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Cerealis, Amantius and Primitivus

Legendary early Christian martyrs killed with Getulus

They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68-69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Concordus

Minister of Spoleto mentioned by Usuard and Vincentius; early Christian martyr

Concordus was beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to Jupiter. 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Crescens

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Crescens was racked and stabbed in the neck. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Eugenius

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Eugenius was racked, cut apart and thrown into a deep pit. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Getulus

Legendary martyr under Hadrian

Husband of Symphorosa, who was martyred with her seven children. 1570, p. 66; 1576, p. 41; 1583, p. 41.

 
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Gratian

of Bologna; C12 canon lawyer [P. Landau, NCMH, vol 4:1, p. 128]

Wrote Decretum, an attempt logically to reconcile contradictory canons, which became the standard text for canon law

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 63, 68, 95, 134, 143; 1576, pp. 38-39, 45, 67, 97, 106; 1583, pp. 4, 39, 45, 67, 96, 105.

 
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Hyginus (St Hyginus)

(d. c. 142) [Kelly]

Pope (c. 138 - c. 142)

Foxe says that Hyginus did not have authority to decide matrimonial causes. 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 78; 1576, pp. 38, 53; 1583, pp. 38, 53.

 
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Julianus

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Julianus was racked and stabbed in the breast. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Justinus

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Justinus was racked and his joints cut. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Nemesius

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Nemesius was racked and stabbed in the heart. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Petrus de Natalibus (Equilinus)

(d. 1400 - 1406) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Equilio (c. 1370 - 1400) [Gams]; wrote a collection of the lives of the saints

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68, 104, 131; 1576, pp. 45, 73, 95; 1583, pp. 45, 73, 94.

 
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Praxedes

Reputed Christian martyr of unknown date; martyred with Pudentia [Catholic Encyclopedia

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Primitivus

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Primitivus was racked and stabbed in the abdomen. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Ptolomæus and Lucius

Reputed Christian martyrs in Alexandria of unknown date

Justin Martyr in his Apology gives an account of their martyrdom. 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Pudentia (Potentiana)

Reputed Christian martyr of unknown date [Catholic Encyclopedia]

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Simmetrius, Florellus, Pontianus, Alexander, Caius, Epipodus, Victor, Corona, Marcellus and Valerianus

Legendary early Christian martyrs.

They were beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to idols. 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Statteus

Legendary son of Symphorissa; martyr

Statteus was racked and run through with spears. 1570, p. 69; 1576, p. 46; 1583, pp. 45-46.

 
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Symphorosa (St Symphorosa)

Legendary martyr at Tivoli C2; said to have been martyred with her seven sons [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Symphorosa was tortured and then killed by drowning. 1570, pp. 66, 68; 1576, pp. 41, 45; 1583, pp. 41, 45.

 
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Tatian

C2 Assyrian Christian convert; trained in Greek philosophy; writer, theologian [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Tatian wrote about Justin Martyr and his persecution by Crescens. 1570, p. 59; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Urbicius

Judge in Alexandria at the time of the martyrdom of Ptolomæus and Lucius

He condemned both Ptolomæus and Lucius to death, according to the Apology of Justin Martyr. 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Usuard

(d. c. 875) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Benedictine monk of the abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris; wrote a martyrology

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 68; 1576, p. 45; 1583, p. 45.

 
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Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius)

(d. 1264) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican friar; French scholar; compiled encyclopedia of all knowledge

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 68, 80, 88, 106; 1576, pp. 38, 45, 55, 61, 76; 1583, pp. 38, 45, 55, 60, 75.

 
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Alexandria

Egypt

Coordinates: 31° 11' 5" N, 29° 55' 9" E

 
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Spoleto [Spolete]

Perugia, Italy

Coordinates: 42° 44' 0" N, 12° 44' 0" E

 
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Tiberias

[Tyber]

Lower Galilee, Israel

Coordinates: 32° 47' 23" N, 35° 31' 29" E

68 [45]

