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Albertus Magnus

(c. 1200 - 1280) [Markus Führer, 'Albert the Great', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2006 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),]

German philosopher and theologian; Dominican friar; taught Thomas Aquinas

Provincial of the Dominican order (1254 - 57); bishop of Regensburg (1260 - 63); doctor of the church

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 57; 1576, p. 37; 1583, p. 37.

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Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus)

(51 - 96) [J. Donahue]

Studied rhetoric and literature; brother of Titus

Roman emperor (81 - 96); murdered

The second persecution of the Christians began under Domitian. He caused himself to be worshipped as a god and persecuted senators. 1570, pp. 56-58; 1576, pp. 35-37; 1583, pp. 35-37.

Melito of Sardis, in his Apology, refers to him, along with Nero, as the worst persecutors of Christians. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 51; 1583, p. 51.

Domitian was persuaded to release the Jews he had seized and to cease the persecution of Christians. 1570, p. 64; 1576, p. 37; 1583, p. 37.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 38; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

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Flavia Domitilla

(fl. c. end C1) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Granddaughter of Vespasian; married consul Titus Flavius Clemens; saved Jews from her uncle Domitian's decree; banished by Domitian

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 64; 1576, p. 37; 1583, p. 37.

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Johannes Nauclerus

(c. 1425 - 1510)

German humanist historian; DCL 1450; taught at the University of Basel; rector of the University of Tübingen 1477; chancellor of the university; judge of the Swabian League (1502 -13); wrote World Chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 64, 78, 83, 96, 143, 174; 1576, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 106, 131; 1583, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 105, 130.

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Justin Martyr (St Justin Martyr)

(c. 100 - 165) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

of Caesarea; Christian convert; writer. Studied philosophy, taught in Rome; martyr

Foxe gives an account of Justin's education and early life. 1570, pp. 72-73; 1576, pp. 48-49; 1583, pp. 48-49.

Justin related in his Apology how the behaviour of the Christian martyrs helped to stimulate his conversion to Christianity. 1570, p. 73; 1576, p. 49; 1583, p. 49.

After his baptism, he went to Rome and disputed with Crescens. 1570, p. 73; 1576, p. 49; 1583, p. 49.

Justin presented an apology to the emperor in defence of the martyrs and in opposition to Crescens. He predicted his own martyrdom through the procurement of Crescens. 1570, pp. 46-47, 64, 73-74; 1576, pp. 37, 44-45, 49-50; 1583, pp. 37, 44-45, 49-50.

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(d. 828) [Gams]

Greek Orthodox theologian and historian; patriarch of Constantinople (806 - 15)

He is cited extensively by Foxe as a source in Book 1.

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Publius Tarquinius

Pagan high priest in Rome under Trajan

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 64; 1576, p. 37; 1583, p. 37.

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Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus)

(d. 117) [H. W. Benario]

Roman emperor (98 - 117); adopted by Nerva in 97; conducted successful wars against the Dacians and Parthians

His reign is discussed by Foxe: 1570, pp. 55-57; 1576, pp. 36-39; 1583, pp. 36-39.

Trajan generally treated his subjects well and was just, but was cruel to the Christians.1570, p. 57; 1576, p. 39; 1583, p. 39.

Pliny the Younger wrote a letter to Trajan, urging him to stop the persecution of the Christians, and Trajan replied. 1570, p. 57; 1576, pp. 39-40; 1583, pp. 39-40.

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Nablus (Flavia Neapolis)


West Bank, Palestinian Authority

Coordinates: 32° 42' 13" N, 35° 16' 44" E

60 [48]

tholike Church, these 500. yeares. The difficultie is this: that for so much as auricular confession hath bene, & is yet receiued in the Popes Catholike Church for an holy and necessary Sacrament, extending vniuersally to al & singular creatures Christian. Here then riseth a question, MarginaliaA Catholique question concerning auriculer confession.who was our Ladies confessour, or ghostly father? But that is decreed and confessed with full consent of all the Catholikes to bee S. Iohn. MarginaliaSolutio.Whosoeuer denieth or doubteth of this, is straight wayes ipso facto an heretike. This then so determined, ariseth an other question or doubt, MarginaliaAn other Catholique question.that seeyng our Lady was without all originall sinne, and also actuall or mortall: what need then had she of any Confessour? or what should she confesse vnto him? For if she had confessed any sinne, when she had none: then had she made her selfe a lyer, & so had sinned in deede. Here therefore gentle Reader, in this perplexitie, these our illuminate Doctours stād in neede of thine ayde, to helpe at a pinch. Magnus Albertus MarginaliaSolution. Albert. super Euāgelium. Missus est.þe great diuine, denieth not, but that she in deede, although most pure, yet was confessed to her ghostly father, to keepe the obseruances of the law, appointed for such as had that neede, which she had not. And therfore (sayth he) necessary it was that she should confesse with mouth. But then here is to be asked, what did she say in her confession, when she had nothing to confesse? MarginaliaAn other question with the solution.To this Albertus aunswereth agayne, and telleth vs plainely what she sayd in her confessiō which was this: MarginaliaAlbert. ibidem. ca. 17.that she had receiued that great grace, not ex condigno, that is, not of any dignitie of her own, but yet notwithstanding of congruitie. And this was it (sayth Albert) that she sayd in her confession. Albert cap. 74 super Euang. Missus est, &c.

