Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Frith

(1503 - 1533)

Theologian and early martyr [DNB; H. Hillerbrand (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 1996]

Foxe refers to Frith's early career and doctrine. 1583, p. 2126.

Frith's confutation of the writings of Sir Thomas More caused many to seek his destruction. 1583, p. 2126.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer, and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

 
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John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539)

Bishop of London. [DNB]

Latimer was called to appear before William Wareham (archbishop of Canterbury) and John Stokesley (bishop of London) on 29 January 1531. 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesley) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

 
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Roger Acton

Twenty-eight other prisoners were condemned for heresy around the same time as Roger Acton. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

 
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Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535)

Chancellor of England and author. (DNB)

On 14 February 1555 Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by Thomas More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13 .

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The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1563, p. 1499, 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Sir Thomas More met with a bloody death on Tower Hill. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

Frith's confutation of the writings of Sir Thomas More caused many to seek Frith's destruction. 1583, p. 2126.

 
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Sir William Fitzwilliam

(1526 - 1599)

Sir William Fitzwilliam was Keeper of the King's Bench in Mary's reign; later Lord Deputy of Ireland [DNB]

Laurence Saunders sent commendations to Fitzwilliam and his wife via Lucy Harrington. 1570, p. 1673; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, p. 1501.

In a letter to John Careless, John Philpot sent special greetings to 'Master Marshal' and his wife and expressed his appreciation for the kindness shown to him. 1570, p. 2004; 1576, p. 1726; 1583, pp. 1833

John Careless' first examination was before Sir William Fitzwilliam and others. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02, 1576, pp. 1813-14, 1583, pp. 1919-20.

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cromwell

(1485?-1540)

Earl of Essex (1540). Vicegeneral of Spiritual Affairs, Lord Privy Seal, lawyer (1523), MP (1524), member of Gray's Inn (1525). (DNB; Bindoff; G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government [Cambridge, 1953])

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Cromwell's character is compared to that of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 1382, 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Somerset to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Complaints were sent to Cromwell about a priest who was a relative of Chersey of London. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Cromwell was suspected of protecting John Frith when Frith was imprisoned in the Tower for speaking against the writings of Sir Thomas More. 1583, p. 2126.

Lewes told Richard Wilmot that there had been troubles since the Bible was translated into English, that Crome was a heretic and then falsely accused Cromwell of biblical translation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Croydon
Croydon
NGR: TQ 335 645

A market town and parish in the first division of the hundred of Wallington, county of Surrey. 9.5 miles south from London. The living is a discharged vicarage in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Westerham
Westrame
NGR: TQ 446 541

A market town and parish in the hundred of Westerham, lathe of Sutton at Hone, county of Kent. 22 miles west from Maidstone. The living is a vicarage with the perpetual curacy of Edenbridge annexed, in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Rochester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2149 [2126]

Queene Mary. The story of Iohn Frith omitted in this history.
The Appendix of such Notes and Matters, as either haue bene in this History omitted or newly inserted. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Appendix

This appendix, as a whole, first appeared in the 1583 edition and it appeared because John Day had something for the 1583 edition which he had for no other edition of the Acts and Monuments: a surplus of paper. This surplus enabled Day to print a number of documents and other material which might not otherwise have been printed. These include a treatise attributed to Nicholas Ridley and John Hooper's letter to convocation. The surplus also enabled Day to reprint the entire appendix to the 1563 edition - thereby creating a great deal of repetition as many of these items had been incorporated into the main narrative of the 1570 edition, and were already reprinted in the main narrative of the 1583 edition.

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This appendix includes letters of various martyrs (William Tyms, Julins Palmer, William Hunter and John Melvyn) which had only come into Foxe's hands at a late date. Also included are oral accounts of various individuals (John Frith, William Wood and Gertrude Crockhay) which must have reached Foxe at a late date. And finally there is material from recently printed books which Foxe wished to include.

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IN this Story of Sir Ro-ger Acton aboue mentioned pag. 587. MarginaliaReferre this to the pag. 587. I finde that with him were taken many other persōs, that all the prisons in & about London were replenished with people. The chiefe of thē, which were 29. were condemned of heresy, & atteynted of high treason, as mouers of war agaynst theyr king, by the temporall law in the Guild hall the 12. day of December, and adiudged to be drawne and hanged for treasō, and for heresy to be consumed with fire, Gallowes and all, which iudgement was executed in Ianuary following on the sayde Syr Roger Acton and 28. other.

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Some say that the occasion of theyr death was the cōueyance of the Lord Cobham out of Prison. Other write that it was both for treason (as the aduersaries termed it) and heresy.

Certayne affirme that it was for feyned causes surmised by the spiritualty, more of displeasure thē truth, as seemeth more neare to the truth.

Concerning Iohn Frith, of his life and story this foloweth more to be added, and to be referred to the page. 1032.