Tacianus MarginaliaTacianus cōmended. (a man brought vp of a childe in the institutions of the Gentiles, and obtayned in the same not a little fame, and which also left behinde him many good monumentes and Commentaries) writeth in hys booke agaynst þe Gentiles in this sort: And Iustine sayth he, that most excellent learned man, MarginaliaThe prayse of Iustinus Martyr.full well spake and vttered his minde, that the afore recited men were lyke vnto theeues or lyers by þe high way side. And in the sayd book speaking afterward of certaine Philosophers, the sayd Tacianus inferreth thus: Crescens therefore (sayth he) when he came first into that great Cittie, passed all other in the vicious loue of children, and was very much geuen to couetousnes, and where he taught that men ought not to regard death, he himself doth feare death, that he did all his indeuour to oppresse Iustine with death, as with the most greatest euill that was, and all because that Iustine speaking trueth, reproued the Philosophers to be men onely for the belly and deceauers, and this was the cause of Iustines Martyrdome. Hierome in his Ecclesiasticall Catalogue thus writeth: MarginaliaEx Catalogo Hiero.Iustine when in the Cittie of Rome he had his disputations, and had reprooued Crescens the Cinike, for a great blasphemer of the Christians: for a bellygod and a man fearing death, and also a follower of lust and lechery: at the last by his indeuour and conspiracie was accused to be a Christian, and for Christ shed his bloud in the yeare of our Lord. 154. vnder Marcus Antonius, as the Cronicles doe witnes, Abb Vrsperg: and Eusebius in his Cronicle in the xiii. yeare of the Emperour Antoninus. MarginaliaThe death and martirdome of Iustinus. the noble Philosopher and a Christian Martyr.

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MarginaliaPraxedis, Potentiana Christian virgines.Among these aboue recited is also to be numbred Praxedis a blessed virgine, the daughter of a Citizen of Rome, who in the tyme of Anicetus there Byshop, was so brought vp in the doctrine of Christ, and so affected to hys religion, that she with her sister Potentiana, bestowed all her patrimony vpon the relieuing of poore Christians, geuing all her time to fasting and prayer, and to the buriyng of þe bodyes of the Martyrs. And after she had made free all her famelie with her seruanntes, after the death of her sister, she also departed and was buryed in peace.

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Vnder the same Antoninus also suffered Ptolomeus, and Lucius MarginaliaPtolomeus. Lucius Martyrs.for the confession of Christ, in a Cittie of Egipt called Alexandria, whose history because it is described in the Apology of Iustinus Martyr, I thought therefore to set forth the same, as it is alledged in Eusebius, declaring the manner and occasion therof. Lib. 4 cap. 17. in wordes and effect as followeth, &c. MarginaliaEuseb. lib. 4. Cap. 17.

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There was (sayth he) a certayne woman maryed vnto a husband, who was geuen much to laciuiousnes, whereunto she her selfe in tymes past was also addict. But she afterward being instructed in the Christian religion, became chaste her self and also perswaded her husband to liue chastly: often times telling him that it was written in the preceptes of the Christians, that they should be punished eternally, which liued not chastely and iustly in this life. But he still continuing in his filthines, thereby caused his wife to estraunge her selfe from his company. For why? the woman thought it not conuenient to continue in her husbandes company, which contemning the lawe of nature, sought otherwise to satisfie hys filthy appetite. Therefore she was purposed to be deuorced frō him. But her neighbours and kinsfolkes prouoked her, by promising hys amendment, to keepe company agayne with hym, and so she did. But he after this, tooke hys iourny into Alexandria: and when it was shewed her, that there hee liued more licenciously, then at any time before, for that she would not be counted partaker of his incestuous lyfe by coupling her selfe any longer with him, she gaue him a letter of diuorce, & so departed frō him. Then her husbād, who ought rather to haue reioyced to haue so honost and chaste a wife, which not onely would not commit any dishonest thing her selfe, but also could not abide any lewde or misordered behauiour in her husband, and that by this her seperation shee went about to reclayme hym from hys incest and wickednes to better amendment of lyfe: He in recompence to hys wyfe agayne, accused her to be a Christian, whiche at that tyme was no lesse then death. Whereupon she being in great perill and daunger deliuered vp vnto the Emperour (as Iustinus in his Apology writing to the Emperour himselfe declareth) a supplication, desiring and crauing of hys maiesty, first to graunt her so much licence as to set her familie in order, and that done, afterward to come agayne & make aunswere to all that might or should be layd agaynst her: whereunto the Emperour condescended. Then her husband seing that he could haue no vauntage agaynst her deuised wt himselfe, how he might bring Ptolomeus (which was her instructor in the fayth of Christ) in trouble and accusation: vsing the meanes of a certayne Centurion who was hys very frend, whom he perswaded to examine Pto-lomeus whether he were a Christian or not. Ptolomeus (as one þt loued the trueth, & not thinking good to hide hys profession) confessed no lesse then to the examinour, openly declaring that he had (as truth was) taught and professed the veritie of Christian doctrine. For who so denyeth him selfe to be that he is, eyther cōdemneth in denying that thing he is; or maketh himselfe vnworthy of that, the confession whereof he flyeth; whiche thing is neuer found in a true and sincere Christian. Thus thē he being brought before Vrbicius the iudge and by him condemned to suffer: One Lucius being also a Christian, standing by, and seing the wrong iudgement, and hasty sentence of the Iudge, sayd to Vrbicus: what reason, I pray you or equitie is this, that this man, who neyther is adulterer, nor fornicator, nor homicide, nor fealon, neyther hath committed any such crime, wherein hee may be charged, thus is condemned onely for hys name and confession of a Christian. This cōdemnation and these maner of Iudgementes (O Vrbici) are neither seemely for the vertuous Emperour, nor to the Philosopher hys sonne, nor yet for the estate of hys Senate of Rome.

