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Aldgate [Algate]

London

Coordinates: 51° 30' 53.57" N, 0° 4' 44.04" W

 
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Eton
NGR: SU 966 778

A parish in the hundred of Stoke, county of Buckingham. One mile north from Windsor, 23 miles west by south from London.

Chiefly distinguished for its public school. The site upon which the college stands is said to be extraparochial. The college was founded by Henry VI in 1440; the original foundation was for a provost, ten priests, six clerks, six choristers, 25 poor grammar scholars, a master and 25 almsmen.

The living is a rectory in the peculiar jurisdiction and incumbency of the Provost.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Ferrybridge [Ferebrig]

West Yorkshire

OS grid ref: SE 480 241

 
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Southwark
NGR: TQ 320 800

A borough in the county of Surrey; also Bridge Ward without of the City of London. Comprises the parishes of Christ Church, St George the Martyr, St John Horsleydown, St Olave, St Saviour and St Thomas; all within the jurisdiction of the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Winchester. The living of St. Saviour is a perpetual curacy; St Thomas is a donative; the other four are rectories.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Tadcaster

West Yorkshire

OS grid ref: SE 485 435

 
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Wakefield

West Yorkshire

OS grid ref: SE 335 205

 
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York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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736 [712]

K. Edw. 4. Warre betwene the house of Lancaster and Yorke. The title of the house of Yorke.

in the yeare of our Lord 1453. After this folowed long diuision and mortal warre betwene the two houses of Lancastar and Yorke, continuing many yeares. At length about the yeare of our Lord 1459. MarginaliaAnno. 1459.the Duke of Yorke was slayne in battell by the Queene, neare to the town of Wakefield, and with him also his sonne Earle of Rutlande. By the whiche Queene also shortly after, in þe same yeare, were discomfited the Earle of Warwicke, and Duke of Northfolk, to whom the keeping of the king was committed by the Duke of Yorke, and so the Queene agayne deliuered her husband.

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MarginaliaThe Northern men intended the subuersion of London.After this victory obteined, the Northren men aduaūced not a litle in pride and courage, began to take vpon thē great attemptes, not onely to spoyle and robbe Churches, and religious houses, & villages, but also were fully entēded partly by themselues, partly by the inducemēt of theyr Lords and Captaynes, to sacke, waste, and vtterly to subuert the City of London, and to take the spoyle therof: and no doubt (sayth my history MarginaliaEx historia manu scripta, cui titulus Scala mundi.) woulde haue proceeded in thyr cōceiued gredy intēt, had not þe oportune fauor of God prouided a speedy remedy. For as these mischiefes were in bruing, MarginaliaLondon rescued by prince Edw.sodenly commeth the noble Prince Edward vnto Lōdon, wt a mighty army, the 27. day of February, who was the sonne and heire to duke of Yorke aboue mentioned, accompanyed with the Earle of Warwicke, and diuers moe. King Henry in the meane time, with his victory, went vp to York: when as Edward being at London, caused there to be proclaymed certayn articles concerning his title to þe crowne of England, which was the 2. day of March.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1461.Wherupon, the next day following, the Lords both tēporall & spirituall being assēbled together, the sayd articles were propoūded, and also well approued. The fourth day of the sayd moneth of March, after a solemne generall procession (according to the blinde superstition of those dayes) MarginaliaThe title of Edward, to the crowne proued at Paules crosse.the Bishop of Exceter made a Sermon at Paules Crosse, wherin he commended and proued by manifold euidēces, the title of Prince Edward to be iust and lawfull, aunswering in the same, to all obiections whiche might be to the contrary.

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MarginaliaK. Edward taketh possession of the crown.This matter being thus discussed, Prince Edward accompanied with the Lordes spirituall & temporall, & with much concourse of people, rode þe same day to Westminster Hall, and there by the full consent, as well of the Lordes, as also by the voyce of all the Commons, tooke his possession of the Crowne, & was called K. Edward the fourth.

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These thinges thus accomplished at London, as to such a matter apperteined, and preparation of money sufficiently being ministred of the people and commons, wyth most ready and willing mindes, for the necessary furniture of his warres: he with the Duke of Northfolke, and Earle of Warwicke, and Lord Fauconbrige, in all speedy wise, tooke his iourney toward king Henry: Who being now at Yorke, and forsaken of the Londoners, had all his refuge onely reposed in the Northren men.

