Thirkeson, Leicester. [DNB]

Foxe relates Latimer's formative years. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Hugh Latimer, the martyr, was the son of Hugh Latimer of Thirkeson, Leicestershire. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Latimer declaimed the work of Melancthon. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1734.

Foxe records a sermon Latimer preached at Cambridge in 1529. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-35.

Foxe records another of Latimer's sermons, the subject of which was Turks. 1563, pp. 1304-07, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe records Latimer's sermon on how to play with certain cards. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-34.

Buckenham, prior of the Black friars or Lady friars, attempted to show Latimer why scripture should not be in English by use of his cards. 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Dr Venetus, a Grey friar, berated Latimer in his sermons. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College), Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College), Dr Norton (Master of Clare), Dr Philo (Master of Michael House), Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John), Dr Blith (of the King's Hall), Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College), Dr Palmes (Master of St. Nicholas hostel), Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's, Brikenden of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1563, p. 1307, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

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Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Dr West preached against Latimer at Barwell Abbey. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, licensed Latimer to preach to the friars. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Articles were gathered out of Barnes' sermon against Master Tyrell, fellow of King's Hall, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer would walk and talk on 'Heretykes hyll' with Bilney. 1563, pp. 1307-08, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer went with Bilney to visit prisoners in the Tower in Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney spoke to a woman in prison who was accused of killing her own child. Latimer spoke to Henry VIII after a sermon he gave at Windsor and tried to get the woman pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

The woman gave birth to another child and Latimer became godfather, Mistress Cheek godmother. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney gave the woman spiritual counselling and eventually she was pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Dr Redman was an enemy of Latimer at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe includes a copy in English and in Latin of a letter Latimer received from Dr Redman, who revoked him for the doctrine he taught, along with Latimer's brief response. 1563, p. 1308, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632 [English only], 1583, p. 1736.

Latimer subscribed to articles after three years' teaching and preaching at Cambridge. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1737.

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer refuted Dr Powell's articles. 1563, pp. 1309-11, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Enemies of Latimer were Powell of Salisbury, Wilson of Cambridge, Hubberdin and Sherwood. 1563, p. 1311, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was called to appear before William Wareham (archbishop of Canterbury) and John Stokesley (bishop of London) on 29 January 1531. 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

The wording in Tonstall's register seems to suggest that Latimer did subscribe. 1563, p. 1334, 1570, p.1907 , 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer was advanced to the post of bishop by Buttes and Cromwell. 1563, p. 1349, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1633., 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer told Morrice that the mayor had appointed him to preach at Easter. 1563, p. 1314, 1570, p. 1910, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer prayed for Dr Wilson and his countrymen who disliked Latimer. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

A friend of Latimer's told him that Wilson had gone to Beverley in Holdernesse and then on progress. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer resigned his bishopric at the same time as Bishop Shaxton of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1634, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were brought against Latimer. 1570, pp. 1926-28, 1576, pp. 1652-53, 1583, p. 1732.

Latimer was injured by a falling tree. He went to London for a remedy but was imprisoned in the Tower by the bishops in Edward's reign. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1738.

A justice in the diocese of Worcester bought land for his brother or for himself and and tried to have a poor man in the diocese damned. This man appealed to Latimer, who wrote to the gentleman about this. The gentleman later mended his ways and died prior to 1563. 1563, p .1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, pp. 1634-35, 1583, p. 1739.

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Latimer preached in Stamford before the duchess of Suffolk in London in convocation and in the garden before King Edward at court. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1739.

He prophecied that plagues would come in Queen Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

He believed that preaching the gospel would cost him his life and that was why Winchester was imprisoned. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were imputed to Latimer by Powell of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1654, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

On 4 September 1553, the privy council ordered Latimer to appear before them (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 340).

On 13 September, Latimer appeared before the privy council and was committed to the Tower as a 'close prisoner' (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1704] - 1410]; APC IV, p. 345-46). [NB: Foxe did not reprint the description in the privy council register of Latimer's 'sedycious demeanour'].

Latimer was committed to the Tower on 17 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1635). [Note that Foxe never corrected these inconsistent dates].

