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K. Edward. 4. The story of Reynald Pecocke, with his declaration. The B. citation.

ending also with Constātinus: which for the princely royalty therof, was named and euer honoured, from the time of the first Constantine, equally with the City of Rome, MarginaliaConstantinople called new Rome.& called also by the name thereof new Rome, & so continued the space of 1120. yeares. I pray God that olde Rome may learne of new Rome, to take heed and beware by tyme.

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MarginaliaA warning to all Christendome, by Constantinople.This terrible destruction of the Citty of Constantinople, the Queene of Cittyes, I though here to describe, not so much to set forth þe barbarous cruelty of these filthy rake hels and mercilesse murtherers: as specially for this, that we being admonished by the dolefull ruine and misery of these our euenchristened, may call to minde the plagues & miseryes deserued, whiche seeme to hang no lesse ouer our owne heades, and thereby may learne betime to inuocate and call more earnestly vpon the name of our terrible and mercifull God, that he for his sonnes sake, will keepe vs, & perserue his church among vs, and mitigate those plagues and sorrowes, whiche we no lesse haue deserued, then these aboue minded, before vs. Christ graunt it. Amen. Ex hist Wittenbergica Peucer.

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The history of Reynold Peeocke Byshop of Chichester, afflicted and imprisoned for the Gospell of Christ. 
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Reginald Pecock

It is profoundly ironic that Bishop Reginald Pecock, who devoted a great deal of time and effort to combatting the Lollards in print, should have been enshrined by Foxe as a proto-Protestant. The reason for this, however, is clear: following Bale, Foxe assumed that anyone condemned for heresy during the Middle Ages must have been one of the numerous hidden members of the True Church that that existed before Luther. As a bishop and a university trained scholar, Pecock was a particularly valuable individual for Foxe to appropriate.

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Foxe's first account of Pecock was printed in his Commentarii. It began with long passages of Foxean rhetoric on the tyranny of the Roman Church, the existence of a godly remnant who did not bow their knees to Baal and the theology of the Eucharist (fos. 157r-168v). This was followed by copy of a letter from Thomas Bourchier, the archbishop of Canterbury, forbidding discussion of Pecock's case while it was still sub judice (fos. 169r-171r). There is no other surviving copy of this document, and how Foxe obtained it is a matter for speculation, but it gives every appearance of being genuine. This followed by a version of a recantation that Pecock made at Paul's Cross on 4 December 1457 (fos. 171r-172r). With one important exception, Foxe's version of this conforms to the other known versions of this document. No other surviving copy of the recantation contains Pecock's denial that it was necessary to believe that Christ's body was materially in the sacrament and it is safe to assume that this was Foxe's invention. The Commentarii account of Pecock then concludes with Foxe's declaration that Pecock's recantation must have been coerced and insincere, since he was imprisoned (fos. 172r-173r). However, over 50 pages later, Foxe printed a 'Collectanea quaedam ex Reginaldi Pecocki Episcopi opusculis exustis conservata, ex antiquo psegmate transcripta'(fos. 199r-203v). This was a series of articles, apparently - from Foxe's description - copied out of an 'ancient' manuscript fragment. Foxe identified the first article as coming from Pecock's The Book of Signs, a work now lost. The remaining eleven articles are all drawn from Pecock's Book of Faith; although they are abridgements, they do reflect fairly accurately what Pecock does say in portions of his text (cf. Reginald Pecock, Reginald Pecock's Book of Faith, ed. J. L. Morison [Glasgow, 1909], pp. 264-66, 287-91, 302-3, 283-6, 112-14, 222-9, 234-5, 161-2, 147-8, 148-9 and 149-50).

