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Damascus

Syria

Coordinates: 33° 30' 49" N, 36° 17' 31" E

Capital of Syria

 
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Mecca (Makkah Al Mukarrammah) [Mecha]

Saudi Arabia

Coordinates: 21° 25' 0" N, 39° 49' 0" E

760 [736]

K. Henr. 7. Maximilian the Emperour. The origine and beginning of the Turkes.

contentions wil soone be at a poynt. Let vs therfore search the will of our God in his word, and if he will his saluation to stand free to all nations, why do we make marchandise therof? MarginaliaOmnes sitientes venite ad aquas, emite absque argento et commutatione. Esai. 55.If he haue graciously offred his waters to vs, without mony or mony worth, let vs not hedge in the plētuous springes of his grace geuen vs.

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And finally, if God haue determined his owne sonne onely to stand alone, let not vs presume to admixt with his maiesty any of our trumpery. He þt bringeth S. George or S. Denise as patrons, to þe field to fight against þe turk, leaueth Christ (no doubt) at home. Now how we haue fought these many yeres agaynst the Turke: though storyes keep silence, yet þe successe declareth. We fight agaynst a persecutour, being no lesse persecutours our selues. We wrastle against a bloudy tyraunt, and our handes be as full of bloud as his. He killeth Christes people with the sword: and we burne them with fire. He obseruing the works of the law, seeketh his iustice by the same: the like also do we. But neither hee nor we seeke our iustification as we shoulde, that is, by fayth onely in the sonne of God.

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And what maruell then, if our doctrine being as corrupt almost, as his: and our conuersation worse, if Christe fight not with vs, fighting agaynst þe Turke? The Turke hath preuayled so mightely, not because Christ is weake, but because that Christians be wicked, and theyr doctryne impure. Our temples with Images, our hartes with idolatry are poluted: Our priestes stinck before God for adultry, being restrayned from lawfull matrimony. The name of god is in our mouthes, but his fear is not in our harts. We warre agaynst the Turke with our workes, Masses, traditions and ceremonies: but we fight not agaynst hym with Christ and with the power of his glory, whith if we did, the field were wonne.

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MarginaliaReformation of religion requisite before we fight with the turkes.Wherfore briefely to conclude, saying my iudgement in this behalfe, what I suppose: this hope I haue, & do beleue that when the Churche of Christ with the Sacramentes therof, shalbe so reformed, that Christ alone shall be receaued to be our iustifier, all other religions, merites, tradition, images, patrons and aduocates set a part: MarginaliaFaith getteth victory.the sword of the Christians, with the strength of Christ, shall soone vanquish the Turkes pride and fury. But of this more largely in the processe of this story.

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MarginaliaThe sixt cause.The sixte and last cause, why I thinke the knowledge of the Turkes history, requisite to be considered, is this: be cause that many there be, which for þt they be farther frõ the Turkes, and thinke therfore themselues to be out of daūger, take little care and studye, what happeneth to theyr other brethren. Wherefore to the intent to excite theyr zeale and prayer to almighty God, in this so lamentable ruin of Christes church: I thought it requisite by order of history, to geue this our natiõ also something to vnderstand, what hath bene done in other nations by these cruell Turkes, and what detriment hath bene and is like more to happen by them, to the Church of Christ, MarginaliaEarnest inuocation necessary in the Church of Christ.except we make our earnest inuocatiõ to almighty God, in the name of hys sonne, to stop the course of the deuill by these Turkes, and to stay this defection of Christians falling daylye vnto them, and to reduce them agayn to his fayth which are fallen frõ him. Which the Lorde Iesus of his grace, graunt wyth speede. Amen.

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Before we enter into this story of the Turks and Saracens 

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The following passages are meant to identify the Ottoman Empire withthe Antichrist. This was not an identification that Foxe would make consistently(as a rule he favoured the Papacy for this role) but here he is making the case for theOttomans as Antichrist quite explicitly.

, first let vs call to remembraunce the Prophecy and forewarning of S. Paule writing to the Thess. in his 2. Epistle 
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2 Thess. 2: 1-4.

, Marginalia2. thess. 2. in these words: Be not moued nor troubled in your myndes, eyther by preaching, or by writing, or by letter frõ vs, as though the day of the Lorde were at hande: for the Lord will not come except there come a defection first, and the wicked person be reuealed. &c. MarginaliaThe place of S. Paule expounded.Of this defection sundry mindes there be, of sundry expositours: some thinking this defection to meane a falling away from the Empyre of Rome: some from the obedience of the Pope. But as S.Paul little passed vpon the outward glory of the Romayn Empyre: so lesse he passed vpon the proud obedience of the Pope. What Saynt Paule ment by this defection, Marginalia2. thess. 2. speaking of the defection to come. the reading of these Turkishe storyes, and the miserable falling away of these Churches by him before planted, will soone declare 
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In an unusual piece of exegesis, Foxe is is interpreting the 'defection'usually regarded as a reference to apostasy by exegetes, of the conversion to Islamof regions in the Middle East and North Africa that were formerly Christian.

.

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MarginaliaThe number of the Apocalips, cap. 13. expounded.Another mistery there is in the Reuelations, Apoc. 13. 

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Rev. 13:18.

where the number of the beast is counted 666. Wherby may seeme by all euidences, to be signified the first origene and springing of these beastly Saracens, as by the sequele hereof may appeare by the first rising of this deuilish sect of Mahumet.

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Moreouer, MarginaliaAn other place, Apocal. 16. Et sextus Angelus effudit phialam suam, &c.an other place there is, cap. 16. Apoca. 