He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 933 and 938; 1570, pp. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, p. 1430).

[There is a summary of Latimer's disputation on Wednesday 18 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 934-35.]

Latimer disputed with Weston, Smith and the other catholic doctors on 18 April 1554 (1563, pp. 978-85; 1570, pp. 1622-27; 1576, pp. 1384-89; 1583, pp. 1454-59).

Latimer was summoned, together with Cranmer and Ridley, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken in custody by the bailiffs (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, pp. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-67).

He was brought out of the bailiff's house where he was being held, on 21 April 1554, to observe a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston. Latimer, however, thought he was about to be taken to execution and urged one Augustine Cooper to make a fire that would burn quickly. When he came to Carfax and understood that he was being taken to view the procession, Latimer refused to look at it and ran 'to one Spensers shop' (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

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Foxe mentions Latimer's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea(1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

The examination of Latimer and Ridley before White and Brookes took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

Latimer appeared at a second session with Brookes and White on 1 October 1555. 1570, pp. 1930-33, 1576, pp. 1758-59.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

There was a conference between Ridley and Latimer in prison upon the objection of Antoman. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe relates the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which Ridley makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1314-17, 1321-25, 1333-34, 1344-48, 1349-53, 1570, pp. , 1576, pp. , 1583, pp. 1736-37, 1741-42, 1745-56.

Hugh Latimer presented a new year's gift to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1734.

Foxe includes one of Latimer's card sermons. 1583, p. 2142.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Heath

(1501? - 1578)

Bishop of Worcester (1543 - 1551, 1553 - 1555). Archbishop of York (1555 - 1560). Lord Chancellor (1556 - 1559). Descended from the Heaths of Apsley, Tamworth. [DNB]

Heath was deprived as bishop of Worcester under Edward VI; he was reinstated by Mary. 1563, p. 1053; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505.

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. Heath was gentle towards Bradford when they met. Heath told Bradford that they had not been sent to him but that they had come out of love and charity. Heath knew Bradford better than Day did. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

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A discussion about salvation and other things took place between Bradford and Heath and Day, which lasted three hours. 1563, pp. 1204-08.

Heath and Day left Bradford because the bishop of Durham was waiting at Master York's house. 1563, p. 1208.

Ridley was kind to Heath during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester [Heath] and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

Philpot's twelfth examination on 4 December 1555 was before Bonner, Worcester and Bangor. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, p. 1717, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York [Heath], Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, pp. 1824-26.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

After Cromwell was apprehended, Bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-64, 1583, p. 1871.

Drakes, Tyms, Spurge, Cavell and Ambrose petitioned Heath over their long imprisonment. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

The receipt of a writ about Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole from Heath was delayed. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Robert Farrer was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Nicholas Heath was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

He was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

 
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Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Roger Sergeant

Tailor. Born in Buckinghamshire. Of London.

William Ellerby went with Roger Sergeant to a meeting of godly brethren in London. 1563, p. 1652, 1570, p. 2230, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2033.

Margery Mearing went to Roger Sergeant's house and asked if Judas was at home. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

John Rough was betrayed by Roger Sergeant, a tailor. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Roger Sergeant gave information against Cuthbert Symson. 1563, p. 1652 [incorrectly numbered as 1632], 1570, p. 2230, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2033.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Edward Hastings

(by 1519 - 1573)

Lord Hastings of Loughborough. MP for Leicester (1547, 1552), Leicestshire (1547, 1553), Middlesex (1533, 1554, 1555). Sheriff of Leicestershire and Middlesex (1550), town clerk of Leicester (1553), bailiff (1553 - 1554). JP Middlesex (1554 - 1558/9), Leicestershire (1558/9). (DNB; Bindoff; Cockayne) Master of the Horse (DNB)

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Sir Edward Hastings was sent to bring Princess Elizabeth to London on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was sent as an ambassador, 'I knowe not wither', but it was believed to escort Cardinal Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, pp. 1473-74).

