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Alexander I (St Alexander)

(d. c. 116) [Kelly]

Pope (c. 109 - c. 116)

Pope Alexander I was said to have raised Hermes' son from the dead and to have cured his maid of blindness. Alexander was imprisoned and cured the daughter of his jailer, resulting in the conversion of the whole household. 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

 
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Cleophas (Clopas)

Father of Simeon of Jerusalem; legendary brother of Christ [Catholic Encyclopedia]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 66; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Clepidus

According to Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis, Clepidus was the governor of Rome under Hadrian. He put to death St Sabina and Seraphia of Antioch. 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Euphrosina and Theodora

Foxe describes Euphrosina and Theodora as martyrs and as the wives of the martyrs Sulpitius and Servilianus. These are also the names of legendary virgins who were set on fire with their mistress Flavia Domitilla. 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
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Eustace

Legendary C2 Roman general originally named Placitus

Christian convert; martyr

Eustace refused to sacrifice with Hadrian and was martyred. 1576, p. 66; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Eventius

Said in Passio S. Alexandri Papae to be an early C2 Christian priest

Eventius was a deacon of Pope Alexander I and was imprisoned with him. 1570, p. 63; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

 
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Hadrian

(76 - 138) [H. W. Benario www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (117 - 138)

Hadrian was a persecuting emperor. 1570, p. 54; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon referred to Hadrian as an emperor who received the apologies and defences of the Christians kindly and mitigated his cruel decrees. 1570, p. 1340; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1172.

 
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Hegesippus (St Hegesippus)

C2 writer [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian chronicler; wrote to refute Gnostic and other heresies

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 41, 66, 78; 1576, pp. 33, 40, 78; 1583, pp. 33, 40, 78.

 
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Henry of Erfurt (Henricus de Erfordia)

Taught philosophy in Bologna in (1351 - 52); writer and historian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68, 78, 80, 86, 98, 104, 110, 146; 1576, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 60, 69, 74, 79, 108; 1583, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 59, 69, 74, 78, 107.

 
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Hermes

(d. c. 117)

Said in Passio S. Alexandri Papae to have been a prefect of the city of Rome and a convert to Christianity; martyred [www.art.man.ac.uk/cla/samples.htm#symphorosa]

Pope Alexander I was said to have raised Hermes' son from the dead and to have cured his maid of blindness. Hermes was imprisoned at the same time as Alexander. 1570, p. 63; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

 
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Ignatius of Antioch (St Ignatius)

(d. c. 107x117) [Gams]

Patriarch of Antioch (c. 67 - c. 107x117); martyr

Ignatius wrote letters to several congregations of Christians, warning them against heresy. He was thrown to wild beasts. 1570, p. 58, 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

In one of his letters, written on his way to his martyrdom, Ignatius assigned the government of his church at Antioch to Polycarp of Smyrna and praised the truth of his teaching. 1570, pp. 61-62; 1576, p. 44; 1583, p. 44.

 
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Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis (Jacob Philip of Bergamo)

(1434 - 1520)

Chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 65, 85, 91, 97, 104, 128, 132; 1576, pp. 38, 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 95.

 
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Jerome (Eusebius Hieronomous) (St Jerome)

(c. 340/2 - 420) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Scholar; translator of the bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin; studied at Rome and Trier. Lived as an ascetic (374 -79); lived in Constantinople (380 - 81), Rome (382 - 85) and Bethlehem (386)

Jerome was called 'papas' or 'father' by Boniface I and others. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

 
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Nereus and Achilleus (St Nereus and St Achilleus)

Early Christian martyrs; legendary Roman soldier converts [Catholic Encyclopedia]

They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Phocas of Sinope

Legendary late C1 bishop of Sinope in Pontus and gardener; martyr

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Polycarp of Smyrna (St Polycarp)

(d. 155) [Gams; Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Smyrna (c. 106 - 117); martyr

Polycarp was visited by Ignatius of Antioch. 1570, p. 58; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

He sent Andoclus into Gaul. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

According to Jerome and Nicephorus, Polycarp visited Rome in 157 to discuss the controversy over Easter day with Pope Anicetus. 1576, p. 44; 1583, p. 44.

A letter gives an account of Polycarp's examination by the proconsul and martyrdom. 1570, pp. 59-61; 1576, pp. 42-44; 1583, pp. 42-44.

 
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Publius

C2 bishop of Athens under Hadrian [Catholic Encyclopedia]

He presented an Apology for the Christians to the emperor. 1570, pp. 66; 1576, p. 41; 1583, p. 41.