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Rev. 16:12.

where we read that by powring out of the Phial of Gods wrath. of the sixt Aungell, the great floud Euphrates was dryed vp, to let in the kinges of the East: the openyng of whichProphecy, may also more euidently appeare, in cõsidering the order and maner of the comming in of these Turks into Europe.

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Some also apply to the Turkes certayne Prophecyes of Daniell, Ezechiell, and other places of the old Testamēt moe, which here I omit, for so much as the Prophecyes of the old Testament, if they be taken in their proper & natiue sence, after my iudgement, do extend no further, then to the death of our Sauior, and the end of the Iewes kingdome. Albeit herein I do not preiudicate to any mans opiniõ, but that euery man may abound in his owne sense.

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MarginaliaThe time of Mahumete the false prophet expounded.As touching the yeare and time when this pestiferous sect of Mahumet first began, histories do not fully consent: Some affirming that it began, an. 621. and in the 10. yeare of Heraclius Emperour of Constantinople: in whyche minde is Ioannes Lucidus 

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The reference is to Johannes Lucidus, De emendationibus temporum ab orbe condito ad hanc usque nostram aetatem (Venice, 1546), p. 123.

. As Munsterus counteth, it was in the yeare of our Lord 622 
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Actually Munster dates it to 623 (Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 1037.

. Martin Luther, & Iohn Carion referreth it to the 18. yeare of the raigne of Heraclius, which is the yere of our Lord 630 
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Martin Luther's dating is from Theodore Bibliander, Machumentis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran (Basel, 1550), II, p. 9. Casper Peucer gave the same date in his edition of Carion's chronicle (Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis [Wittenberg, 1580], p. 275).

. Vnto the which nūber the computation of the Beast signified in the Apocali. MarginaliaThe number of the beast in the Apo. cap. 13. doth not farre disagree, whiche numbreth the name of the Beast, with three Greeke letters xxx whiche Greeke letters after the supputation of the Greciãs, make the number of 666.

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In this all writers agree 

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The following account of Mohammed is from Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), pp. 1037-38.

, that this damnable Mahumet was borne in the country of Arabia, bordering on the East part of Iewry. His father was a Syrian, or a Persian, his Mother was an Ismalite, MarginaliaMahumet of the stocke of the Ismalites dwelling in Arabia. which Ismalites being a people of Arabia, were called then Agarens: Which term Mahumet afterward turned to the name of Saracens. Of this wretched Mahumete mention was made before. pag. 124. where we shewed, how he making himselfe the highest Prophet of all other, yet denyeth not Christ to be an holy Prophet and next to him, and Moses also to be an other. Moreouer he denieth not Mary the mother of Christ to be a uirgin, and to haue conceiued Christ by the holy ghost, affirming further that Christ in his owne person was not crucified, but another called Iudas for him. He greatly cõ.mendeth also Iohn the sonne of Zachary for a virgin: whē he himselfe permitteth a man to haue 4. wiues, and as many concubines as he is able to finde: & sayth that where as Christ & other Prophets had the gift geuen them to worke myracles, he was sent by force of sword, to compell men to his religiõ. MarginaliaThe prodigious lyes & blasphemies of Mahumets Alchoran.The prodigious vanityes, lyes, & blasphemies conteyned in his lawe called Alchoran 
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I.e., the Koran.

, are rather to be laught at, then recited.

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It is thought that Sergius a Nestorian, was a great doer with Mahumet, in cõtriuing of this lying Alchorã & so it doth well appeare by the scope and pretence thereof which especially tēdeth to this end, to take the diuinity frõ the person of Christ, whom he graunteth notwithstanding to be a most holy man, & also that he is receiued vp to God and shall come agayne to kill Antichrist. &c.

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MarginaliaMahumetes Alchoran mingled with diuers lawes.Moreouer this ridiculous Alchoran is so blaunched & poudered with so diuers mixtures of þe Christians, Iewes and the Gentiles lawes, geuing suche liberty to all wantonnesse of flesh, setting vp circumcision, absteyning from swines flesh and Iudaicall lotions, and so much standeth vpon Father Abraham, that it is supposed of some, this filthy Alchorã, not to be set out in the dayes of Mahumet, but that certayne Iewes had some handling also in this matter, and put it out after his death: and so semeth first to take his force about the number of yeres limited in the Apocal. as is aforesayd, where thus it is written: He that hath intelligence, let him count the number of the beast: MarginaliaThe numeration of the Apoc. 666.For it is the number of a man, and his number is sixe hundred, sixe score and sixe.

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After this deuilish Mahumet had thus seduced þe people, teaching thē that he came not by miracles, but by force of sword, to geue his law, & that they which wil not obey it must either be put to death or els pay tribute (for so be the wordes of the Alchoran) and after that hee had gathered strength about him, of the Arabians, which Arabians thē had occasion to rebell agaynst the Emperor, because theyr stipendes were not paid them of Heraclius the Emperors officers: he began to raunge with force and violence in the partes of Syria bordering nere vnto him, and first subdued Mecha, then Damascus: MarginaliaDamascus subdued of the Saracens and further encreasing in power, entred into Egypt, and subdued the same. From thence he turned his power agaynste the Persians, with whome Cosroes the king of Parsia, MarginaliaMahumet put to flight by Cosroes kyng of the Persians. encountring with a puissaunt army, ouerthrew the Saracens, & put Mahumet to fight. Of these Persians came the Turkes, which afterward ioining with the Saracens, maynteyned them agaynst the Christians. Ex Munster.

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After the death of this beast, which as some say, was poisoned in his house 

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For his account of Mohammed's immediate successors Foxe is relyingon Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran (Basel,1550), I, p. 218.

succeeded Ebocara, or Ebubecer his

father
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