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MarginaliaThe fierce and cruell battaile betweene king Henry. 6. & K. Edward. 4.When king Edward with his army had past ouer the Riuer of Trent and was commē nere to Ferebrig: where also the host of king Henry was not far of, vpō Palm sonday, betwene Ferebrig and Tadcaster, both the armyes of the Southren and Northren men, ioyned together battell. And althoughe at the first beginning, diuers horsemen of king Edwardes side, turned theyr backes, and spoyled the king of cariage & victuals, yet the couragious prince, with his Captaynes little discouraged therewith, fiercely and manfully set on theyr aduersaryes. The whiche battell on both sides was so cruelly fought, that in the same conflict were slayne to þe nūber, as is reported, beside men of name, of 30000. of the poore commons. Notwithstanding, the cōquest fell on king Edwardes part, MarginaliaKing Henry. 6. conquered. so that king Henry hauing lost all, was forced to flye into Scotland, MarginaliaBarwicke geuen to the Scottes by K. Henry. 6.where also he gaue vp to the Scottes, the towne of Barwicke after he had raigned 38. yeares and a halfe.

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The clayme and title of the Duke of Yorke, and after him, of Edward his sonne, put vp to the Lords & cōmons, wherby they chalenged the crowne to the house of York, is thus in the story of Scala mundi, word for word, as hereunder is conteyned.

The title of the house of Yorke to the crowne of England.

MarginaliaThe title of the house of Yorke.EDward the 3. right king of Englande, had issue first prince Edward the 2. W. Hatfield. 3. Lionell, 4. Iohn of Gaunt. &c. Prince Edward had Richard the 2. which dyed without issue, W Hatfielde dyed without issue. Lionel duke of Clarence, had issue lawfully begot, Phillip his onely daughter and heyre, the which was lawfully coupled to Edmund Mortimer, Earle of March, and had issue law fully begotte, Roger Mortimer Eare of March and heyre: WhychRoger had issue Edmund Earle of March, Roger, Anne, and Alienor, Edmund and Alienor died without issue, and the sayd Anne by lawfull matrimonye was coupled vnto Richard Earle of Cambridge, the sonne of Edmund of Lāgley, who had issue & lawfully bare Richard Plantagenet MarginaliaRich. Plantagenet. now Duke of Yorke, Iohn of Gaunte gate Henry, which vnrightfully entreated king Richard: then being aliue Edmund Mortimer Earle of Marche, sonne of the sayde Philip, daughter to Lionell. To the which Richard duke of Yorke, and sonne to Anne, daughter to Roger Mortimer Earle of March, sonne and heyre to the sayde Philip daughter and heyre to the sayd Lionel, the 3. sonne of king Edward the 3. the right & dignity of the crowne apperteyned & belonged, afore any issue of the sayd Iohn of Gaunt. Notwithstanding the sayd title of dignity of the sayde Richard of Yorke, the sayd Richard desiring the wealth, rest, and prosperity of England, agreeth and consenteth that king Henry 6. should be had and taken for king of England, during his naturall life from thys time without hurt of his title.

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Wherefore the king vnderstanding the sayd title of the sayde duke to be iust, lawfull, true and sufficient, by the aduise and assent of the Lordes spirituall and temporall, and the commons in the Parliament, and by the authoritye of the same Parliament declareth, approueth, ratifieth, confirmeth, accepteth the sayde title for iust, good, lawfull and true, and thereunto geueth his assent and agreement of his free will and liberty. And ouer that, by the sayde aduise and authority, declareth, calleth, stablisheth, affirmeth and reputeth the sayd Richard of Yorke very true and rightfull heyre to the crowne of England and Fraunce: and that all other statutes and acts made by any of the Henryes late, contrary to this aduise, be annulled, repelled, damned, cancelled, voyd, and of no force or effect. The king agreed and consented, that the sayd Duke and hys heyres shall after his naturall life enioy the crowne. &c. Also that all sayinges and doinges agaynst the duke of Yorke shall be hygh treason, and all actes of Parliamentes contrary to this principall act, be voyd and of none effect. &c. MarginaliaEx Scala mundi.

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And thus much for the reign of king Henry the 6. Who now lacked his vncle and protector, Duke of Glocester, about him. But commonly the lacke of such frendes, is neuer felt before they be missed.

MarginaliaLeaden Hall bilded.In the time of this king was builded the house in Lōdon called Leadē hall, foūded by one Simon Eyre, Maior once of the sayd City of London. an. 1445.

MarginaliaThe Standard in Chepe.Also the standard in cheape builded by Iohn Wels, an. 1442. MarginaliaThe Conduite in Fletstrete.the Conduite in Fleetstreet by William Castfield. an. 1438. Item, MarginaliaNewgate builded.Newgate builded by goods of Rich. Whittington, an. 1422.

MarginaliaThe Colledge of Eton, and the kings Colledge in Cambridge founded.Moreouer the sayde Henry 6. founded the Colledge of Eton, and another house hauing then the title of S. Nicolas in Cambridge, now called the kinges Colege. Ex Scal. mundi.