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In the Rerum, the account of Pecock was repeated (pp. 109-16), but the 'Collectanea' was dropped, never to be reprinted. In the 1563 edition, the Rerum account was faithfully translated and reprinted. In the 1570 edition Foxe retained Bourchier's letter and Pecock's recantation, but dropped the rest of his earlier account of Pecock. However, Foxe added a summary of the charges against Pecock which was entirely taken from Bale's Catalogus (p. 595), even the attack on Polydore Vergil at the conclusion. The 1570 account of Pecock was reprinted, without change, in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaThe story of Reinold Pecocke.AFter the death of Henry Chichisley before mentioned pag. 657. next succeeded Iohn Stafford. an. 1445. who continued 8. yeares. After hym came Iohn Kempe. ann. 1453. who sate but three yeares. Then succeeded Thomas Burschere. In the time of which Archbishop, fell the trouble of Reynold Pecocke, Bishop of Chichester, afflicted by the Popes Prelates for hys fayth and profession of the Gospell. Of this Byshoppe, Halle also in his Chronology toucheth a little mention, declaring than an ouerthwart iudgement (as he termeth it) was geuen by the Fathers of the spiritualty agaynst him. Thys man (sayth he) beganne to moue questions not priuatly, but openly in the Vniuersityes, concerning the Annates, Peter pence, and other iurisdictions and authorities perteyning to the sea of Rome, and not onely put forth the questiōs, but declared his mind and opinion in the same: wherefore he was for thys cause abiured at Paules Crosse. Thus muche of hym wryteth Hall. Of whom also recordeth Polychronycon, but in few wordes. This bishop, first of S. Assaphe, then of Chichester, so long as Duke Humfrey lyued (by whome he was promoted and much made of) was quiet and safe, and also bolde to dispute and to write hys mynde, and wrote (as Leland recordeth) diuers bookes and treatises. But after that good Duke was thus (as ye haue heard) made away, this good man lacking his backstay, was open to his enemies, and matter soone found agaynst hym. Wherupon he being complayned of, and accused by priuy and malignant promoters vnto the Archbishop, letters first were directed downe from the Archbishop, to cite al men to appeare that could say any thing agaynst hym. The forme of which citation here ensueth.

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The copy of the Citation sent by the Archbyshoppe.

MarginaliaThe citatiō of the Arch. Tho. Bowcher, alias Bourdchet.THomas by the permission of God, Archb. of Canterbury, primate of all England and Legate of the Apostolicke Sea, to all and singuler Parsons, Vicares, Chaplaynes, Curates, & not Curates, Clerkes and learned men, whatsoeuer they be, constitute & ordeined in any place throughout our prouince of Caunterbury, health, grace and benediction.

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We haue receiued a greeuous complaint of our reuerend felow brother, Reynold Pecocke Byshop of Chichester, conteyning in it, that albeit our sayd reuerend felow brother, the Byshop, deliuered vnto vs certayne bookes written by him in the English tongue, by vs and our authority to be examined, corrected reformed and allowed: notwithstanding many (the examination and reformation of the sayde bookes depending and remayning before vs vndiscussed) haue openly preached and taught at Paules crosse in London, and in diuers other places of our prouince of Canterbury, that our sayd felow brother the Byshop, hath propoūded, made and written, or caused to be writen in the sayde bookes, certayne conclusions repugnaunt to the true fayth, and that he doth obstynately hold and defend the same.

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By the pretence of which preaching and teaching, the state & good name and fame of the sayd Lord Reynolde the Byshoppe, are greeuously offended and hurt, and he and his opinion maruellously burdened. Wherefore we charge you all together, and seuerally apart do commaund you, firmely enioyning you, that openly and generally you doe warne or cause to bee warned, all and singular such persons, whiche will obiect any thing contrary and agaynst the conclusions of our sayd reuerēd felow brother the Bishop, hador conteined in his bookes or writings: that the 20. day after such monition or warning had, they do freely of theyr own accord appeare before vs and our Commissaryes in this behalfe appoynted wheresoeuer we shall then be in our Citty, Dicoes, or prouince of Canterbury, to speake, propound, alledge, and affirme fully & sufficiently in writinge, whatsoeuer hereticall or erroneous matter they wil speak, propound, or obiect agaynst the sayde conclusions conteyned in his sayde bookes: and both to satisfye and receiue, whatsoeuer shall seeme meete and right in this behalfe by the holy institutions and ordinaunces.

