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Bursa (Prusia)

northwest Turkey

1st Ottoman capital

Coordinates: 40° 11' 0" N, 29° 4' 0" E

 
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Smederevo (Semendria) [Samandria]

Serbia

Coordinates: 44° 40' 0" N, 20° 56' 0" E

 
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Tabriz [Tauricia]

Iran

Capital of the Safavid Iranian empire 1501 - 1548

Coordinates: 38° 5' 0" N, 46° 17' 0" E

770 [746]

K. Hen. 7. The history of the Turkes. Baiazetes. The crueltie of Zelymus.

some with poyson, some by other cruel meanes, & aduauncing his owne side with great honors and promotions. 

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Bayezid II wished for his eldest son Ahmed to succeed him. ButBayezid and Ahmed were badly compromised by the success of Shah Kulu (Ahmedwas blamed for not pursuing the fleeing rebels effectively). Korkud, Bayezid's otherson, was also damaged by the rebellion which took place in his province. A third son Selim, seized the opportunity to rebel againstBayezid in 1512 and force him to abdicate. Bayezid died two months later. Selimproceeded to purge those involved in Shah Kulu's rebellion.

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Not long after 

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The story which follows is completely fictitious and taken fromGiovann Battisto Ramusio.

that Zelymus was thus setled in hys kingdome, Baiazetes his father entending to see & prooue howe he behaued himselfe in his gouernment, first entred into the treasure house, where he found all his riches to be scattered and gone. Afterwarde he came into hys armorie, where all the spoyles gotten by warre were likewise wasted: then entring into the Iewel house, where al his plate and gifts sent from Kings and Princes were kept, whych likewise were dispearsed & geuen away. At length he came into the stable, where also he seeing his principall horses to be lacking, sighing wyth himselfe, MarginaliaThe displeasure of Baiazetes against his sonne Zelymus.and crying vengeaunce vpon him, he prepared himself with the residue of the treasure which was remaining, to saile ouer into Natolia vnto his eldest sonne, and passing by an Orchard neare to the sea side, where he had appoynted to take ship, in the meane time whilest the shippes were in furnishing he sate downe vnder a tree, & began to curse his sonne, and to axe vengeance vpon him, for that he had so despised his father & was become so impious a wretch.

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Zelymus vnderstãding of his fathers departure, came into the orchard where his father was, seeming to be very heauy, and much lamēting that hys father would so priuely depart and goe away, seeing that hee desired not the gouernement of the Empire, but was contented onely wyth the title thereof. MarginaliaThe dissembling wordes of Zelymus to his fatherO father (sayd he) do not thus priuely depart away: doe not procure this shame to your sonne, who so tēderly loueth you. Let me haue but the name only: and be you the Emperor in dede. The ende of your natural life most paciently I shal expect, which I pray God may long cõtinue. And thus vsing many faire & flattering words to his father, he cõmanded a banket wt many deinty iunkets, to be brought vnto him, but tempered and infected wt poyson. MarginaliaZelymus the sonne poysoneth his father.Which, as soone as Baiazetes had begon to tast of, and felt the strēgth of the poyson working in his body, he toke his last farewell of his sonne, and going out of the citie accompanied with a great retinue of mē, yelling and crying out in the streetes, in the middle of his iourney fell downe and miserably died, in the yeare of our Lorde. 1512. Heere mayest thou see, good Reader, a cursed broode 

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This final comment, emphasizing the lack of family loyalty amongthe Ottomans, is Foxe's insertion.

of thys Turkish generation, where þe father dieth in cursing the sonne, and the sonne raigneth by poysoning his father.

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Zelymus the 11. after Ottomannus,

MarginaliaZelymus the 11. after Ottomannus.AFter þt thys 

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The account of the reign of Selim I is taken largely from CasparPeucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 663-68. But Foxe also introduces two stories; one from the French courtier and diplomat, Christophe Richer and one from Sebastian Münster which gave variant accounts of the death of Ahmed. Ahmed rose in rebellion against Selim and was defeated and killed in battle in 1513.

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wretched Zelymus had exercised hys barbarous cruelty vpon hys father, MarginaliaThe crueltie of Zelymus against his father and his bretheren.wt like impietie he seeketh the destruction of hys brethren and their children, first beginning his murther wyth the fiue children hys Nephewes, which were the sonnes of hys 3. brethren before departed. Which done, then remained his other 2. brethren yet aliue, Acomates and Corchutus wyth theyr chyldren likewise to be destroyed. Of whome the one had 3. sonnes, whom the father sent to Zelymus his brother & their vncle, with faire and gentle wordes to entreat him to be good vnto their father, offering to him their duety and seruice in all things, honoring him also as Emperor. MarginaliaThe crueltie of Zelymus against his cousins.But cruel Zelymus commaunded forthwith his saide Nephewes to be strangled. The father hearing of the cruell murther of hys sonnes, leauing house and home, went and hid hymselfe in mountaines, where he liued for a space with hearbes and wilde honie, but being bewrayed by one of hys men, was brought to Zelymus, and so was strangled.