MarginaliaReferre this to the pag. 1032.FIrst this Iohn Frith was borne in the Towne of Westrame in Kent, who after by diligent especialles was takē in Essex flying beyond the seas & brought before the Counsaile, Syr Thomas More thē being Chauncellor, and so from them committed vnto the Tower, where he remayned prisoner the space of a quarter of a yeare or there about. It chaunced that Doctour Curreyne ordinary Chapleyne vnto King Henry the eighte, preached a Sermō in Lent before his Maiesty. And there verye sore enueying agaynste the Sacramentaryes (as they thē termed and named) which fauored not the grosse opinion that Christes body was carnally reall in the Sacrament, he so farre discoursed in that matter that at the length he brake out thus far and sayd. It is no maruayle though this abhominable heresye doe much preuayle among vs, for there is one nowe in the Tower of London so bolde as to write in the defence of that heresye, and yet no man goeth about his reformation, meaning Iohn Fryth, who then had aunsweared Syr Thomas More in writing agaynste a confutation of that erroneous opinion which of late before the sayd Maister More had written agaynst Iohn Frythes assertion in that behalfe. This Sermon of purpose was deuised and appoynted by the Byshop of Winchester and other to seeke the destruction of Fryth by putting the king in remembraunce that the sayd Fryth was in theTower there stayd rather for hys sauegarde then for his punishment by suche as fauoured hym as the Lorde Cromwell who being Vicegerent in causes Ecclesiasticall came then into suspition therefore. For in suche sorte was the matter handeled before the Kyng that all men mighte well vnderstande what they meant. The Kynge then being in no poynte resolued of the true and sincere vnderstanding of the doctrine of that Article, but rather a peruerse stout Aduersary to the contrary, called to hym my Lorde of Caunterburye and my Lord Cromwell, and willed them forthwith to call Fryth vnto examination, so that he might eyther be compelled to recant or elles by the Lawe to suffer condigne punishment.

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Frythes long protract in the Tower withouten examination was so heynously taken of the King, that nowe my Lorde of Caunterburye with other Byshoppes, as Stokesly thē bishop of London & other learned mē were vndelayedly appoynted to examine Fryth. And for that

there shuld be no concourse of Citizens at the sayd examination: my L. of Canterbury remoued to Croydon vnto whom resorted the rest of the Commissioners. Nowe before the day of execution appointed, my Lord of Cant. sent one of his gentlemen and one of his porters: whose name was Perlebene a Welchman borne, to fetche Iohn Frith from the Tower vnto Croydon. This gentleman hadde both my Lords letters and the kings ring vnto my Lord Fitzwilliams Constable of the Tower then lying in Canon row at Westminster in extreme anguish and payne of the strangulion for the deliuery of the prisoner: Mayster Fytzwilliams more passionate then patient, vnderstanding for what purpose my Lordes gentleman was come, banned and cursed Frith and all other heretickes, saying take this my Ring vnto the Lieuetenaunt of the Tower and receiue your man your herericke with you, and I am glad that I am ridde of him. When Frith was deliuered vnto my Lord of Canterburyes Gentleman, they twaine with Parlebeane sitting in a Wherry and rowing towardes Lambeth. The sayd Gentleman much lamenting in his mind, the infelicitie of the sayd Frith, began in this wise to exhort him to consider in what estate hee was, a man altogether cast away in this worlde, if hee did not looke wisely to himselfe. And yet though his cause were neuer so daungerous, he might somewhat in relenting to aucthoritie, and so to geue place for a time: helpe both hym selfe out of trouble, and when oportunitie and occasion should serue, preferre his cause which he then went about to defend, declaring farther that he had many welwillers and friendes, whiche woulde stande on his side so farre forth as possible then were able and durst do: adding hereunto that it were great pitty that he being of such singuler knowledge both in the Latine, Greeke, both ready and rype in all kind of learning, and that namely aswell in the Scriptures as in the auncient Doctours, should now sodeinly suffer all those singuler giftes to perishe with him without little commoditie or profite to the world, and lesse comfort to his wife and children, and other his kinsfolkes friendes. And as for the veritie of your opinion in the sacrament of the body and bloud of our sauiour Christ: It is so vntimely opened here among vs in England, that you shall rather do harme then good, wherefore be wyse and be ruled by good counsell vntill a better oportunitie may serue.

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This I am sure of (quoth the gentleman) that my Lord Cromwell and my Lorde of Caunterbury much fauouring you and knowyng you to bee an eloquent learned young man, and nowe towardes the felicitie of your lyfe, young in yeares, olde in knowledge, and of great forwardnes and likelihoode, to be a most profitable member for this Realme, will neuer permitte you to susteyne any open shame, if you wil somewhat bee aduised by theyr Counsayle: on the other side, if you stand stiffe to your opinion, it is not possible to saue your lyfe. For like as you haue good friendes, so haue you mortall foes and enemies.

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I most hartily thanke you, quoth Mayster Frith vnto the generall, both for your good will and for your counsayle: by the whiche I well perceaue that you minde well vnto me, howbeit my cause and conscience is suche, that in no wise I may not nor cannot for no worldly respect without daungerof damnation starte aside and flye from the true knowledge and doctrine whiche I haue conceyued of the supper of the Lorde or the Communion, otherwise called þe sacrament of the aultar: for if it be my chance to be demaunded what I thinke in that behalfe, I must needes saue my knowledge and my conscience, as partly I haue written therein already, though I should presently lose xx. lyues if I had so many. And this you shall well vnderstand that I am not so furnished, eyther of Scriptures of auncient Doctors, Scholemen, or other for my defence, so that if I may be indifferently heard, I am sure that mine aduersaryes cannot iustly cōdemne me or mine assertion, but that they shall condemne with me both S.Augustine and the most parte of the olde writers, yea the very Byshoppes of Rome of the oldest sorte shall also say for me & defend my cause. Yea mary quoth the gentleman

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