St Jerome recorded his martyrdom. 1570, pp. 58; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Quirinus

Said in Passio S. Alexandri Papae to be an early C2 tribune, the magistrate presiding at Hermes' interrogation. Christian convert, martyr

Quirinus was the jailer of Pope Alexander I. He and his household were converted when Alexander cured his daughter. 1570, p. 63; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

 
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Sabina (St Sabina)

Reputed martyr under Hadrian; widow of Valentinus [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Sabina was said to have converted Euphrosina and Theodora. She was beheaded in Rome. 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

According to Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis, Clepidus was the governor of Rome under Hadrian. He put to death St Sabina and Seraphia of Antioch. 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Sagaris of Laodicea

(d. c. 166); bishop and martyr [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Laodicea]

Sagaris was one of those opposing the position of Pope Victor I concerning the celebration of Easter. 1570, p. 82; 1576, p. 56; 1583, p. 53.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Seraphia of Antioch

Reputed martyr in Hadrian's reign

She is mentioned by Foxe with St Sabina: 1570, p. 63; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

According to Hermannus, Clepidus, the governor of Rome under Hadrian, put to death Seraphia of Antioch. 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Servilius Paulus

C2 proconsul of Asia, according to Eusebius

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Simeon of Jerusalem

(d. 106/07) [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Jerusalem]

Son of Cleophas; leader of Christians in Jerusalem (c. 63 - death); martyr

Simeon was apprehended because he was of the line of David; he was scourged. 1570, p. 66; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

Simeon was crucified. 1563, p. 7; 1570, p. 56; 1576, p. 35; 1583, p. 36.

 
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Sulpitius and Servilianus

Supposed martyrs under Trajan

They are mentioned by Foxe 1570, p. 65; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus)

(c. 155 - c. 230) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

of Carthage; Christian convert and writer, church leader

Tertullian was a man of learning and eloquence who defended the Christians under persecution. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

Tertullian commended Irenæus for his learning. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

Tertullian recorded that Christianity came to Britain in the time of Pope Eleutherius in C2. 1570, p. 145; 1576, p. 107; 1583, p. 106.

Tertullian was a married priest, according to Jerome. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1154.

 
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Theodolus

Said in Passio S. Alexandri Papae to be an early C2 Christian priest

Theodolus was a deacon of Pope Alexander I and was imprisoned with him. 1570, p. 63; 1576, p. 38; 1583, p. 38.

 
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Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius)

(d. 1264) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican friar; French scholar; compiled encyclopedia of all knowledge

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 68, 80, 88, 106; 1576, pp. 38, 45, 55, 61, 76; 1583, pp. 38, 45, 55, 60, 75.

 
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Zenon (Sennas)

Roman nobleman martyred under Hadrian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 66; 1576, p. 40; 1583, p. 40.

 
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Ephesus

Anatolia, Turkey

Coordinates: 37° 56' 23" N, 27° 20' 27" E

 
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Jerusalem

[Hierusalem; Ierusalem; Ierosolyma]

Coordinates: 31° 47' 0" N, 35° 13' 0" E

 
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Manisa (Maendrum) [Meandre]

Turkey

Coordinates: 38° 36' N, 27° 26' E

 
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Smyrna

(Izmir)

Aegean coast, Anatolia, Turkey

Coordinates: 38° 26' 0" N, 27° 9' 0" E

 
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Trallis (Aydin)

Turkey

Coordinates: 37° 50' 40" N, 27° 50' 45" E

63 [40]

The first Booke conteyning the X. first persecutions, of the Primitiue Churche.

deny himselfe to be a Christian, and that he do it vnfainedly in open audience, and do sacrifice to our Gods, howsoeuer he hath bene suspected before, let him be released vpō promise of amendment. Such libels as haue no names, suffice not to any iust crime or accusation, for that should geue both an euill President, neither doth it agree with the example of our tyme.