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Christophorus Richerius, wryting 

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This story comes from the French diplomat and historianChristophe Richer's De rebus Turcorum as excerpted in Theodore Bibliander,Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran (Basel, 1550), III, pp. 210-11.

of these matters, seemeth some thing to differ from other storyes, MarginaliaEx Christ. Richerio.and sayeth that Zelymus, after the death of hys brother Corchutus, came to Bursia, where hee, vnder the colour of making a great triumph, ordeined a feast for his frends and kinsfolk, wherunto were called especially his nephewes: who then at the end of the feast calling his nephewes aside (as vnder the pretēce of conferring with them secretly about hys necessary affaires) committed them to hys seruauntes to be strangled and put to death. All this while Acomates hys brother, through the help & instruction of his mother, was kept out of the tyrants hands, till at length, after great labor and search made how to get him, certain forged letters were cast abroad, wherin was cõteined that Acomates, to reuenge the great impiety & subdue the tirãny of Zelimus his brother, should shew himself abroad. Which if he wold do, he should find frends enough to take his part. Acomates circumuented with these subtill traines, partly for hope of reuengement, partly for desire of þe Empire, shewed him selfe abroad with such power and strength as he had: MarginaliaZelymus the turke warreth against his brother.who being set vpon incontinent by Zelymus hys brother, was ouercome in battaile, and falling from hys horse, beyng a man corpulent and grosse, and his horse falling vpon him,was so ouerpressed and slaine.

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Touching the death 

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This account of Ahmed's death comes from Sebastian Münster,Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 967.

of thys Acomates, Munsterus somewhat differing from this narration, addeth moreouer, and sayeth, that hee was not killed with the fall from hys horse, but sitting all dismayed vpon a stone, and seeing no other remeady but death, desired the Captaine, taking hys rings from his fingers, to deliuer the same to his brother, desiring hym that he might not be put to any extreme cruelty of death, but that hee gently would suffer him to be let bloud in the bath, and so to die. MarginaliaThe crueltie of Zelymus against his brother.But Zelymus being not ignoraunt of thys, suborneth priuy tormenters, who binding his hands behinde him, wt their feete cast hym downe vpon the ground, and so twixing his necke with a coarde, did strangle him. MarginaliaThe two sonnes of Acomates flie away from the tyrannie of Zelymus the turke.This Acomates had two sonnes, who hearing of the death of their father, did flie for succour, the one to Sophus in Persia, and the other to the Sultane in Egypt.

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By the meanes whereof, new occasion of warre grew vnto Zelymus, whereby hee was kept in Asia at home, to fight againste the Persians & Egyptians: so that throughe the Lordes prouidence, Christendom by that meanes was deliuered from great daunger and perill of the Turkes tirannie: For otherwise, the Turke was wholy mineded, wyth all his force and puissance, to inuade the Christians, being in doubt whether first to beginne wyth Rhodes, or whether to assault Pannonia, or els to set vpon Italy, being then at great discorde within it selfe: but thys cause occupied the Turks mind otherwise, and kept him at home. MarginaliaThe prouidēce of God in stirring vp occasions for his people.Suche was then the prouidence of the Lorde for the safegard of hys people.

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Wherfore, for somuch as the affaires and doings of this Turke were spent for the most part in the Turkish & heathenish countreys: it shal not be greatly necessary to trouble our christian stories therwt, but onely shal suffice to contracte them in a briefe summe, declaring superficially what vnquietnes was amongst them there, which coulde neuer be quiet, but euer working some mischief either abroade, or at home. Amurathes the Turks nephewe aforesaide, after he had obtained aide of Sophus the king of the Persians, first inuaded Cappadocia: not long after whome folowed Ismael, Sophus the Persian king.

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MarginaliaWarre betweene Zelymus and Sophus the Persiã king.By reason whereof a great battell was fought betwixt the Persians and Zelymus in the fieldes of Armenia maior. In the which battaile Ismael Sophus the Persian Kyng was hurt on the shoulder with a pellet, and so being caryed out of the field, left the victory of Zelymus: who all be it had an army of 150. M. men, yet he in the same fielde lost abut 30000. of hys Turkes. Which field was fought in the yere of our Lorde. 1514. Zelymus after thys victorie went to Tauricia the imperiall Citie of the Persians, whiche he by yelding subdued.

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MarginaliaWarre betweene Zelymus and Aladulus an other turke.In thys meane time it happened that one Aladulus a king in Armenia the greater, was also a helper to Ismael against the Turk, wherupon Zelymus the Turke taking great indignation, the next yere folowing, leauing þe Persians, fought against the sayd Aladulus, & in the end ouercame him, and afterward being found in a caue in a woode, was taken out and brought to Zelymus and so beheaded: whose hed being first caried about Asia for a triumph, was afterward sent to the Senate of Venice for a terrour vnto them. The eldest sonne of Aladulus scaping the handes of his pursuers, fled into Egypt. This battaile thus fought and ended, Zelymus after he had deuided the kingdome of Aladulus into three prouinces, went to Lycaonia, & from thence to Europe, there to defend the Citie of Samandria, against the Christians in Hungary. MarginaliaPreparatiõ of warre betweene Zelymus & the Christians.But the Hungarians being sone repressed by Iuno Bassa the Turkes captaine, great preparation began to be made by the Turks against the confines of Seruia bordering vpõ Hungary: The terrour whereof stirred vp Maximilian the Emperour, and Ladislaus king of Hungarie, and Sigismundus Kyng of Polonie, to consult together, and conioyne their power for defence of Christendome. MarginaliaThe turke called away from the Christians.But through new incumberances incident, the turke leauing Europe, made haste againe into Asia, to renue againe his warres against the Persians, MarginaliaA turkishe vowe.who had made a vow not to geue ouer that warre before Ismael was ouerthrowne.

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But before he entred that warre, first he sent hys messengers to the Sultane of Egypte, requiring hym not to entermedle in that warre, for this sultane before had promised to assist the Persians against the Turke. MarginaliaCampson the Sultane or ruler of the Egiptians.The name of the Sultane which reigned then in Egypt, was Campson, set vp by the Mamaluci. MarginaliaMamalucy.These Mamaluci were a certain order amongst the Egyptians, much like to the Ianizarites about the Turke, being the childrē of christen men, and after denyeng Christ, were the chefest doers in þe Sultanes court, and being growne into a great multitude, did

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