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Moreouer, to helpe this case out of all doubt, commeth in famous Thomas of Watring, MarginaliaS. Thomas par. 3. ques. 37. art. 5.& thus looseth the knot, much after like effect, saying: that as Christ, although he did owe nothing to the law, yet notwithstanding receiued he Circumcision, to geue to other example of humilitie and obedience: In like maner would our Lady shew her selfe obedient to the obseruaunce of the law, albeit there was no cause, why she had any neede thereof. And thus hast thou (gentle Reader) this doubtful questiō mooued and soluted, to the intent I would reueale to thee some part of the deep diuinitie of our Catholike Maisters, that haue ruled and gouerned the Church in these their late Popish dayes.

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But breaking of this matter, to returne againe where we left, that is, to this foresayd 2. persecutiō vnder Domitianus. In which persecution besides these afore mentioned, and many other innumerable godly Martyrs, sufferyng for the like testimonie of þe Lord Iesus, was Flauia þe daughter of Flauius Clemens, one of the Romaine Consuls, which Flauia with many other was banished out of Rome into the Isle Pontia, for the testimony of the Lord Iesus by the Emperour, Domitianus, Euseb. Lib. 3. MarginaliaFlauia the daughter of a Consul. banished for the testimony of christ. Ex Euseb. Lib. 3. ca. 19

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This Domitianus feared the comming of Christ as Herode did, & therefore commaunded them to be killed which were of the stocke of Dauid in Iewry. MarginaliaThe Emperour maketh inquirie for all that were of Dauids stocke.Dauids stocke feared of the Emperours.There were remaining aliue at that tyme certayne of the Lordes kindred, which were the nephewes of Iude, that was called the Lordes brother after the flesh. These when the Lieutenāt of Iewry had brought vp to Domitian to be slayn: the Emperour demaunded of thē, whether they were of the stocke of Dauid: which when they had graūted, he asked againe, what possessions, and what substauuce they had. They aūswered, þt they both had no more betweene them in all, but xxxix. acres of grounde, & how they gat their liuing & sustained their families with the hard labours of their hādes shewing forth their hands vnto the Emperor, being hard and rough worne with labours, to witnes that to be true which they had spoken. Then the Emperour inquiring of them concerning the kingdome of Christ, what maner of kingdome it was, how and when it should appeare: they aunswered that his kingdome was no worldly nor terren thing, but an heauenly and Aungelicall kingdome, MarginaliaTwo Nephewes of Iude the Lordes brother preserued. The kingdome of Christ not of this world.& that it should appeare in the consummation & end of the world what tyme he comming in glory, should iudge the quicke and the dead, and render to euery one according to his deseruinges. Domitian, the Emperour hearing this (as the saying is) did not condemne them, but despising them as vile persons, let them go, & also staid the persecution then mooued against the Christians. They being thus discharged and dismissed, afterward had the gouernmēt of Churches, beyng taken for Martyrs, and as of the Lords stock, and so continued in good peace till the tyme of Traianus. Hæc Egesip. & Euseb Lib. 3. cap. 20.

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By this story here recited may appeare, what were the causes why the Emperours of the Romaine Monarchie did so persecute the Christians: MarginaliaThe causes why the Emperours and Senate of Rome did so rage agaynst the Christians.which causes were chiefly these: feare, and hatred: 1. feare, for that the Emperors and Senate of blinde ignoraunce, not knowing the maner ofChristes kingdome, feared and misdoubted least the same would subuert their Emperie. MarginaliaThe kingdome of Christ feared of the Romaines.Like as the Pope thinkeeh now that this Gospel wil ouerthrow his kingdom of maiestie. And therfore sought they all means possible, how by death and all kindes of torments vtterly to extinguish the name and memorie of the christians. And therupon semeth to spring the old law of the Romaine Senate: Non debere dimitti Christianos qui semel ad tribunal venissent, nisi propositum mutent. i. 

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The Second Persecution: citation from Eusebius.
Foxe text Latin

Non debere dimitti Christianos qui semel ad tribunal venissent, nisi propositum mutent.

Foxe text translation

That the Christians should not bee let goe, which were once brought to the iudgement seate, except they chaunged their purpose, &c.