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Tertullian writing vpon this letter of Traianus aboue prefixed, thus saith: O sentence of a confused necessitie: He would not haue them to be sought for as men innocent, & yet causeth them to be punished as persons gilty. And thus the rage of that persecutiō ceased for a tyme, although notwithstanding many naughty disposed men and cruell officers that were, which vpon false pretence to accomplishe their wicked myndes, ceased not to afflict the Christians in diuers prouinces. And especially if any occasiō were geuē neuer so litle for the enemies to take hold, or if any commotion were raised in the Prouinces abroad, by and by the fault was laid vpon the christians. As in Hierusalem after that the emperor Traianus had sent doune his commaundement, that whosoeuer could be found of the stocke of Dauid, he should be enquired out and put to death: MarginaliaThe stocke of Dauid feared and inquired for of the Romaine Emperours. Ex Egesippo.vpon this Egesippus writing, saith, that certaine sectaries there were of the Iewish nation, that accused Simeon the bishop then of Ierusalem and sonne of Cleophas MarginaliaSimeon sonne of Mary Cleophas.to come of the stocke of Dauid, and that he was a Christian. Of the which his accusers it happened also (saith the said Egesippus) that certaine of them likewise were apprehended and taken to bee of the stocke of Dauid, and so right iustly were put to execution themselues, which sought the destruction of other. MarginaliaA iust punishment of God vpon the malitious accusers of the Christians.As concerning Simeon the blessed bishop, the foresayd Egesippus thus writeth: That Simeon the lordes nephew, whē he was accused to Attalus the Proconsul, by the malicious sect of the Iewes, to be of the line of Dauid, & to be a christian, was scourged, during the space of many dayes together, beyng of the age of an hundred and twentie yeres. MarginaliaThe age of Simeon. The death and Martyrdome of Simeon.In which his Martyrdome he indured so constant, that both the Consul and all the multitude did meruaile to see him of that age so constantly to suffer, and so at last being crucified finished his course in the Lord, for whome he suffered, as partly before also is recorded.

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In this persecution of Traianus aboue specified, (which Traianus next followed after Nerua) besides the other afore mentioned, also suffred Phocas bishop of Pontus, MarginaliaPhocas. Byshop of Pontus Martyr.whome Traianus because he would not do sacrifice to Neptunus, caused to be cast into an hote Limekilne: and afterward to be put into a skalding bathe, where the constant godly Martyr, in þe testimony of Christ ended his life, or rather entred into life. Anton. Equil. Fascic. temporum.

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In the same persecution suffered also Sulpitius and Seruilianus, two Romains. Whose wiues are sayd to bee Euphrosina and Theodora, whom Sabina did cōuert to the faith of Christ, and after were also Martyred. MarginaliaSulpitius. Seruilianus. Euphrosina. Theodora Martyrs. Sabina Martyr. Ex Supple. Chr.Of which Sabina Iacobus Philippus author of the booke called Supplementum, reporteth that in the mount of Auentine in Rome, she was beheaded of Clepidus the gouernour, in the dayes of Hadriā. Vnder whom also suffred Seraphia a virgin of Antioche, as Hermannus witnesseth. MarginaliaSeraphia.

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The forenamed authors Anton. and Equilius make mētion moreouer of Nereus and Achilleus, MarginaliaNereus. Achilleus Martyrs.who in this persecution of Traiane, had the croune of Martyrdom, being put to death at Rome. Eusebius in his iiij. booke cap. 26. maketh mention of one Sagaris, MarginaliaSagaris Martyr.who about the same tyme suffered Martyrdome in Asia, Seruilius Paulus beyng then Proconsul in that Prouince.

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In this persecution beside many other, suffred the blessed Martyr of Christ Ignatius, who vnto this day is had in famous reuerence among very many. MarginaliaIgnatius Martyr. Anno. 111. Ex Euse. Lib. 3. Cap. 35. 36. Ex Hier In catalogo Scrip.This Ignatius was appointed to the bishoprike of Antioch next after Peter in succession. Some do say, that he beyng sent from Syria to Rome, because he professed Christ, was giuen to the wilde beasts to be deuoured. It is also sayd of him, that when he passed through Asia, being vnder the most straight custody of his garders, he strengthned and confirmed the parishes through all the cities as he went, both with his exhortations and preaching of the word of God: and admonished them especially and before all other things, to beware and shunne those heresies risen vp, and sprong newly among them, and that they should cleaue and sticke fast to the traditiō of the Apostles, which he for their better safegard, beyng about to denoūce or put in writing, thought it a thing very necessary to trauaile in. And thus when he came to Smyrna, where Polycarpus was, he wrote one epistle to the congregation of Ephesus, wherin he made mention of Onesimus their Pastor, MarginaliaEccles Onesimus pastor at Ephesus.& an other he wrote to the congregation of Magnesia, beyng at Meandre, wherein also he forgetteth not Dama their Bishop. Also an other he wrote to thecongregation of Trallis: the gouernour of which Citie at that time he noteth to be one Polibius. Vnto which congregation he made an exhortation, lest they refusing Martyrdome, should loose the hope that they desired,