After Wyatt's rebellion, Hastings went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Sentence against six martyred at Brentford was read by Darbyshire in the presence of Edward Hastings and Thomas Cornwallis. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

[Confined to Baynard Castle in 1561 and later sent to the Tower for hearing mass. Recanted and took the oath of supremacy and was released. Retired to Buckinghamshire.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Henry Jerningham

(d. 1571)

Vice-chamberlain of the royal household; captain of the guard (1553). (DNB)

Sir Henry Jerningham took Elizabeth's lady-in-waiting Katherine Ashley and imprisoned her in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jerningham (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Master Jerningham and Thomas Mildmay took Sandys to prison. 1583, p. 2087.

Katherine Ashley was arrested by Jerningham and Norris and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987, 1583, p. 2291.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir John Bourne

(1518 - 1575)

Secretary of State to Mary; uncle to Bishop Gilbert Bourne of Bath and Wells, [DNB, sub Bourne, Gilbert; Bindoff].

Sir John Bourne led a debate, or rather dinner conversation, with John Feckenham, against Nicholas Ridley while the latter was imprisoned in the Tower (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, p 1356-58; and 1583, p. 1426-28).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Rowland Taylor on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1071-73; 1570, pp. 1696-97; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1521-22).

He was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 28 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1026-28; 1570, pp. 1659-60; 1576, pp. 1416-17; 1583, pp. 1486-87).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54).

He was ordered by the privy council to examine Sir Thomas Benger, Cary, John Dee and John Field on 5 and 7 May 1555 (1583, p. 1581).

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Sir John Bourne is described by Foxe as the chief stirrer in such cases as that of Bartlett Green's. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1851.

A letter to Bonner by the privy council regarding Green's treason was written on 11 November 1555, but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. , 1583, pp. 1851-52.

Lord Williams, Lord Chandos, Sir Thomas Bridges and Sir John Browne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Sir John Bourne was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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His judges were Portman and Marven who, when they witnessed John Davis's sorry state when he was held before them, agreed with John Bourne that the boy had suffered enough. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

Bourne and his wife took Davis home and anointed his wounds but put him away when they realised he would not submit to their doctrine. They were afraid he might have an effect on their son Anthony. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Islington
Iselington, Islington, Islyngton
NGR: TQ 305 850

A parish in the Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex. 2 miles north by west from London. The living is a vicarage in the jurisdiction of the Commissary of London, concurrently with the Consistorial Court of the Bishop.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2053 [2029]

Q. Mary. The trouble and Persecution of Iohn Rough Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1557. December.son and others, through the crafty and trayterous suggestion of a false Hipocrite and dissembling Brother called Roger Sergeaunt, MarginaliaIohn Rough apprehended & by whom. a taylour, were apprehended by the Vicechamberlayne of the Queenes house, at the Saracēs head in Islington: where the Congregation had thē purposed to assemble themselues to theyr Godly and accustomable exercises of prayer, and hearing the word of God: which pretence, for the safegarde of all the rest, they yet at theyr examinations, couered and excused by hearing of a playe that was then appoynted to be at that place. The Vicechamberlayne after he had apprehended them, caried Rough and Symson vnto the Counsell, who charged thē to haue assembled together to celebrate the Communion or Supper of the Lord, and therefore after sundry examinations and aunsweares, they sent the sayd Rough vnto Newgate: but his examinations they sēt vnto the bishop of London, with a Letter signed with theyr handes, the copy wherof foloweth.

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¶ A Letter sent from the Queenes Councell vnto Boner, Bishop of London, touching the examination of Iohn Rough Minister. 
Commentary  *  Close

A copy of this letter survives in Foxe's papers among other items copied from the privy council register (BL, Harley 419, fo. 134r; cf. APC VI, p. 216). But Foxe had probably already copied this letter from a court book, now lost, containing the documents of Rough's trial.