MarginaliaLex antiqua Romana contra Christianos. Ex Euseb. lib. 2. cap. 21.That the Christians should not bee let goe, which were once brought to the iudgement seate, except they chaunged their purpose, &c. Euseb. Lib. 5. cap. 21. 2. Hatred, partly for that this world of his owne naturall condition hath euer hated and maliced the people of god, from the first beginning of the world. MarginaliaThe kingdome of Christ hated of Romaine Princes.Partly agayne, for that the Christians beyng of a contrary nature and Religion, seruing only the true liuing God, despised their false gods, spake against their idolatrous worshippings, and many tymes stopped the power of Sathan, working in their Idoles. And therfore Sathan the Prince of this world, stirred vp the Romaine Princes & blynd Idolaters to beare the more hatred and spite against them.

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Vpon these causes and such like, rose vp these malitious slaunders, false surmises, infamous lies and slanderous accusations, of the Heathen idolaters against the Christian seruaunts of God, MarginaliaFalse accusations and slaunders agaynst the Christians. Ex Apologia Iustini. Marty.which incited the Princes of this world the more to persecute them: for what crimes so euer malice could inuent, or rash suspicion could minister, that was imputed to the Christians, as that they were a people incestuous, that in the night in their concourses, puttyng out their candles, they ranne together in all filthy maner, that they killed their owne children, that they vsed to eate mans flesh, that they were seditious and rebellious, that they would not sweare by the fortune & prosperitie of Cæsar, that they would not adore the Image of Cæsar in the market place, that they were pernitious to the Emperie of Rome. Briefly, whatsoeuer mishappened to the Citie or Prouinces of Rome, either famine, pestilence, earthquake, warres, wonders, vnseasonablenes of weather, or what other euils soeuer hapned, it was imputed to the Christians, as Iustinus recordeth. Ouer and beside al these, a great occasion that stirred vp the Emperours against the Christians came by one Publius Tarquinius the chiefe Prelate of the idolatrous sacrifices, and Mamertinus the chiefe gouernour of the Citie, MarginaliaPublius Tarquinius. Mamertinus the tyme of Traianus, who partly with money, partly with sinister and pestilent counsaile, partly with infamous accusations (as witnesseth Nauclerus) incensed the mynde of the Emperour so muche against Gods people.

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Also among these other causes abouesaid, crept in some piece of couetousnes withal (as in all other things it doth) in that the wicked promooters and accusers for lucre sake, to haue the possessions of the christians, were the more redy to accuse to haue the spoyle of their goods.

Thus hast thou (Christian reader) first the causes declared of these persecutions. 2. The cruell law of their condemnation. 3. Now heare more what was the forme of inquisition, which was (as is witnessed in the second Apologie of Iustinus) to this effect: that they should sweare to declare the truth, whether they were in very deed Christians or not: and if they confesed then by the law the sentence of death proceeded. Iust. Apol. 2. MarginaliaEx Iust. Mart. in 2. Apolog. The forme of inquisition agaynst the Christians in the old tyme.

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MarginaliaThe cruelty of tyrauntes in killing of Christen men.Neither yet were these tyrants and organes of Sathā thus contented with death onely, to bereaue the life from the bodye. The kindes of death were diuers, and no lesse horrible then diuers. Whatsoeuer the cruelnesse of mans inuention could deuise for the punishment of mans body, was practised against the Christians (as partly I haue mentioned before, and more appeareth by the Epistle sent from the brethren of France, hereafter following. Craftie traynes, outcries of enemies, imprisonments, stripes and scourgings, drawings, tearings, stonings, plates of iron layd to them burning hote, deep dungeons, racks, strangling in prisons, the teeth of wild beasts, gridirons, gibbets and gallowes, tossing vpon the hornes of Buls: Moreouer, whē they were thus killed, their bodies laid in heaps, and dogs there left to keep them, that no man might come to bury them, neither would any prayer obtayne them to be interred and buried. Ex Epstola fratrum Viennensium ac Lugdunensium &c. MarginaliaEx Epist fratrum. Viennensium & Lugdunensium, ad fratres per Asiam, & Phrigiam scripta.

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And yet notwithstanding for all these continual persecutions, and horrible punishments, the church of the christians daily increased, deepely rooted in the doctrine of the Apostles, and of men Apostolicall, and watered plenteously with the bloud of Saintes, as saith Nicephorus. lib. 3. MarginaliaEx Nicephero. Lib. 3. cap. 22.

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Wherof let vs heare the worthy testimony of Iustinus Martyr in his Dialogue with Triphous: MarginaliaEx Iustino. Martyr in Dialogo cum Tripheo.And that none (saith he) can terrifie or remoue vs which beleue in Iesus,

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