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But it shalbe very requisite that I aledge somewhat thereof to the declaration of this matter. He wrote therfore as the wordes lye in this sort. MarginaliaThe wordes of Ignatius. The straight[illegible text] handling of Ignatius.From Syria (saith he) euen till I came to Rome had I a battell with beastes, as well by sea, as land, both day & night, being bound in the midst of ten cruell Libardes (that is, the company or band of the souldiers) which, the more benefites that they receaued at my hands, became so much the woorse vnto me. But I being exercised and now wel acquainted with their iniuries, am taught euery day more and more: but hereby am I not yet iustified. And would to God I were once come to þe beasts, which are prepared for me. Which also I wish with gaping mouthes were ready to come vpon me, whō also I will prouoke that they without delay may deuoure me, and forbeare me nothing at all, as those whome before they haue not touched or hurt for feare. And if they wyll not vnlesse they be prouoked, I will then inforce them agaynst my selfe. Pardon me I pray you. How much beneficiall it is to me, I knowe. Now begin I to be a scholer I force or esteeme no visible thinges, nor yet inuisible thinges, so that I may get or obtaine Christ Iesu. Let the fire, the galowes, the deuouring of wild beastes, the breaking of bones, the pulling asunder of my members, the broosing or pressing of my whole body, and the tormentes of the deuill or hell it selfe come vpon me, so that I maye winne Christ Iesus. MarginaliaThe notable constancy and burning zeale to Christ in this blessed martyr to be marked.

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And these things wrote he from the foresayde Citye, vnto the congregations which we haue recited. And when he was euen now iudged to be throwne to the beastes, he spake for þe burning desire that he had to suffer, what tyme he heard the Lyons roaryng: MarginaliaIgnatius deuoured of wild beasts.I am the wheat or grayne (sayth he) of Christ, I shall be grounde wyth the teeth of wylde beastes, that I may be found pure bread. Hee suffered in the xj. yeare of Traian the Emperour. Hæc Eusebius, & Hieronym.

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Besides this godly Ignatius, manye thousandes also were put to death in the same persecutiō, as appeareth by the letter of Plinius secundus aboue recited, written vnto the Emperour.

Hierome in his booke intituled De viris illustrib, maketh mention of one Publius Byshop of Athens, MarginaliaEx Hier. Lib. de viris illust. Publius Byshop of Athens Martyr.who for the fayth of Christ, the same time during this persecution was put to death and martyred.

Hadrian Emperour.

NExt after this Traianus succeded Hadriā the Emperor, vnder whom suffered Alexander the Bishop of Rome, with his two Deacons: Euentius and Theodorus: Also Hermes, and Quirinus, with their families, as latly before was declared.

It is signified moreouer in the historyes, þt in the time of this Hadrian, Zenon a noble man of Rome with ten thousand, two hundreth and three, were slayne for Christ. Henr. de Erfordia, and Bergomensis, Lib. 8. make mention of tenne thousand, MarginaliaZenon with 10000. Martyrs slayne for Christ. Ex Henr. de Erfordia & alijs.in the daies of this Hadrian, to be crucified in the mount Ararath, crowned with crownes of thorne, & thrust into the sides with sharpe Dartes, after the example of the Lordes passion. Whose Captaines (as Antoninus, & Vincentius in spec. histor. declareth (were Achaicus, Heliades, Theodorus, and Carcerius, &c. Whether this story be þe same with the other aboue of Zenō, or not, it is doubted. MarginaliaAchaicus. Heliades. Theodorus. Carcerius with ten thousand Martyrs.As touching the miracles done, and the speaking of the angell, I referre the certainty therof to Vincentius and such other like authors where mo things seme to be told, then to be true.

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There was one Eustachius a Captaine, MarginaliaEustachius with hys wife and Children Martyred for Christ.whom Traianus in tyme past had sent out to warre against the Barbarians. After he had by Gods grace valiantly subdued his enemies, and now was returning home with victory: Hadrian for ioy meting him in his iourney, to bring him home with triumph, by the way first would do sacrifice to Apollo, for the victory gotten, willing also Eustachius to doe the same with him. But when Eustachius could by no meanes therto be inforced, being brought to Rome, there with his wife and children suffred Martyrdome vnder the foresayd Hadrian. It were a long processe here to recite all the miracles conteined or rather suspected in this story of this Eustachius concerning his conuersion and death. How the crucifixe appeared to him betwene the hornes of an Hart. Of the sauing of his wife frō the shipmen. Of one of his sōnes saued from the Lion, the other saued from þe Wolf. Of their miraculous preseruation from the wild beasts, frō the torments of fire mentioned in Bergomensis, and Vincētius and

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