MarginaliaA letter sent from the Counsell to B. Boner.AFter our harty commendations to your good Lordship, we send you here inclosed the examination of a Scottish man, named Iohn Rough, who by the Queenes Maiesties commaundement is presentlye sent to Newgate, beyng of the chiefe of them that vpon Sonday last, vnder the colour of comming to see a Play at the Saracens head in Islington, had prepared a communion to be celebrated and receiued there among certayne other seditious and hereticall persons. And forasmuch as by the sayde Roughes examination, conteining the story and progresse of hys former life, it well appereth of what sort he is: the queenes highnes hath willed vs to remit him vnto your Lordship, to the ende that being called before you out of prison, as ofte as your Lordship shall think good, ye may proceed, both to his further examination, and otherwise ordering of him, according to the lawes, as the case shall require. And thus we bidde your Lordshippe hartely well to fare. From Saynte Iames the 15. day of December. 1557.

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Your Lordships louing frendes. MarginaliaPersecutours.

Nicholas Ebor.
F. Shrewsbery.
Edward Hastinges.
Antony Mountague.Iohn Bourne.Henry Iernegam.

Boner nowe minding to make quicke dispatche, dyd wythin three dayes after the receipt of the Letter (the xviij. day of December) send for this Rough out of Newgate, and in his Palace at London ministred vnto him 12. 

Commentary  *  Close

Note that a typographical error appeared here in the 1570 edition. The 1563 edition reads 'xxii' articles; all subsequent editions read 'xii' articles.

Articles:  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 445, middle

{Cattley/Pratt alters "12" to "xxii" in the text.} "xxii" is the reading of Edition 1563, and, from what follows, seems the true reading: subsequent Editions read "xii."

Many whereof because they conteine onely questions of the profession and Religion of that age, wherein both he and his Parentes were Christened (which in sūdry places are already mentioned) I doe here for breuity omitte: minding to touche suche onely, as perteyne to matters of fayth now in controuersy, and then chiefely obiected agaynst the Martyrs and Saynts of God, which in effect are these. MarginaliaArticles agaynst Iohn Rough.

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1. FIrst, that thou Iohn Rough diddest directly speake agaynst the 7. Sacramentes, vsed commonlye and reuerently, as thinges of estimation and great worthines in the catholick churche: and also diddest reproue and condemne the substance of the sayd Sacramentes, but especially MarginaliaSacrament of the Aultar.the Sacrament of the aultar, affirming that in that same is not really and truely the very body & bloud of Christ: and that MarginaliaConfession.confession to the priest, and absolution geuen by him (as the minister of Christ) for sinnes, is not necessary or auayleable in any wise.

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MarginaliaLatin Seruice.2. Item, thou hast misliked and reproued the religion and ecclesiasticall seruice, as it is now vsed in this realme, and hast allowed the religion and seruice vsed in the latter yeares of king Edward the 6. and so much as in thee hath leyne, hast by word, writing, & deed, set forwardes, taught, and preached the same openly, and in sundry places, affirmed, that the sayde Englishe seruice and doctrine therein conteined, is agreable in all poyntes to Gods word and vnto the truth, condemning vtterly the Latine seruice nowe vsed in the Queenes reigne, and inducing other by thine example to do the like

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MarginaliaBookes of Communion.3. Item, thou hast in sundrye places within this Realme commended and approued the opinion & doctrine of Thomas Cranmer, late Archbishop of Canterbury. Nicholas Ridley, & Hugh Latimer, concerning the Sacrament of the aultar, affirming that in the Sacrament there remayneth after the wordes of consecration, materiall breade and materiall wine, without any transubstantiation.

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4. Item, thou hast in sundrye places of this Realme, since the Queenes reigne, ministred and receiued the Communion as it was vsed in the late daies of king Edward the sixt, and thou knowest, or credibly hast heard of diuers, that yet do keepe bookes

of the sayd Communion, and vse the same in priuate houses out of the Church, and are of opinion agaynst the Sacrament of the aultar.

MarginaliaAgaynst the Supremacy of the Pope.5. Item, that thou in sundry places of this realme hast spoken agaynst the Pope of Rome and his Apostolicke sea, & hast plainely contemned & despised the authority of the same, misliking & not allowing the faith and doctrine therof, but directly speaking agaynst it, and by thine example hast induced other the subiects of this realme, to speake and do the like.

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6. Item, thou doest knowe, and hast bene conuersaunt with all, or a great part of such English men as haue fledde out of this Realme for Religion, and hast consented and agreed with them in theyr opinions, and hast succoured, maynteyned, and holpen them, and hast beene a conueyer of theyr seditious Letters and bookes into this realme.