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MarginaliaThe boldnes & Christian constancie of Lucius.Which wordes being heard, Vrbitius making no farther examination of the matter, sayd vnto Lucius: me thinketh thou art also a Christian. And when Lucius had geuen him to vnderstand that he was also a Christian, the Iudge without further delay commaunded him to be had away to the place of execution. MarginaliaLucius condemned and Martyred.To whom he aunswered: I thanke you with al my hart, that you release me from most wicked gouernours, and send me vnto my good and most louing father, being also the king of all Gods. And in like maner the third man also, comming vnto him, and vsing the like libertie of speeche, had also the like sentence of death and condemnation, and crowned also with the same crowne of Martyrdome. MarginaliaThe third also condemned and Martyred.And thus much out of the Apology of Iustinus, by the which story it may appeare not to be true, that Gratianus attributeth vnto Higynus Byshop of Rome, the deciding of causes matrimoniall, MarginaliaA place of Gracianus suspected.seeing that in Iustinus tyme (who was in the same age of Higynus) the deuorcement of this woman in this history aboue touched, was not decided by any Ecclesiasticall law, or brought before any Byshop, but was brought before a Heathen Prince, and determined by the law ciuill.

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/ recordeth out of the Martyrologe of Isuardus, of one Concordus Marginalia Concordus Martyr.a minister of the Citie of Spolete, who in the reigne of this Antoninus Verus, because he would not sacrifice vnto Iupiter, but did spit in the face of the Idole, MarginaliaConcordus spitteth in the face of the Idole.after diuers and sundry punishments sustaynd, at last with the sword was beheaded. Vincentius in hys x. booke, chap. 108. reciteth a long story of his actes and life, wherof some part perhappes may seeme tollerable. But this verily appeareth to be false and fabulous, concerning the water flowing besides his sepulchre in the forenamed Cittie of Spolete, vnto the whiche water was geuen (sayth Vincentius) by the vertue of hym, for whose name hee suffered, to restore sight to the blinde, to heale the sicke, and to cast out deuils. &c. MarginaliaThe story of Vincentius suspected of vntrueth.Which kinde of vertue to open the eyes of the blinde, and to expell deuils, neither doth God geue to any creature of water, neither is it like that Concordius the blessed Martyr did or would require any such thing at the handes of God.

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Isuardus and Bede, Vincentius, and Henricus de Erfordia, MarginaliaEx Isuardo. Vincentio. & Henrico de Erford.with other authors moe, make relation of diuers other Martyrs that by sondry kindes of tormentes were put to death, vnder the foresayd Antoninus Verus: the names of whome be Simmetrius, Florellus, Pontianus, Alexander, Caius, Fpipodus, Victor, Corona, Marcellus, Valerianus. MarginaliaSymmetrius. Florellus. pontianus. Alexander. Caius. Epipodus. Victor. Corona. Marcellus. Valerian, Martyrs.The cause of whose Martyrdome was the reprehending of Idolatry and because at the Emperours cōmandement, they would not sacrifice to Idols. Many sortes of punishmentes and of miracles are tolde of them, but at length the end of them all is this, that they were beheaded. Whereby it may be the more suspected, the histories of these writers not to be certayne or true, as well touching these, as also other Martyrs, as may appeare in Vincentius, in Petrus de Natalibus, & other authors of like sort. In which authors they which list to read more of their miracles, there may finde them. MarginaliaAucthors in the writing the miracles of Martyrs suspected.

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A little before, pag 41 mention was made of Symphorissa, otherwise named Symphorosa, wife of Getulus, with her vii. sonnes. This Getulus or Getulius, was a minister or a teacher (as witnesseth Martyrol. Adonis) in the Cittie of Tyber, which Getulus with Cerealis, Amantius, and Primitiuus, MarginaliaGetulus. Corcalu. Amantius. Primitiuus. Martyrs.by the commaundement of Adria were condemned to the fire, wherein they were Martyred and put to death. The names moreouer of the seuen sonnes of this Symphorosa, I finde to be Crescens, Iulianus, Nemesius, Primitiuus, Iustinus Statteus, and Eugenius, MarginaliaThe vii. sonnes of Symph rosa. Crescens. Iulianus. Nemesius. Primitiuus. Iustinus. Statteus. Eugenius. Martyrs.whom the Chronicle of Ado declareth to be put to death at the commaundement of Ha-

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drian
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