In the reigne of this Henry 6. it is not be passed ouer in silence which we finde noted in the Parliament rolles how that Lewes Archbishop of Rhoen, after the death of the late Bishop of Eley, had graūted vnto him by þe popes Bulles, during his life, all þe profites of the sayd bishoprick by the name of the administratour of the said Bishopricke, Lewes the foresayde Archbishop sheweth his Buls to the king, who vtterly reiected his Bulles. MarginaliaThe king reiecteth the popes Bulles.Notwithstanding for his seruice done in Fraunce, the king graunted to hym the administration aforesaid, the which to all intents at the petition of the sayd Lewes, should be affirmed to bee of as great force as though he were bishop, touching profits, liberties and hability.

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MarginaliaEx vetusto codic. cui initium, Nomina custodum. &c. et ex FabianoNeither agayn is here to be ouerpast a certayn tra gicall Acte done betweene Easter and Whitsontide of a false Britone, an. 1427. Which murdered a good widdow in her bed (who had brought him vp of almes, without Algate in the surburbes of London) and bare away all that she had, & afterward he tooke succor of holy church at S. Georges in Southwarke: but at the last he tooke the crosse & forswore the kings land. And as he went his way, it happened him to come by the same place where he had done that cursed deed, and women of the same parish, came out with stones and cannell dong, and there made an end of him in the hye streete, MarginaliaExample of Gods rodde and iudgement. so that he went no further, notwithstandinge the Constables and other men also which had hym vnder gouernaunce to conduct him forwarde: for there was a great company of them, so that they were not able to withstande them.

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Kyng Edward the fourth. 
Commentary  *  Close
Wars of the Roses

Foxe's account of Edward IV's reign down through the recovery of Berwick is based largely on two sources: Edward Hall's chronicle and Polydore Vergil's Anglica historia. These were the two most detailed sources for this period available to Foxe, but the use of the latter posed problems for Foxe. Vergil's elegantly written history of England was highly esteemed by contemporaries and it was also hostile to Wiclif, the Lollards and the Reformation. On key issues - notably Oldcastle's rebellion - Foxe felt obliged to discredit Vergil's version of events. Therefore, Foxe only used Vergil when he was the most detailed source available and then Foxe was careful, as he was here, to disparage Vergil's reliability - in this case by accusing Vergil of burning his sources. With the exception of the capture of Henry VI, all of the events Foxe described down to Edward IV's arrival at Leicester in 1471 were taken from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York (London, 1560), STC 12723a, fos. 189r-191r, 193r-196r, 199r-204v, 208r-211r and 214v-215r. After this, Foxe largely relied on Vergil's more detailed account of the campaigns of 1471; see Polydore Vergil, Anglica historia (Isengrim, 1555), pp. 524-530 and 532. (Foxe also drew on Hall for additional details: Somerset's murder of Lord Wenlock [Union, fo. 231r] and the claim that Henry VI's canonization failed because Henry VII was unwilling to pay the necessary fees and bribes [Union, fo 223v]). Foxe also drew the story of Henry VI's capture in 1465 from Robert Fabian, Fabyan's cronicle (London, 1559), STC 10664, p.418. (Foxe was apparently attracted by the few additional details in Fabian - e.g., that the king was captured in a wood - which could not be found in Hall and Vergil). Foxe quoted an anonymous contemporary chronicle on the burial of Henry VI at the abbey of Chertsey. Foxe refers to this chronicle as the 'Scala Mundi' because the MS in which he found the chronicle (now College of Arms Arundel MS 5) began with a chronological table extending from the creation of the world until (The chronicle is actually titled 'Compilatio de gestis Britanorum et Anglorum' and it is fos.121r-172v of Arundel MS 5). The section of the 'Compilatio' covering the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV has been published as 'A Brief Latin Chronicle' in Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, ed. James Gardiner, Camden Society, second series 28 (London, 1880), pp. 164-85; the passage Foxe is quoting is on p. 184. Foxe also drew the account of the 'heresy' that Christ was a beggar and Paul II's bull denouncing it, from the 'Compilatio' (see 'Brief Latin Chronicle', p. 181). The question remains: why did Foxe bother to recount, in such details, the military and political vicissitudes of Edward IV's reign, in what was an ecclesiastical history? Partly this was because Foxe took the opportunity to moralize, as when he sees Edward IV's deposition as divine punishment for his wantonness. More basically, the rapid reversals of fortune endured by all the major political players in this period allowed Foxe to depict providence at work, protecting the relatively good and punishing others for their misdeeds or the misdeeds of their forebears.

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Thomas S. Freeman,
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaAnno. 1461. King Edward. 4.KIng Edward, after his conquest and victorye achieued agaynst king Henry, returned again to London, where, vpon the Vigil of S. Peter and Paul, being on Sonday, he was crowned

king
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