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7. Item, that thou hast sayd, that thou hast bene at Rome, and taryed there about 30. dayes or more, and that thou hast sene litle good or none there, but very much euill. MarginaliaAbominable sightes at Rome.Amongest the which thou sawest one great abhomination, that is to say, a man (or the Pope) that shoulde goe on the ground, to bee carried vppon the shoulders of foure men, as though he had bene God and no mā: Also, a Cardinall to haue his harlot riding openly behinde hym: And thirdly a Popes Bull that gaue expresse licence to haue and vse the stewes, and to keepe open bawdry by the Popes approbation and authority. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 446, fn 1

This startling statement is illustrated and confirmed in Rivet's "Jesuita vapulans, sive castigat. not. in Epist. ad Balsacum," (Lug. Bat. 1635) cap. 16, from the writings of Claude d'Espence, Mariana the Jesuit, and others. - ED.

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8. Item, that thou sithens thy last comming into England out of the parties beyond the sea, hast perniciously allured and comforted diuers of the subiectes of this Realme, both young, olde men, and women to haue and vse the booke of Communion, set forth in this Realme in the latter daies of king Edward the sixt, and hast also thy selfe read and sette forth the same, causing others to doe the like, and to leaue theyr comming to their parish churches to heare the Latine seruice now vsed.

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9. Item, that thou the thirde sondaye of Aduent the xij. daye of this December. 1557. wast apprehended at the Saracens heade at Islington, in the county of Middlesexe and dioces of London, by the Queenes Vicechamberlayne, with one MarginaliaCutbert Simson. Hugh Foxe.Cutbert a Taylour, Hugh a hosier, and diuers other there assembled, vnder the colour of hearing a playe, to haue read the communion booke, and to haue vsed the accustomed fashion, as was in the latter dayes of king Edward the sixt.

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The aunsweres of Iohn Rowgh to the foresayd Articles.

MarginaliaHis aunsweres to the articles.1. TO the first he said and confessed that he had spoken against the number of the sayde sacramentes, being fully perswaded that there be but onely two Sacramentes: to wit, baptisme, and the supper of the Lord: and as for the other fiue, he denyed them to be sacramentes, and therefore hath spoken agaynste them And as concerning the sacrament of the of the aultar (which he then called the supper of the Lord) he confessed that he had spoken and taught that in the sayde sacrament there is not really and substantially the very body and bloud of Christ, but that the substance of bread and wine doth remayne in the sayde Sacrament, withou any transubstantiation at all. Farther as touching confession of sinnes to the priest, he answered that he thought it necessary, if the offence were done vnto the priest: but if the offēce were done to another, then confession made to the priest is not necessary, but reconciliation onely to bee made to the partye so offended.

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2. To the second, he aunswered that he then did and had before misliked the order of latine seruice then vsed: and also did allowe the seruice vsed in the latter time of King Edwardes reigne, for that the holy scripture doth the same, and therefore he graunted that he did teach and set forth the sayd Englishe seruice, as in the same article is obiected.

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3. To the third, he graunted that he had approued the doctrine of the parties articulate as agreable to Gods word, and that they were godly learned men, and such as had perfect vnderstandyng in the contentes of the same article.

4. To the fourth, he aunswered that hee did well like the Communion vsed in Kyng Edwardes dayes, but sayde that he had not ministred or receyued the same here in England since the Queenes reygne, neyther yet knewe any that had the bookes thereof. But on the other side, he knew many that had those bookes, and that there also hee hadde receiued the Communion in sundrye places.

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5. The contentes of the fift he graunted to be true.

6. To the sixt, he confessed that he had bene familiar with diuers Englishe menne and women being in Friseland, and agreed with them in opinion, as Maister Scory, Thomas Young, George Roo, and others, to the number of one hundreth persons, whiche fled thither for Religion, vsing there the order set forth in the reigne of king Edward, and otherwise he denyeth the contentes of thys Article.

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7. The contentes of the seuenth hee graunted in euery poynt to be true.

8. To
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