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And forsomuche as this matter depending yet vndetermined and vndiscussed, nothing ought to be attempted or renewed: we charge you that by this our authority, you inhibite and forbid all and euery one so to preach and teach hereafter. Vnto whom also we by the tenour of these presents, do likewise forbid, that during the examination of the conclusions and bookes aforesayde, depending before vs and our Commissaryes vndiscussed, they do not presume by any meanes, without good aduise and iudgemēt, to preach, iudge, and affirme any thing to the preiudice or offēce of the sayd Lord Reynold the Byshop and if so be, you do finde any in this behalfe gaynesaying or not obeying this our inhibitiō, that you do cite or cause thē peremptorily to be cited, to appeare before vs or our Commissaryes, in this behalfe appoynted, the 10 day after theyr citation, if it be a courte day or els the next courte day following, wheresoeuer we shall then be, in our City, Dioces, or prouince of Canterbury, to make further declaration by form of law of the cause of their disobediēce & to receiue such punishment as iustice and equity shall determine in that behalfe: & that by your leters you do duely certify vs or our Commissaries, what you haue done in the premisses at the day and place aforesayd: or that he which hath so executed our commaundement, do so certifie vs by his letters. Dated at our Manour of Lambeth the xxij. day of October. an. 1457 and in the 4. yeare of our translation.

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MarginaliaPecocke appeareth at Lambeth before the Archb.This citation being directed, the Byshop vpon the sūmon thereof, was brought, or rather came before þe iudges and Bishops, vnto Lambeth, where the foresaid Thomas the Archbishop, with his doctors and Lawyers, were gathered together in the Archbishops Court. In which conuention also the Duke of Buckingham was present, accōpanyed with the Bishop of Rochester, and of Lyncolne. What were the opiniōs and articles agaynst him obiected, after in his reuocation shall be specified. In his answering for himselfe in such a company of the Popes frendes, albeit he coulde not preuayle, notwithstanding he stoutly defending himselfe declared many thinges worthye great commendation of learning, if learning agaynste power coulde haue preuayled.

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MarginaliaGreat labour, to reduce Pecocke from his opiniōs.But they on the contrary part, with all labor and trauel, extended themselues, either to reduce him, or els to cōfound him. As here lacked no blustring wordes of terrour and threatning: so also many fayre flattering wordes and gentle persuasions, were admixt with al. Briefely, to make a short narration of a long and busy trauers, here was no stone lefte vnturned, no wayes vnprooued, eyther by fayre meanes to entreat him, or by terrible manasses to terrifye his mind, till at the length, he being vanquished and ouercome by the bishops, began to faynt and gaue ouer. Wherupon, by & by a recantation was put vnto him by the Byshops, which he should declare before the people. The copy of which his recantation here foloweth.

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¶ The forme and maner of the retractation of Reynold Pecocke.

MarginaliaThe retractation of B. Pecocke.IN the name of God Amen. Before you, the most reuerēd Father in Christ and Lorde, the Lorde Thomas, by the grace of God, Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of England and Legate of the Apostolicke sea, I Reynolde Pecock, vnworthy Bishop of Chichester, do purely, willyngly, simply, and absolutely, cōfesse and acknowledge, that I in times past, that is to say, by the space of these 20. yeares last past and more, haue otherwise conceiued, holdē, taught and written, as touching the Sacramentes and the Articles of þe fayth, then the holy Churth of Rome and vniuersall Church: MarginaliaEx regist.and also that I haue made, written, published and set forth many & diuers pernitious doctrines, bookes, workes, writings, heresyes, contrary and agaynst the true Catholicke, and Apostolicke fayth, contayning in them, errours cōtrary to the Catholicke fayth, & especially these errours and heresies here vnder written.

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MarginaliaHis Articles.1. First of all, that we are not bounde by the necessitye of fayth, to beleue that our Lord Iesus Christ after his death descended into hell.

2 Item, that it is not necessarye to saluation to beleeue in the holy Catholicke Church.

3. Item, that it is not necessary to saluation, to beleue the

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